Site Analysis New Book 16.2 pp. 408-415
Site Analysis Part 1
Introduction <ul><li>Site analysis is a  vital step in the design process .  </li></ul><ul><li>It involves the  evaluation...
Introduction <ul><li>The site is an essential part of every project. </li></ul><ul><li>Many firms offer  site evaluation a...
Introduction <ul><li>Site analysis is a vital first step in the design process. It includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluat...
Introduction <ul><li>Site analysis can be performed by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interdisciplinary team </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
Introduction <ul><li>The site analysis identifies  environmental, program, and development   constraints and opportunities...
 
 
Why  a  Client May Need These Services <ul><li>To  evaluate development constraints and opportunities  for a site. </li></...
Knowledge and Skills Required   <ul><li>Knowledge of  climate, topography, soils, and natural features . </li></ul><ul><li...
Representative Process Tasks   <ul><li>Program  investigation. </li></ul><ul><li>Site inventory and analysis . </li></ul><...
Program Evaluation <ul><li>Site analysis  requires  a  program  and a  site  to be  analyzed and evaluated  against each o...
 
Parking Requirements <ul><li>Parking capacity problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Traffic issues can be even more troublesome than...
Parking requirements <ul><li>The biggest site requirement in many programs is the area necessary for parking. </li></ul><u...
Area per car parking= ? m2 Parking requirements
Area per car = 30 to 40 m2  (325 to 450 square feet) Parking requirements
Parking area requirement= ? X ? Parking requirements
Parking requirements <ul><li>Parking area requirement=  </li></ul><ul><li>Required number of parking spaces X  </li></ul><...
Parking area requirement= Required number of parking spaces X  Area per car Parking requirements
Parking requirements <ul><li>Depends on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the configuration of the parking lot </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
 
 
 
 
 
Site Analysis Part 2
Zoning Requirements <ul><li>FAR: Floor/Area Ration   </li></ul><ul><li>FAR is the ratio of total allowable building area (...
 
Pre-Design and Programming Division Revision
 
 
<ul><li>The FAR of the plot shown is 6. A new building is to use the maximum buildable area for each floor. How many floor...
<ul><li>The FAR of the plot shown is 5. A new building is to use the maximum buildable area for each floor. How many floor...
<ul><li>Building Coverage   </li></ul><ul><li>Building Coverage is the percent of the site that is allowed to be covered b...
<ul><li>Building Height   </li></ul><ul><li>Building Height is the maximum allowable height for any building on a site.  <...
Building footprint <ul><li>The site coverage for a building. </li></ul><ul><li>3 variables: </li></ul><ul><li>The total gr...
 
Circulation and open space requirements <ul><li>Circulation areas : </li></ul><ul><li>Area for pedestrian and vehicular ci...
Circulation and open space requirements <ul><li>Open spaces  include: </li></ul><ul><li>Public open spaces such as parks a...
Special constraints and requirements <ul><li>Utility easements (right of way) </li></ul><ul><li>Rights-of-way </li></ul><u...
Site Evaluation <ul><li>Physical Cultural Regulatory </li></ul><ul><li>collecting and analyzing information </li></ul><ul>...
Site Evaluation Climate <ul><li>A major determinant in building siting and orientation. </li></ul><ul><li>Affects building...
Site Evaluation   Climate <ul><li>Wind </li></ul><ul><li>Prevailing wind direction an velocities affects: </li></ul><ul><l...
Site Evaluation   Climate <ul><li>Wind </li></ul><ul><li>Building siting and orientation can be manipulated to maximize or...
Site Evaluation   Climate <ul><li>Solar orientation </li></ul><ul><li>The sun's seasonal variation in altitude and azimuth...
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Site Evaluation   Climate <ul><li>Temperature and humidity </li></ul><ul><li>Sensation of heat =  </li></ul><ul><li>Solar ...
Site Evaluation   Climate <ul><li>Precipitation </li></ul><ul><li>Amounts, rates, forms, and drainage requirements of prec...
Site Analysis Part 3
Site Evaluation   Topography, Legal Description, and Utility Survey <ul><li>Topographical characteristics </li></ul><ul><l...
<ul><li>The  scale of the survey map  varies from 1:250 (1&quot;=20') to 1:2500 (1&quot;=200') depending on the size of th...
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
<ul><li>Other site elements generally shown on a topographic map include: </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetation and location of maj...
 
 
 
<ul><li>Boundary or property line surveys  show: </li></ul><ul><li>Easements </li></ul><ul><li>Rights-of-way </li></ul><ul...
<ul><li>Utility surveys  show: </li></ul><ul><li>Utilities existing on the site </li></ul><ul><li>Location </li></ul><ul><...
<ul><li>Legal descriptions  include : </li></ul><ul><li>Easements and rights of way </li></ul><ul><li>Acceptable land uses...
 
<ul><li>Affect the  economics  of development. </li></ul><ul><li>Obtained from  soil surveys. </li></ul><ul><li>Require th...
<ul><li>Soil Reports , part of a soils surveys, contain: </li></ul><ul><li>Depth of bedrock (if any) </li></ul><ul><li>Ele...
<ul><li>Implications: </li></ul><ul><li>Engineered fill </li></ul><ul><li>Building form </li></ul><ul><li>Foundation and s...
<ul><li>Affect the  economics  of development. </li></ul><ul><li>Obtained from  soil surveys. </li></ul><ul><li>Require th...
<ul><li>Soil Reports , part of a soils surveys, contain: </li></ul><ul><li>Depth of bedrock (if any) </li></ul><ul><li>Ele...
<ul><li>Implications: </li></ul><ul><li>Engineered fill </li></ul><ul><li>Building form </li></ul><ul><li>Foundation and s...
<ul><li>Elements: </li></ul><ul><li>Storm and sanitary drainage </li></ul><ul><li>Electrical </li></ul><ul><li>Telephone <...
<ul><li>Implications: </li></ul><ul><li>Site utilization </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity may limit the building program </li></...
<ul><li>Evaluation of potential environmental concerns: </li></ul><ul><li>Phase 1: Historical research and observation </l...
<ul><li>Each site is unique and presents special opportunities and challenges. </li></ul><ul><li>Water elements </li></ul>...
<ul><li>Historical </li></ul><ul><li>Political  </li></ul><ul><li>Community context </li></ul>Site Evaluation Cultural fac...
<ul><li>Site history </li></ul><ul><li>Historic land uses and merits of existing structures. </li></ul><ul><li>Historic us...
<ul><li>Surrounding land uses </li></ul><ul><li>The surrounding area … the compatibility of the project and its program wi...
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
<ul><li>Economic value </li></ul><ul><li>The economic value of the land … buildable area … steep  topography generally req...
<ul><li>Zoning … landuse controls … subdivision … site plan review … local requirements … environmental regulations. </li>...
 
Site Analysis Part 4
<ul><li>Depends on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Owner's situation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
CLIENT NEEDS <ul><li>One client may have  defined  a building program  and be in  search of a site . </li></ul><ul><li>Ano...
Site selection <ul><li>Often a client has a development program in mind and is looking for the best site for it.  </li></u...
Program definition <ul><li>The client may have control of a site. </li></ul><ul><li>Determine the development capacity of ...
<ul><li>The owner has both a defined program and a selected site. </li></ul><ul><li>Maximize the potential of the site for...
<ul><li>Combining the parameters of a selected site with the spatial needs of a project development program. </li></ul><ul...
Building Program & Site <ul><li>Are the site and the program  </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;right for each other&quot;? </li></u...
Development potential evaluation   <ul><li>Client already owns or is considering  </li></ul><ul><li>Development potential ...
Special site studies   <ul><li>Utilities  studies </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental impact  studies </li></ul><ul><li>Histor...
<ul><li>Utilities studies </li></ul><ul><li>Special opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental impact studies </li></ul...
<ul><li>Site analysis services </li></ul><ul><li>Planning and zoning processing </li></ul><ul><li>Design submissions </li>...
<ul><li>Key scheduling questions: </li></ul><ul><li>Is the site under the owner's  control  and, if not, when will it be? ...
<ul><li>Key scheduling questions: </li></ul><ul><li>What can be said about  the political climate  in which the project wi...
<ul><li>Preliminary estimate for: </li></ul><ul><li>Site grading </li></ul><ul><li>On-site utilities </li></ul><ul><li>Uti...
<ul><li>Owners … Users … Designers </li></ul><ul><li>Good building responds to the inherent qualities of the site and, at ...
<ul><li>Site surveying and geotechnical engineering services are provided by the OWNER. </li></ul><ul><li>Effective archit...
Conclusions <ul><li>Architects should emphasize the value that quality site analysis services add. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Classics </li></ul><ul><li>Kevin Lynch,  Site Planning , (MIT Press, 3 rd  ed., 1984) </li></ul><ul><li>Ian L. McH...
Site Analysis END
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PROCESS <ul><li>The  size of the site , its  anticipated use , and the  programming requirements  will have a major effect...
Assembling the  project team <ul><li>The skills of the  project manager . </li></ul><ul><li>Familiarity with  local condit...
Steps to Perform the Service <ul><li>Program investigation.   </li></ul><ul><li>The building program is investigated with ...
<ul><li>Site inventory and analysis. </li></ul><ul><li>The  physical, cultural, and regulatory characteristics  of the sit...
<ul><li>Site inventory and analysis. </li></ul><ul><li>A  preliminary assessment  of whether a location and site have the ...
<ul><li>Site inventory and analysis. </li></ul><ul><li>A site analysis plan  is developed.  </li></ul><ul><li>When this ha...
<ul><li>Site evaluation.   </li></ul><ul><li>At this point,  thorough assessments  are conducted when necessary to develop...
<ul><li>Report development. </li></ul><ul><li>The site analysis report normally includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>property m...
Related services  <ul><li>Site design,  </li></ul><ul><li>Geotechnical services,  </li></ul><ul><li>Real estate evaluation...
SKILLS <ul><li>Evaluate the site in terms of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>climate ,  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>topography ,  </...
SKILLS <ul><li>Essentials: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>planning and zoning requirements  such as  parking ,  building density , ...
SKILLS <ul><li>Other consultants: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>consultants with a planning or real estate background </li></ul></...
 
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Architectural Professional Practice - Site

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Architectural Professional Practice - Site

  1. 1. Site Analysis New Book 16.2 pp. 408-415
  2. 2. Site Analysis Part 1
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>Site analysis is a vital step in the design process . </li></ul><ul><li>It involves the evaluation of an existing or potential site in relation to the development program , environmental impact , impacts on the community and adjacent properties , project budget , and schedule . </li></ul>
  4. 4. Introduction <ul><li>The site is an essential part of every project. </li></ul><ul><li>Many firms offer site evaluation and analysis services as well as zoning and planning assistance . </li></ul>
  5. 5. Introduction <ul><li>Site analysis is a vital first step in the design process. It includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluating existing or potential site. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relates it to the program , the budget , and the schedule . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identifying opportunities and constraints </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identifying the appropriate review agencies and submittal requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It gives direction for design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Site selection and program development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Logical and sensitive use of land </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Introduction <ul><li>Site analysis can be performed by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interdisciplinary team </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Architects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Landscape architects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Planners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Engineers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Archaeologists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Historians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lawyers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental scientists </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Introduction <ul><li>The site analysis identifies environmental, program, and development constraints and opportunities. </li></ul><ul><li>A well-executed site analysis forms the essential foundation for a cost-effective , environmentally sensitive , and rational approach to project development. </li></ul>
  8. 10. Why a Client May Need These Services <ul><li>To evaluate development constraints and opportunities for a site. </li></ul><ul><li>To assess one or more sites as a basis for purchase. </li></ul><ul><li>To assess the infrastructure characteristics of a site. </li></ul><ul><li>To gain information as a basis for a zoning variance. </li></ul>
  9. 11. Knowledge and Skills Required <ul><li>Knowledge of climate, topography, soils, and natural features . </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge of site utility distribution systems . </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to evaluate site access and circulation factors . </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding of building siting considerations . </li></ul><ul><li>Familiarity with planning and zoning ordinances . </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to analyze multiple factors objectively . </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to work with related or specialty disciplines . </li></ul>
  10. 12. Representative Process Tasks <ul><li>Program investigation. </li></ul><ul><li>Site inventory and analysis . </li></ul><ul><li>Site evaluation . </li></ul><ul><li>Report development . </li></ul>
  11. 13. Program Evaluation <ul><li>Site analysis requires a program and a site to be analyzed and evaluated against each other. </li></ul><ul><li>Are the site and the program </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;right for each other&quot;? </li></ul>PROGRAM SITE
  12. 15. Parking Requirements <ul><li>Parking capacity problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Traffic issues can be even more troublesome than parking issues. </li></ul>
  13. 16. Parking requirements <ul><li>The biggest site requirement in many programs is the area necessary for parking. </li></ul><ul><li>It is the function of PROGRAM, ZONING, or REGULATIONS. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parking spaces per unit. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parking spaces per bed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parking spaces per square meter (feet) of net or gross building area. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 17. Area per car parking= ? m2 Parking requirements
  15. 18. Area per car = 30 to 40 m2 (325 to 450 square feet) Parking requirements
  16. 19. Parking area requirement= ? X ? Parking requirements
  17. 20. Parking requirements <ul><li>Parking area requirement= </li></ul><ul><li>Required number of parking spaces X </li></ul><ul><li>Area per car </li></ul><ul><li>Area per car = 30 to 40 m2 </li></ul><ul><li>(325 to 450 square feet) </li></ul>
  18. 21. Parking area requirement= Required number of parking spaces X Area per car Parking requirements
  19. 22. Parking requirements <ul><li>Depends on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the configuration of the parking lot </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>parking design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>number of compact and accessible spaces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the extent of the landscaping within the parking lot </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the area given to entry and drop-off </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>accessibility requirements </li></ul></ul>
  20. 28. Site Analysis Part 2
  21. 29. Zoning Requirements <ul><li>FAR: Floor/Area Ration </li></ul><ul><li>FAR is the ratio of total allowable building area (square meter or feet) to the total area of the site. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. A site with a total area of 30,000 square meter and a mandated maximum FAR of 2:1 yields on an allowable building area of 60,000 square meter. </li></ul>
  22. 31. Pre-Design and Programming Division Revision
  23. 34. <ul><li>The FAR of the plot shown is 6. A new building is to use the maximum buildable area for each floor. How many floors can this building have? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>6 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>9 </li></ul></ul>3 m 3 m 3 m 5 m 42 m 34 m Land Buildable Area
  24. 35. <ul><li>The FAR of the plot shown is 5. A new building is to use the maximum buildable area for each floor. How many floors can this building have? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>6 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>9 </li></ul></ul>2 m 2 m 3 m 4 m 44 m 34 m Land Buildable Area
  25. 36. <ul><li>Building Coverage </li></ul><ul><li>Building Coverage is the percent of the site that is allowed to be covered by the building footprint. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. A site with a total area of 30,000 square meter and a mandated maximum Building Coverage of 50% allows a maximum building footprint of 15,000 square meter. </li></ul></ul>Zoning Requirements
  26. 37. <ul><li>Building Height </li></ul><ul><li>Building Height is the maximum allowable height for any building on a site. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This may be measured from </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the first floor elevation or, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the average grade around the base of the building </li></ul></ul>Zoning Requirements
  27. 38. Building footprint <ul><li>The site coverage for a building. </li></ul><ul><li>3 variables: </li></ul><ul><li>The total gross area of the building. Net-to-gross area ration generally ranges from 60% to 95%. </li></ul><ul><li>The Number of floors. Set by programmatic requirements, site area, and zoning requirements. </li></ul><ul><li>The configuration of the building. The building footprint on the site may vary from the average floor area. </li></ul>
  28. 40. Circulation and open space requirements <ul><li>Circulation areas : </li></ul><ul><li>Area for pedestrian and vehicular circulation, access and common open spaces. </li></ul><ul><li>Service docks and their access, </li></ul><ul><li>Auto circulation to parking areas, </li></ul><ul><li>Passenger drop-off areas, and pedestrian walkways. </li></ul>
  29. 41. Circulation and open space requirements <ul><li>Open spaces include: </li></ul><ul><li>Public open spaces such as parks and plazas. </li></ul><ul><li>Landscape buffer areas at the periphery of the site. </li></ul><ul><li>Detention/retention ponds. </li></ul><ul><li>Unusable portions of the site such as slopes and wetlands. </li></ul>
  30. 42. Special constraints and requirements <ul><li>Utility easements (right of way) </li></ul><ul><li>Rights-of-way </li></ul><ul><li>Retention or sedimentation ponds </li></ul><ul><li>Recreation areas </li></ul><ul><li>Vistas and sight line requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Floodplain areas </li></ul><ul><li>Ecological preserves </li></ul>
  31. 43. Site Evaluation <ul><li>Physical Cultural Regulatory </li></ul><ul><li>collecting and analyzing information </li></ul><ul><li>walking the site and traversing its environs </li></ul>
  32. 44. Site Evaluation Climate <ul><li>A major determinant in building siting and orientation. </li></ul><ul><li>Affects building form, materials and subsystems. </li></ul><ul><li>Affects building construction technique. </li></ul>
  33. 45. Site Evaluation Climate <ul><li>Wind </li></ul><ul><li>Prevailing wind direction an velocities affects: </li></ul><ul><li>the comfort level of outdoor spaces </li></ul><ul><li>the energy efficiency of buildings </li></ul><ul><li>structural loads exerted on structures, structural systems, as well as wall systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Macro and Microclimatic factors include: </li></ul>
  34. 46. Site Evaluation Climate <ul><li>Wind </li></ul><ul><li>Building siting and orientation can be manipulated to maximize or minimize the effect of wind velocities. </li></ul>
  35. 47. Site Evaluation Climate <ul><li>Solar orientation </li></ul><ul><li>The sun's seasonal variation in altitude and azimuth and the average number of hours of daily sunshine are important factors affecting: </li></ul><ul><li>form </li></ul><ul><li>orientation </li></ul><ul><li>energy efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>materials </li></ul><ul><li>exterior colors </li></ul><ul><li>planting and shading </li></ul><ul><li>functions of proposed elements </li></ul><ul><li>siting of the building </li></ul>
  36. 60. Site Evaluation Climate <ul><li>Temperature and humidity </li></ul><ul><li>Sensation of heat = </li></ul><ul><li>Solar radiation + </li></ul><ul><li>Air temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Human Comfort depends on the relationship of </li></ul><ul><li>HEAT : WIND : HUMIDITY </li></ul>
  37. 61. Site Evaluation Climate <ul><li>Precipitation </li></ul><ul><li>Amounts, rates, forms, and drainage requirements of precipitation vary according to region and season. </li></ul><ul><li>Precipitation affects: </li></ul><ul><li>Load-bearing requirements of structural systems </li></ul><ul><li>Foundation design </li></ul><ul><li>The sizing and capacity of the mechanical systems </li></ul><ul><li>Drainage networks of sites </li></ul><ul><li>Construction schedule </li></ul>
  38. 62. Site Analysis Part 3
  39. 63. Site Evaluation Topography, Legal Description, and Utility Survey <ul><li>Topographical characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Existing natural and artificial site elements </li></ul><ul><li>Legal description </li></ul><ul><li>Available utilities </li></ul><ul><li>Topographic information and property line survey should be current and bear the seal of a registered surveyor. </li></ul>
  40. 64. <ul><li>The scale of the survey map varies from 1:250 (1&quot;=20') to 1:2500 (1&quot;=200') depending on the size of the property and the detail of the site analysis. </li></ul><ul><li>The contour intervals may be from 1' t 5' (30cm to 150cm) or greater depending on the scale of the base map and the topographic variations. </li></ul>Site Evaluation Topography, Legal Description, and Utility Survey
  41. 75. <ul><li>Other site elements generally shown on a topographic map include: </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetation and location of major trees. </li></ul><ul><li>Rock outcroppings </li></ul><ul><li>Lakes, streams, rivers, and marshes </li></ul><ul><li>Man-made features such as roads, bridges, and buildings </li></ul>Site Evaluation Topography, Legal Description, and Utility Survey
  42. 79. <ul><li>Boundary or property line surveys show: </li></ul><ul><li>Easements </li></ul><ul><li>Rights-of-way </li></ul><ul><li>Encumbrances on the site </li></ul><ul><li>Defined acceptable land uses </li></ul><ul><li>Points of access </li></ul><ul><li>Buildable areas </li></ul>Site Evaluation Topography, Legal Description, and Utility Survey
  43. 80. <ul><li>Utility surveys show: </li></ul><ul><li>Utilities existing on the site </li></ul><ul><li>Location </li></ul><ul><li>Size </li></ul><ul><li>Elevation </li></ul>Site Evaluation Topography, Legal Description, and Utility Survey
  44. 81. <ul><li>Legal descriptions include : </li></ul><ul><li>Easements and rights of way </li></ul><ul><li>Acceptable land uses </li></ul><ul><li>Points of access </li></ul><ul><li>Buildable areas </li></ul>Site Evaluation Topography, Legal Description, and Utility Survey
  45. 83. <ul><li>Affect the economics of development. </li></ul><ul><li>Obtained from soil surveys. </li></ul><ul><li>Require the assistance of a soil engineer for interpretation. </li></ul>Geotechnical/soils Reports
  46. 84. <ul><li>Soil Reports , part of a soils surveys, contain: </li></ul><ul><li>Depth of bedrock (if any) </li></ul><ul><li>Elevation of water table (if any) variability and flow direction </li></ul><ul><li>Bearing capacity of the soil </li></ul><ul><li>Expansive nature of soils </li></ul><ul><li>Location of fault lines (if any) </li></ul><ul><li>Soils types </li></ul><ul><li>Optimum moisture content for compaction </li></ul><ul><li>Percolation rate (penetration) </li></ul><ul><li>Contamination from hazardous wastes (if any) </li></ul>Geotechnical/soil Reports
  47. 85. <ul><li>Implications: </li></ul><ul><li>Engineered fill </li></ul><ul><li>Building form </li></ul><ul><li>Foundation and structural design </li></ul><ul><li>Erosion potential </li></ul><ul><li>Drainage </li></ul><ul><li>Runoff </li></ul>Geotechnical/soil Reports
  48. 86. <ul><li>Affect the economics of development. </li></ul><ul><li>Obtained from soil surveys. </li></ul><ul><li>Require the assistance of a soil engineer for interpretation. </li></ul>Site Evaluation Geotechnical/soils
  49. 87. <ul><li>Soil Reports , part of a soils surveys, contain: </li></ul><ul><li>Depth of bedrock (if any) </li></ul><ul><li>Elevation of water table (if any) variability and flow direction </li></ul><ul><li>Bearing capacity of the soil </li></ul><ul><li>Expansive nature of soils </li></ul><ul><li>Location of fault lines (if any) </li></ul><ul><li>Soils types </li></ul><ul><li>Optimum moisture content for compaction </li></ul><ul><li>Percolation rate (penetration) </li></ul><ul><li>Contamination from hazardous wastes (if any) </li></ul>Site Evaluation Geotechnical/soils
  50. 88. <ul><li>Implications: </li></ul><ul><li>Engineered fill </li></ul><ul><li>Building form </li></ul><ul><li>Foundation and structural design </li></ul><ul><li>Erosion potential </li></ul><ul><li>Drainage </li></ul><ul><li>Runoff </li></ul>Site Evaluation Geotechnical/soils
  51. 89. <ul><li>Elements: </li></ul><ul><li>Storm and sanitary drainage </li></ul><ul><li>Electrical </li></ul><ul><li>Telephone </li></ul><ul><li>Gas </li></ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><li>Cable television </li></ul>Site Evaluation Utilities and service
  52. 90. <ul><li>Implications: </li></ul><ul><li>Site utilization </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity may limit the building program </li></ul><ul><li>The cost of expanding capacity may affect the economics of the project. </li></ul>Site Evaluation Utilities and service
  53. 91. <ul><li>Evaluation of potential environmental concerns: </li></ul><ul><li>Phase 1: Historical research and observation </li></ul><ul><li>Property history </li></ul><ul><li>Governmental records </li></ul><ul><li>On-site investigation </li></ul><ul><li>Phase 2: Assessment of the presence of hazardous substances </li></ul><ul><li>Physical testing of the site </li></ul><ul><li>Improvements </li></ul><ul><li>Adjoining properties </li></ul>Site Evaluation Environmental contamination
  54. 92. <ul><li>Each site is unique and presents special opportunities and challenges. </li></ul><ul><li>Water elements </li></ul><ul><li>Trees </li></ul><ul><li>Rock outcroppings </li></ul><ul><li>Views </li></ul><ul><li>Special topographic features </li></ul>Site Evaluation Site character
  55. 93. <ul><li>Historical </li></ul><ul><li>Political </li></ul><ul><li>Community context </li></ul>Site Evaluation Cultural factors
  56. 94. <ul><li>Site history </li></ul><ul><li>Historic land uses and merits of existing structures. </li></ul><ul><li>Historic uses may become important to the project. </li></ul>Site Evaluation Cultural factors
  57. 95. <ul><li>Surrounding land uses </li></ul><ul><li>The surrounding area … the compatibility of the project and its program within the context of the existing community. </li></ul><ul><li>Aesthetic … traffic … circulation … solar orientation … shading … vistas to and from the site. </li></ul><ul><li>If the architect has a thorough knowledge of the community's composition, needs and concerns, the program and design can be developed in a manner that integrates the project with the surrounding community. </li></ul>Site Evaluation Cultural factors
  58. 106. <ul><li>Economic value </li></ul><ul><li>The economic value of the land … buildable area … steep topography generally requires a larger investment in construction costs. </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing the buildable area at increased construction cost may be economically feasible if the value of land and the increased return on development costs are high enough to outweigh the added investment. </li></ul>Site Evaluation Cultural factors
  59. 107. <ul><li>Zoning … landuse controls … subdivision … site plan review … local requirements … environmental regulations. </li></ul><ul><li>Building, fire and construction codes. </li></ul><ul><li>Persons with disabilities </li></ul>Site Evaluation Regulatory factor
  60. 109. Site Analysis Part 4
  61. 110. <ul><li>Depends on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Owner's situation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Program complexity </li></ul></ul>Site Analysis Services
  62. 111. CLIENT NEEDS <ul><li>One client may have defined a building program and be in search of a site . </li></ul><ul><li>Another may have selected a site and he interested in fitting a development program to it . </li></ul><ul><li>Yet another may have both site and program in hand and be seeking the most efficient, economical, and environmentally sensitive approach to site development . </li></ul>SITE
  63. 112. Site selection <ul><li>Often a client has a development program in mind and is looking for the best site for it. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Survey </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To identify the best site based on the physical, cultural, and regulatory characteristics of the site and its surroundings. </li></ul><ul><li>Site's adaptability to and compatibility with the proposed program. </li></ul>SITE
  64. 113. Program definition <ul><li>The client may have control of a site. </li></ul><ul><li>Determine the development capacity of the site. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Density, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open space, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental quality </li></ul></ul>PROGRAM
  65. 114. <ul><li>The owner has both a defined program and a selected site. </li></ul><ul><li>Maximize the potential of the site for its intended use. </li></ul>Site Analysis Services Site accommodation
  66. 115. <ul><li>Combining the parameters of a selected site with the spatial needs of a project development program. </li></ul><ul><li>How much development capacity does the site have? </li></ul>Site Analysis Services Program definition
  67. 116. Building Program & Site <ul><li>Are the site and the program </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;right for each other&quot;? </li></ul>PROGRAM SITE
  68. 117. Development potential evaluation <ul><li>Client already owns or is considering </li></ul><ul><li>Development potential and market value of the property </li></ul>
  69. 118. Special site studies <ul><li>Utilities studies </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental impact studies </li></ul><ul><li>Historic resources inventories </li></ul><ul><li>Studies of special opportunities . </li></ul>
  70. 119. <ul><li>Utilities studies </li></ul><ul><li>Special opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental impact studies </li></ul><ul><li>Historic resources inventories </li></ul>Site Analysis Services Special Site Studies
  71. 120. <ul><li>Site analysis services </li></ul><ul><li>Planning and zoning processing </li></ul><ul><li>Design submissions </li></ul><ul><li>Public hearings </li></ul><ul><li>Negotiations with local authorities </li></ul>Site Analysis Services Planning and zoning assistance
  72. 121. <ul><li>Key scheduling questions: </li></ul><ul><li>Is the site under the owner's control and, if not, when will it be? </li></ul><ul><li>If the owner has an option (right) on the site, how long will it be in force? Can it be renewed? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the owner paying taxes or other holding costs on the site? How will this affect the program development schedule? </li></ul><ul><li>Are there easements or other restrictions on the full use of the site? How long will it take to resolve these? </li></ul><ul><li>What regulatory approvals are required before construction can begin? Who grants them and what information do they require? What will they cost the owner? </li></ul>Site Analysis Services Scheduling and budgeting
  73. 122. <ul><li>Key scheduling questions: </li></ul><ul><li>What can be said about the political climate in which the project will be reviewed and approved? </li></ul><ul><li>Will the project be controversial ? </li></ul><ul><li>Are there likely to be accommodations for neighbors or the community at large? Should these be considered from the outside? </li></ul>Site Analysis Services Scheduling and budgeting
  74. 123. <ul><li>Preliminary estimate for: </li></ul><ul><li>Site grading </li></ul><ul><li>On-site utilities </li></ul><ul><li>Utilities connections </li></ul><ul><li>Off-site utilities work </li></ul><ul><li>Drainage and retention ponds </li></ul><ul><li>Paving and striping parking lots </li></ul><ul><li>Site lighting </li></ul><ul><li>Lawn and landscaping work </li></ul><ul><li>Site furniture, including signage, seating, trash enclosure, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Required site structures (e.g. retaining walls) </li></ul>Site Analysis Services Scheduling and budgeting
  75. 124. <ul><li>Owners … Users … Designers </li></ul><ul><li>Good building responds to the inherent qualities of the site and, at the same time, transforms the site from raw land to &quot;places&quot; for human enterprise. </li></ul><ul><li>Site selection, evaluation, and design are important ingredients in any successful project. </li></ul>Site Analysis Services Integration
  76. 125. <ul><li>Site surveying and geotechnical engineering services are provided by the OWNER. </li></ul><ul><li>Effective architecture service can significantly preserve, or even add to, the economic value of the project. </li></ul><ul><li>Don't overlook the value your efforts can create when you make your compensation proposal for services. </li></ul>Conclusions
  77. 126. Conclusions <ul><li>Architects should emphasize the value that quality site analysis services add. </li></ul>
  78. 127. <ul><li>Classics </li></ul><ul><li>Kevin Lynch, Site Planning , (MIT Press, 3 rd ed., 1984) </li></ul><ul><li>Ian L. McHarg, Design With Nature , (John Wiley & Sons, 1991) </li></ul><ul><li>Climate </li></ul><ul><li>Victor Olgay, Design With Climate: A Bioclimatic Approach to Architectural Regionalism (Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1963/1992) </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainability </li></ul><ul><li>John Tillman Lyle, Regenerative Design for Sustainable World, Green Heart: Technology, Nature, and Sustainability in the Landscape , (John Wiley & Sons, 1994) </li></ul><ul><li>Civil Engineering </li></ul><ul><li>B.C. Colley, Practical Manual of Land Development , (McGraw Hill, 2 nd ed., 1993) </li></ul><ul><li>Technical guidance </li></ul><ul><li>Site Details from Architectural Graphic Standards (John Wiley & Sons, 1992) </li></ul><ul><li>Joseph DeChiara, Time-Saver Standards for Site Planning , (McGra Hill, 1984) </li></ul><ul><li>Charles Harris and Nicholas Dines, Time-Saver Standards for Landscape Architecture , (McGra Hill, 1988) </li></ul>Other sources
  79. 128. Site Analysis END
  80. 129. 1
  81. 130. 2
  82. 131. 3
  83. 132. 4
  84. 133. 5
  85. 134. 6
  86. 135. 7
  87. 136. 8
  88. 137. 9
  89. 138. PROCESS <ul><li>The size of the site , its anticipated use , and the programming requirements will have a major effect on the scope of work for site analysis services. </li></ul><ul><li>The site location , configuration , topography , and access and the complexity of adjacency , utility and environmental issues related to the site are other key factors. </li></ul>
  90. 139. Assembling the project team <ul><li>The skills of the project manager . </li></ul><ul><li>Familiarity with local conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Making a good impression on a community </li></ul>
  91. 140. Steps to Perform the Service <ul><li>Program investigation. </li></ul><ul><li>The building program is investigated with respect to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The selected or optional building footprints ; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>area required for parking , </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>circulation , </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>open spaces and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>other program elements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>special constraints, opportunities or requirements such as security , easements , preserving natural habitat , wetlands , and the like. </li></ul></ul>
  92. 141. <ul><li>Site inventory and analysis. </li></ul><ul><li>The physical, cultural, and regulatory characteristics of the site are initially explored. </li></ul><ul><li>The site evaluation checklist identifies factors that maybe considered. </li></ul><ul><li>Some of these factors can be assessed by collecting and analyzing information ; others are best addressed by walking the site and traversing its environs . </li></ul>Steps to Perform the Service
  93. 142. <ul><li>Site inventory and analysis. </li></ul><ul><li>A preliminary assessment of whether a location and site have the potential to accommodate the building program is made. </li></ul><ul><li>Priority issues - those (such as environmental contamination) that may preempt further investigation -are identified. </li></ul>Steps to Perform the Service
  94. 143. <ul><li>Site inventory and analysis. </li></ul><ul><li>A site analysis plan is developed. </li></ul><ul><li>When this has been approved by the client , consultants may be hired to further explore issues that require analysis beyond the capabilities of the core project team. </li></ul>Steps to Perform the Service
  95. 144. <ul><li>Site evaluation. </li></ul><ul><li>At this point, thorough assessments are conducted when necessary to develop the site analysis plan. </li></ul><ul><li>These may include physical testing of aspects of the site, its improvements, and adjoining properties. </li></ul>Steps to Perform the Service
  96. 145. <ul><li>Report development. </li></ul><ul><li>The site analysis report normally includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>property maps, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>geotechnical maps and findings, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>site analysis recommendations, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a clear statement of the impact of the findings and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>recommendations on the proposed building program. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Regulatory approvals normally required during or immediately following the site analysis phase include zoning, environmental impact, and highway and transportation. </li></ul>Steps to Perform the Service
  97. 146. Related services <ul><li>Site design, </li></ul><ul><li>Geotechnical services, </li></ul><ul><li>Real estate evaluation, </li></ul><ul><li>Programming, </li></ul><ul><li>Site surveys, </li></ul><ul><li>Market studies, </li></ul><ul><li>Economic evaluations, and </li></ul><ul><li>Land use studies </li></ul>
  98. 147. SKILLS <ul><li>Evaluate the site in terms of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>climate , </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>topography , </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>geotechnical and soil characteristics , </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>utilities , </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>natural features and surroundings , </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>transportation and access , and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>historic preservation and landmarks </li></ul></ul>
  99. 148. SKILLS <ul><li>Essentials: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>planning and zoning requirements such as parking , building density , use , open space , and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>design controls </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The political climate </li></ul>
  100. 149. SKILLS <ul><li>Other consultants: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>consultants with a planning or real estate background </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>landscape architects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>civil, power, and geotechnical engineers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>traffic engineers or traffic planners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hydrologists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>economic analysts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>environmental or wildlife scientists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>archaeologists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>historians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>real estate attorneys, or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>programming specialists. </li></ul></ul>

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