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Ribosome in relation to cell growths & vision


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in this presentation, some questions & facts is rised which is very important to know to how ribosomes work in molecular machine.Till no fully information is available how to ribosome formed in compact structure which are very specific to functions & conserved from evolution time.

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Ribosome in relation to cell growths & vision

  1. 1. Submitted to : Submitted by: Dr. Mithilesh Kumar Vishnu Kumar Dr. Vipul Jha AB & MB
  2. 2. Questions & Facts 1. Why are eukaryotic ribosomes 80S when prokaryotic ribosomes are 70S? 2. Are there functional differences between free ribosomes and endoplasmic reticulum ribosomes? 3. In the text it says: " In the nucleolus, new ribosomal RNA is transcribed from the DNA, and it combines with proteins from the cytoplasm to form the subunits of the ribosome. Where they can combine to form ribosomes and carry out their job of making proteins. 4. How we can say that ribosome work as enzyme? 5. Hibernating 100S ribosomes help bacteria survive (SLU Scientist: Disrupting staph's naps may lead to new antibiotics.
  3. 3. Ribosome Macromolecular structures of rRNA + rProtein, is called ( Ribonucleoprotein).  Protein producing structure organelles Site of origin nucleolus Large amount requirement for protein synthesis. Some eukaryotic organisms contains up to four nucleoli Nucleoli are site specific genetic loci called nucleolar organizing regions (NORs) NORs contain tandem repeats of rRNA genes Human genome contains more than 200 clustered copies of the rRNA gene on five different chromosome(13, 14, 15, 21, 22).
  4. 4.  It is a large & complex molecule.  Found in all living cells prokaryote & eukaryote.  That serves as the primary site of biological protein synthesis.  Ribosome was first observed in 1953s by romanian cell biologist george emil palade using a electrone microscope.  In prokaryote free form in cytoplasm & protoplasm.  In eukaryote free in cytoplasm inside the cell attach to the outer membrane in endoplasmic reticulum
  5. 5. Discovery Ribosomes were first observed in the mid-1950s by Romanian-American cell biologist George Emil Palade, using an electron microscope, as dense particles or granules.  The term "ribosome" was proposed by scientist Richard B. Roberts in the end of 1950s.  In prokaryote free form in cytoplasm & protoplasm. In eukaryote free in cytoplasm inside the cell attach to the outer membrane in endoplasmic reticulum
  6. 6. Structure
  7. 7. Structure of 16s RNA
  8. 8. BIOGENESIS OF rRNA 1. Prokaryotic cell 3 rRNA in e.coli are transcribed from a single gene. 7 copies of gene occur in genome. A single transcript is produced in mature rRNA.processing of RNA folding, attachment of rProtein, methylation of bases & cleavage by Ribonuclease. 2. Eukaryotic cell single gene arranged in multiple copies as clusters series.Transcribed in nucleolus by polymerase-I. 5S rRNA is transcribed in cytoplasm by polymerase III.