Biology Lab Exam
Terms

* Write an essay on oogenesis
Meiosis
• Terms
–
–
–
–

synapsis
alleles
crossing-over
haploid
synapsis
• the association of
homologous
chromosomes that is
characteristic of the first
meiotic prophase
alleles
• any of the alternative
forms of a gene that
may occur at a given
locus
crossing over
• an interchange of genes
or segments between
homologous
chromosomes
haploid
• having the gametic
number of
chromosomes typically
including one of each
pair of homologous
chromosomes compare
...
Genetics
• Terms:
–
–
–
–
–

phenotype
genotype
incomplete dominance
codominance
transposons
phenotype
• The word phenotype
refers to the observable
attributes of individual
organisms including
morphology, physiolog...
genotype
• An individual's
genotype is the
composition, in the
individual's genome, of
a specific region of DNA
that varie...
incomplete dominance
• blending of the two
alleles occurs, or both
alleles continue to
manufacture their
proteins
– "Heter...
codominance
transposons
• Transposons, also called
transposable elements
or jumping genes, are
stretches of
deoxyribonucleic acid
(DNA...
Bacteria
• terms:
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–

bacillus
coccus
spirillum
fission
conjugation
bacterial colony
sensitivity plate
...
bacillus
• The shapes of bacterial
cells, often of keen
interest to forensic
investigators, are
classified as spherical
(c...
coccus
• a spherical bacterium
– (MW)
spirillum
• any of a genus
(Spirillum) of curved
elongated motile
bacteria having tufts of
flagella at both poles;
broadly...
fission
• reproduction by
spontaneous division of
the body into two or
more parts each of
which grows into a
complete orga...
protists
• terms
–
–
–
–
–
–
–

oogamy
zygote
isogamous
syngamy
sporophyte
gametophyte
alternation of
generations
– fucoxa...
oogamy
• having or involving a
small motile male
gamete and a large
immobile female
gamete
zygote
• a cell formed by the
union of two gametes;
broadly the developing
individual produced
from such a cell
isogamous
• Gale

• having or involving
isogametes (a gamete
indistinguishable in
form or size or behavior
from another ga...
syngamy
• lookup

• sexual reproduction by
union of gametes :
fertilization
sporophyte
• the diploid multicellular
individual or generation
of a plant with
alternation of
generations that begins
fro...
gametophyte
• the haploid multicellular
individual or generation of a
plant with alternation of
generations that begins wi...
alternation of generations
• the occurrence of two
or more forms
differently produced in
the life cycle of a plant
or anim...
fucoxanthins
• a brown carotenoid
pigment C40H60O6
occurring especially in
the chloroplasts of
brown algae
alginic acid
• an insoluble colloidal
acid (C6H8O6)n that in
the form of its salts is a
constituent of the cell
walls of b...
diatomaceous earth
• a light friable siliceous
material derived chiefly
from diatom remains
and used especially as a
filte...
micronuclei
• a minute nucleus;
specifically one that is
primarily concerned
with reproductive and
genetic functions in
mo...
macronuclei
• a relatively large
densely staining nucleus
of most ciliate
protozoans that is
derived from
micronuclei and
...
pseudopod
• a temporary protrusion
or retractile process of
the cytoplasm of a cell
that functions (as in an
amoeba) espec...
sclerotium
• a compact mass of
hardened mycelium
stored with reserve
food material that in
some higher fungi
becomes detac...
fungi
• terms
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–

budding
fragmentation
conidiophores
septa
coenocytic
phototaxis
dikaryotic
monokaryot...
budding
fragmentation
conidiophores
• a specialized hyphal
branch of some fungi
that produces conidia
(an asexual spore
produced on a
conidiopho...
septa
• a dividing wall or
membrane especially
between bodily spaces
or masses of soft tissue
coenocytic
• a multinucleate mass of
protoplasm resulting
from repeated nuclear
division unaccompanied
by cell fission
phototaxis
• a taxis in which light is
the directive factor
dikaryotic
monokaryotic
mycelium
• the mass of interwoven
filamentous hyphae that
forms especially the
vegetative portion of the
thallus of a fung...
saprophytes
• fungi that obtains food
by absorbing dissolved
organic material;
especially obtaining
nourishment from the
p...
hypha
• one of the threads that
make up the mycelium
of a fungus, increase by
apical growth, and are
transversely septate ...
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Biology lab exam

  1. 1. Biology Lab Exam Terms * Write an essay on oogenesis
  2. 2. Meiosis • Terms – – – – synapsis alleles crossing-over haploid
  3. 3. synapsis • the association of homologous chromosomes that is characteristic of the first meiotic prophase
  4. 4. alleles • any of the alternative forms of a gene that may occur at a given locus
  5. 5. crossing over • an interchange of genes or segments between homologous chromosomes
  6. 6. haploid • having the gametic number of chromosomes typically including one of each pair of homologous chromosomes compare diploid
  7. 7. Genetics • Terms: – – – – – phenotype genotype incomplete dominance codominance transposons
  8. 8. phenotype • The word phenotype refers to the observable attributes of individual organisms including morphology, physiology and behavior – World of Biology, 2006
  9. 9. genotype • An individual's genotype is the composition, in the individual's genome, of a specific region of DNA that varies within a population. – Genetics, October 27, 2008 • The term genotype describes the actual set (complement) of genes carried by an organism. In contrast, phenotype refers to the observable expression of characters and traits coded for by those genes. – World of Genetics, 2007
  10. 10. incomplete dominance • blending of the two alleles occurs, or both alleles continue to manufacture their proteins – "Heterozygous advantage." World of Genetics. Gale, 2007. Science in Context. Web. 21 Nov. 2013.
  11. 11. codominance
  12. 12. transposons • Transposons, also called transposable elements or jumping genes, are stretches of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) that can move around an organism's chromosome. – Biology, October 1, 2009
  13. 13. Bacteria • terms: – – – – – – – – – – – bacillus coccus spirillum fission conjugation bacterial colony sensitivity plate nitrogen fixation nodules sheath heterocysts
  14. 14. bacillus • The shapes of bacterial cells, often of keen interest to forensic investigators, are classified as spherical (coccus), rodlike (bacillus), spiral (spirochete), helical (spirilla), and commashaped (vibrio) cells. – World of Forensic Science, 2006
  15. 15. coccus • a spherical bacterium – (MW)
  16. 16. spirillum • any of a genus (Spirillum) of curved elongated motile bacteria having tufts of flagella at both poles; broadly a spiral filamentous bacterium (as a spirochete)
  17. 17. fission • reproduction by spontaneous division of the body into two or more parts each of which grows into a complete organism
  18. 18. protists • terms – – – – – – – oogamy zygote isogamous syngamy sporophyte gametophyte alternation of generations – fucoxanthins
  19. 19. oogamy • having or involving a small motile male gamete and a large immobile female gamete
  20. 20. zygote • a cell formed by the union of two gametes; broadly the developing individual produced from such a cell
  21. 21. isogamous • Gale • having or involving isogametes (a gamete indistinguishable in form or size or behavior from another gamete with which it can unite to form a zygote)
  22. 22. syngamy • lookup • sexual reproduction by union of gametes : fertilization
  23. 23. sporophyte • the diploid multicellular individual or generation of a plant with alternation of generations that begins from a diploid zygote and produces haploid spores by meiotic division compare gametophyte
  24. 24. gametophyte • the haploid multicellular individual or generation of a plant with alternation of generations that begins with a haploid spore, produces gametes by mitotic division, and ends with fertilization producing a diploid zygote and that constitutes the visibly dominant form in mosses and algae, exists as an independent plant body in ferns and their relatives, and is reduced to a microscopic or rudimentary state in seed plants compare sporophyte
  25. 25. alternation of generations • the occurrence of two or more forms differently produced in the life cycle of a plant or animal usually involving the regular alternation of a sexual with an asexual generation
  26. 26. fucoxanthins • a brown carotenoid pigment C40H60O6 occurring especially in the chloroplasts of brown algae
  27. 27. alginic acid • an insoluble colloidal acid (C6H8O6)n that in the form of its salts is a constituent of the cell walls of brown algae
  28. 28. diatomaceous earth • a light friable siliceous material derived chiefly from diatom remains and used especially as a filter
  29. 29. micronuclei • a minute nucleus; specifically one that is primarily concerned with reproductive and genetic functions in most ciliated protozoans
  30. 30. macronuclei • a relatively large densely staining nucleus of most ciliate protozoans that is derived from micronuclei and controls various nonreproductive functions
  31. 31. pseudopod • a temporary protrusion or retractile process of the cytoplasm of a cell that functions (as in an amoeba) especially in a locomotor or food gathering capacity see amoeba illustration
  32. 32. sclerotium • a compact mass of hardened mycelium stored with reserve food material that in some higher fungi becomes detached and remains dormant until a favorable opportunity for growth occurs
  33. 33. fungi • terms – – – – – – – – – – – budding fragmentation conidiophores septa coenocytic phototaxis dikaryotic monokaryotic mycelium saprophytes hypha
  34. 34. budding
  35. 35. fragmentation
  36. 36. conidiophores • a specialized hyphal branch of some fungi that produces conidia (an asexual spore produced on a conidiophore of certain fungi)
  37. 37. septa • a dividing wall or membrane especially between bodily spaces or masses of soft tissue
  38. 38. coenocytic • a multinucleate mass of protoplasm resulting from repeated nuclear division unaccompanied by cell fission
  39. 39. phototaxis • a taxis in which light is the directive factor
  40. 40. dikaryotic
  41. 41. monokaryotic
  42. 42. mycelium • the mass of interwoven filamentous hyphae that forms especially the vegetative portion of the thallus of a fungus and is often submerged in another body (as of soil or organic matter or the tissues of a host); also a similar mass of filaments formed by some bacteria (as streptomyces)
  43. 43. saprophytes • fungi that obtains food by absorbing dissolved organic material; especially obtaining nourishment from the products of organic breakdown and decay
  44. 44. hypha • one of the threads that make up the mycelium of a fungus, increase by apical growth, and are transversely septate or nonseptate

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