Biology Exam IV
Final: Monday, 12/9
75% new material
25% old
Gram-negative
• meningococcal
menintus

• Thin cell wall
• outer wall (OM): toxic
to humans
• sensitive to osmotic
pressur...
Gram-positive
• THICK peptidoglycan
layer
• resistant to osmotic
pressure
Classify bacteria by habitat
1. halophile
2. coliform: your
digestive tract
3. thermophile
4. acidophile
Classify bacteria by metabolic pathway
1. obligate aerobe:
require O2
2. anaerobe: O2 kills
anaerobes
3. facultative aerob...
Classify bacteria by metabolic pathway
• M. tuber

1. obligate aerobe:
require O2
Classify bacteria by metabolic pathway
• Cl. tetanic

2. anaerobe
Classify bacteria by metabolic pathway
• E. coli (facultative)

1. obligate aerobe:
require O2
2. anaerobe: O2 kills
anaer...
Classify bacteria by metabolic pathway
• cyanobacteria
(photoautotroph)

1. obligate aerobe:
require O2
2. anaerobe: O2 ki...
capsule: sugar material that covers cell
wall
• Strep pyroxenes, H.
influenza

• protect against
phagocytosis
• protect ag...
fimbriae & pile: attachment purpose
structures
• pile: used for
conjugation (sexual
reproduction)
slime layer: sticky matrix of
polysaccharides that protects the
bacteria

• Streptococcus mutans
cause tooth decays
taxis: movement toward or away from
stimulus
internal/genome structure of bacteria
• one chromosome (DNA)
• no organelles
• plasma membrane
carries out metabolic
proce...
binary fission: similar to mitosis
• one bacteria splits to
two
• mitosis: split nucleus
endospore
• anthrax (Bacillus
anthracis)
endospore
• botulism
endospore
• tetanus
endospore
• gas gangrene
(Clostridium perfringen)
classify bacteria via nutritional intake
1.
2.
3.
4.

photoautotrophy
chemoautotrophy
photoheterotrophy
chemoheterotrophy
photoautotrophy
• energy from sunlight
• carob from CO2
chemoautotrophy
• energy from inorganic
molecules like sulfur
• carbon from CO2
photoheterotrophy
• carbon from organic
sources (other
organisms)
chemoheterotrophy
• energy and CO2 from
organic sources
eubacteria aka “bacteria”
• cell wall made of
peptidoglycan
Archae
• cell wall made of
pseudomurein
methanogen
• anaerobic Archae
• remove excess
hydrogen, O2
symbiotic categories
1. mutualism
2. commensalism
3. parasitism
Genus of bacterial diseases!
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Borelia
Treponema
Staphylococcus
Mycobacterium
Yersinia
Neisseria

1.
2.
3...
Lyme
• Borelia
syphilis
• Treponema
MRSA
• Staphylococcus
tuberculosis
• Mycobacterium
plague
1. Bubonic
2. pneumonic

• Yersinia
gonorrhea
• Neisseria
exotoxin
• G positive
botulin
• exotoxin
• Gram positive
tetanus
• exotoxin
• Gram positive
endotoxin
• Gram negative
• you get more sick
• bacteria has outer
membrane
Gram-positive
• EXOtoxin
Gram-negative
• ENDOtoxin
• have outer membrane
Gram
• exotoxin
– made of G positive
– botulin and tetanin are
examples
– can elicit immune
response 
– can be vaccinated...
Chlamydomonas
• eyespot
• pyrenoid
• protist
Diatom
• protist
Algae
• photosynthetic protist
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Biology exam iv for dec 9-2013 monday

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  • endo-end of the world
  • Biology exam iv for dec 9-2013 monday

    1. 1. Biology Exam IV Final: Monday, 12/9 75% new material 25% old
    2. 2. Gram-negative • meningococcal menintus • Thin cell wall • outer wall (OM): toxic to humans • sensitive to osmotic pressure • antibiotic tolerant • thin peptidoglycan layer
    3. 3. Gram-positive • THICK peptidoglycan layer • resistant to osmotic pressure
    4. 4. Classify bacteria by habitat 1. halophile 2. coliform: your digestive tract 3. thermophile 4. acidophile
    5. 5. Classify bacteria by metabolic pathway 1. obligate aerobe: require O2 2. anaerobe: O2 kills anaerobes 3. facultative aerobe: can live with O2 and not 4. heterotroph v photoautotroph
    6. 6. Classify bacteria by metabolic pathway • M. tuber 1. obligate aerobe: require O2
    7. 7. Classify bacteria by metabolic pathway • Cl. tetanic 2. anaerobe
    8. 8. Classify bacteria by metabolic pathway • E. coli (facultative) 1. obligate aerobe: require O2 2. anaerobe: O2 kills anaerobes 3. facultative aerobe: can live with O2 and not
    9. 9. Classify bacteria by metabolic pathway • cyanobacteria (photoautotroph) 1. obligate aerobe: require O2 2. anaerobe: O2 kills anaerobes 3. facultative aerobe: can live with O2 and not 4. heterotroph v photoautotroph
    10. 10. capsule: sugar material that covers cell wall • Strep pyroxenes, H. influenza • protect against phagocytosis • protect against desiccation • allow adherence
    11. 11. fimbriae & pile: attachment purpose structures • pile: used for conjugation (sexual reproduction)
    12. 12. slime layer: sticky matrix of polysaccharides that protects the bacteria • Streptococcus mutans cause tooth decays
    13. 13. taxis: movement toward or away from stimulus
    14. 14. internal/genome structure of bacteria • one chromosome (DNA) • no organelles • plasma membrane carries out metabolic processes • Some bacteria have additional genomes, circular DNA, plasmids
    15. 15. binary fission: similar to mitosis • one bacteria splits to two • mitosis: split nucleus
    16. 16. endospore • anthrax (Bacillus anthracis)
    17. 17. endospore • botulism
    18. 18. endospore • tetanus
    19. 19. endospore • gas gangrene (Clostridium perfringen)
    20. 20. classify bacteria via nutritional intake 1. 2. 3. 4. photoautotrophy chemoautotrophy photoheterotrophy chemoheterotrophy
    21. 21. photoautotrophy • energy from sunlight • carob from CO2
    22. 22. chemoautotrophy • energy from inorganic molecules like sulfur • carbon from CO2
    23. 23. photoheterotrophy • carbon from organic sources (other organisms)
    24. 24. chemoheterotrophy • energy and CO2 from organic sources
    25. 25. eubacteria aka “bacteria” • cell wall made of peptidoglycan
    26. 26. Archae • cell wall made of pseudomurein
    27. 27. methanogen • anaerobic Archae • remove excess hydrogen, O2
    28. 28. symbiotic categories 1. mutualism 2. commensalism 3. parasitism
    29. 29. Genus of bacterial diseases! 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Borelia Treponema Staphylococcus Mycobacterium Yersinia Neisseria 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Lyme syphilis toxic shock (MRSA) tuberculosis plague gonorrhea
    30. 30. Lyme • Borelia
    31. 31. syphilis • Treponema
    32. 32. MRSA • Staphylococcus
    33. 33. tuberculosis • Mycobacterium
    34. 34. plague 1. Bubonic 2. pneumonic • Yersinia
    35. 35. gonorrhea • Neisseria
    36. 36. exotoxin • G positive
    37. 37. botulin • exotoxin • Gram positive
    38. 38. tetanus • exotoxin • Gram positive
    39. 39. endotoxin • Gram negative • you get more sick • bacteria has outer membrane
    40. 40. Gram-positive • EXOtoxin
    41. 41. Gram-negative • ENDOtoxin • have outer membrane
    42. 42. Gram • exotoxin – made of G positive – botulin and tetanin are examples – can elicit immune response  – can be vaccinated against  • endotoxin – made of G-negative – made of outer membrane (OM) – are released when bacteria die – does NOT elicit an immune response  – you get more sick  – vaccination is difficult 
    43. 43. Chlamydomonas • eyespot • pyrenoid • protist
    44. 44. Diatom • protist
    45. 45. Algae • photosynthetic protist

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