11.4

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11.4

  1. 1. By: Esther P., Namroo A., Kristin N., and Will C.
  2. 2.  Signal Pathways lead to the synthesis of enzymes or proteins, not to activity. Three stages of responses:  Signal Reception.  Signal Transduction.  Signal Response.  (Page 213)
  3. 3.  Enzyme amplification signal. Each step gradually increase as steps get higher. Amplification effect stems. The result of amplification.
  4. 4.  Each cell has variety of responses to a signal. Different Proteins. Cross paths. Different Receptors.
  5. 5.  These pathways used to be thought independent, and linear ones. However, we now realize that things aren’t so simple; therefore, we also now have a better understanding of the processes of cellular communication. (See figure 11.5)
  6. 6.  Scaffold proteins are crucial regulators of many key signaling pathways. They interact or bind with multiple members of a signaling pathway. They regulate signal transduction and help localize pathway components to specific areas of the cell (ex. Plasma membrane, cytoplasm, etc..) Example: Researchers are now finding scaffolding proteins that permanently hold together networks of signaling-pathway proteins at synapses. Why is this important? This “hardwiring”, per say, enhances the speed and accuracy of signal transfer between cells. *RECALL that when a signal is relayed along a pathway, only certain information is passed on.
  7. 7.  The time to remain alert is a short time. The there must be a reversibility to the changes that signals produce. When signal molecules leave the receptor it reverts to its inactive form.

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