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CONCEPT 29.4: FERNS ANDOTHER SEEDLESS VASCULARPLANTS FORMED THE FIRSTFORESTS!Benjamin H.Michelle K.
SEEDLESS VASCULAR PLANTS Carboniferous period: vascular plants diversified Fragile gametophytes Sperm must swim Most c...
ORIGINS AND TRAITS OF VASCULAR PLANTS 420 million yra Branched sporophytes       Not dependent on gametophytes   Compl...
LIFE CYCLE WITH DOMINANT SPOROPHYTES   Sporophyte: larger + more complex       Sporophyte
TRANSPORT IN XYLEM AND PHLOEM Vascular tissue Xylem: conducts water + minerals     Tracheids: tube-shape cellsd (dead c...
EVOLUTION OF ROOTS Roots: organs, anchor  plants, absorb water and  nutrients from soil Early roots resemble  stem tissu...
EVOLUTION OF LEAVES Leaves: organs, increase surface area for  photosynthesis Microphylls: small, one vein Megaphylls: ...
SPOROPHYLLS Sporophylls: modified leaves w/ sporangia Sori: clusters of sporangia Strobili: cones, groups of sporophylls
SPORE VARIATIONS   Homosporous:    1 sporangium  1 spore  bisexual gametophyte     eggs and sperm   Heterosporous:   ...
LYCOPHYTES Use other plants as substrates tiny gametophytes Sporophytes     Upright stems, many small leaves     In m...
PTEROPHYTA   Whisk ferns     Branching stems     No roots or leaves   Horsetails     Bushy stems     Homosporous    ...
SIGNIFICANCE OF SEEDLESS VASCULAR                  PLANTS During Carboniferous period grew tall Formed forests Accelera...
REVIEW! What’s the phenolic polymer that strengthens cell  walls? What do megasporangium produce? What do microsporangi...
Concept 29.4
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Concept 29.4

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Concept 29.4

  1. 1. CONCEPT 29.4: FERNS ANDOTHER SEEDLESS VASCULARPLANTS FORMED THE FIRSTFORESTS!Benjamin H.Michelle K.
  2. 2. SEEDLESS VASCULAR PLANTS Carboniferous period: vascular plants diversified Fragile gametophytes Sperm must swim Most common in damp environments
  3. 3. ORIGINS AND TRAITS OF VASCULAR PLANTS 420 million yra Branched sporophytes  Not dependent on gametophytes Complex bodies with multiple sporangia
  4. 4. LIFE CYCLE WITH DOMINANT SPOROPHYTES Sporophyte: larger + more complex Sporophyte
  5. 5. TRANSPORT IN XYLEM AND PHLOEM Vascular tissue Xylem: conducts water + minerals  Tracheids: tube-shape cellsd (dead cells)  Lignin: polymer, strengthens cell walls Phloem: distributes organic products Transport materials above ground w/ lignin plant = stronger
  6. 6. EVOLUTION OF ROOTS Roots: organs, anchor plants, absorb water and nutrients from soil Early roots resemble stem tissue Evolve from lower, underground stems Convergent evolution?
  7. 7. EVOLUTION OF LEAVES Leaves: organs, increase surface area for photosynthesis Microphylls: small, one vein Megaphylls: leaves w/ highly branched vascular system, more photosynthesis
  8. 8. SPOROPHYLLS Sporophylls: modified leaves w/ sporangia Sori: clusters of sporangia Strobili: cones, groups of sporophylls
  9. 9. SPORE VARIATIONS Homosporous: 1 sporangium  1 spore  bisexual gametophyte  eggs and sperm Heterosporous: Megasporangium  megaspore  female gametophyte  eggs Microsporangium  microscope  male gametophyte  sperm
  10. 10. LYCOPHYTES Use other plants as substrates tiny gametophytes Sporophytes  Upright stems, many small leaves  In mosses, clustered in strobili (club-shape cones) Club mosses, spike mosses, quillworts
  11. 11. PTEROPHYTA Whisk ferns  Branching stems  No roots or leaves Horsetails  Bushy stems  Homosporous  Stems w/ joints (stem = main photosynthesis) Ferns  Megaphylls  Horizontal stems w/ large leaves (fronds)  Homosporous
  12. 12. SIGNIFICANCE OF SEEDLESS VASCULAR PLANTS During Carboniferous period grew tall Formed forests Accelerate photosynthesis Removed CO2 from atmosphere  peat, became coal
  13. 13. REVIEW! What’s the phenolic polymer that strengthens cell walls? What do megasporangium produce? What do microsporangium produce? What vascular tissue transports water and minerals? What vascular tissue transports organic products? What is the significance of these vascular plants?

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