Biology Exam IV
Final: Monday, 12/9
75% new material
25% old
Gram-negative
• meningococcal
menintus

• Thin cell wall
• outer wall (OM): toxic
to humans
• sensitive to osmotic
pressur...
Gram-positive
• THICK peptidoglycan
layer
• resistant to osmotic
pressure
Classify bacteria by habitat
1. halophile
2. coliform: your
digestive tract
3. thermophile
4. acidophile
Classify bacteria by metabolic pathway
1. obligate aerobe:
require O2
2. anaerobe: O2 kills
anaerobes
3. facultative aerob...
Classify bacteria by metabolic pathway
• M. tuber

1. obligate aerobe:
require O2
Classify bacteria by metabolic pathway
• Cl. tetanic

2. anaerobe
Classify bacteria by metabolic pathway
• E. coli (facultative)

1. obligate aerobe:
require O2
2. anaerobe: O2 kills
anaer...
Classify bacteria by metabolic pathway
• cyanobacteria
(photoautotroph)

1. obligate aerobe:
require O2
2. anaerobe: O2 ki...
capsule: sugar material that covers cell
wall
• Strep pyroxenes, H.
influenza

• protect against
phagocytosis
• protect ag...
fimbriae & pile: attachment purpose
structures
• pile: used for
conjugation (sexual
reproduction)
slime layer: sticky matrix of
polysaccharides that protects the
bacteria

• Streptococcus mutans
cause tooth decays
taxis: movement toward or away from
stimulus
internal/genome structure of bacteria
• one chromosome (DNA)
• no organelles
• plasma membrane
carries out metabolic
proce...
binary fission: similar to mitosis
• one bacteria splits to
two
• mitosis: split nucleus
endospore
• anthrax (Bacillus
anthracis)
endospore
• botulism
endospore
• tetanus
endospore
• gas gangrene
(Clostridium perfringen)
classify bacteria via nutritional intake
1.
2.
3.
4.

photoautotrophy
chemoautotrophy
photoheterotrophy
chemoheterotrophy
photoautotrophy
• energy from sunlight
• carob from CO2
chemoautotrophy
• energy from inorganic
molecules like sulfur
• carbon from CO2
photoheterotrophy
• carbon from organic
sources (other
organisms)
chemoheterotrophy
• energy and CO2 from
organic sources
eubacteria aka “bacteria”
• cell wall made of
peptidoglycan
Archae
• cell wall made of
pseudomurein
methanogen
• anaerobic Archae
• remove excess
hydrogen, O2
symbiotic categories
1. mutualism
2. commensalism
3. parasitism
Genus of bacterial diseases!
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Borelia
Treponema
Staphylococcus
Mycobacterium
Yersinia
Neisseria

1.
2.
3...
Lyme
• Borelia
syphilis
• Treponema
MRSA
• Staphylococcus
tuberculosis
• Mycobacterium
plague
1. Bubonic
2. pneumonic

• Yersinia
gonorrhea
• Neisseria
exotoxin
• G positive
botulin
• exotoxin
• Gram positive
tetanus
• exotoxin
• Gram positive
endotoxin
• Gram negative
• you get more sick
• bacteria has outer
membrane
Gram-positive
• EXOtoxin
Gram-negative
• ENDOtoxin
• have outer membrane
Gram
• exotoxin
– made of G positive
– botulin and tetanin are
examples
– can elicit immune
response 
– can be vaccinated...
Chlamydomonas
• eyespot
• pyrenoid
• protist
Diatom
• protist
Algae
• photosynthetic protist
Protists
• Lecture: Thursday
11/21

•
•
•
•

Cercozoans
Forams
Radiolarians
Amoeba
– 4 clades

• Rhodophyta (red algae)
• ...
Cerocozoans
• Amoeba-looking cells
• Clade foraminiferans
(“forams”)
• Feed by pseudopodia
Phylum: Forams
• shrimp

• Porous, multichambered calcium
carbonate shells called
tests
• Pseudopodia extend
through the p...
Forams (importance)
• layers of foram tests in
marine sediments from
limestone and oil deposits
– Egyptian pyramids

• act...
forams
• limestone cliff in Dover
England
Kingdom: radiolarians
• have silica tests fused
into one piece (like
diatoms)
• pseudopodia are called
axopodia, which rad...
Kingdom: amoeba
• have lobe-shaped
pseudopodia (false feet)
rather than threadlike
• do not have tests and
have no shape
•...
Four Clades of Amoeba
1.
2.
3.
4.

Gymnanoebas
Entaamoeba
plasmodial slime mold
cellular slime mold
Gymnanoebas
1.
2.
3.
4.

Gymnanoebas
Entaamoeba
plasmodial slime mold
cellular slime mold

• free living (not disease
caus...
Entaamoeba
1.
2.
3.
4.

Gymnanoebas
Entaamoeba
plasmodial slime mold
cellular slime mold

• generally parasitic 
– ex. En...
plasmodial slime mold
1.
2.
3.
4.

Gymnanoebas
Entaamoeba
plasmodial slime mold
cellular slime mold

• spend most life cyc...
plasmodial slime mold
1.
2.
3.
4.

Gymnanoebas
Entaamoeba
plasmodial slime mold
cellular slime mold

• Life cycle
1. fruit...
cellular slime mold
1.
2.
3.
4.

Gymnanoebas
Entaamoeba
plasmodial slime mold
cellular slime mold

• cells do NOT fuse; bu...
cellular slime mold
• life cycle
– fruiting bodies
– amoebas
– signal: cells aggregate
and form plasmodium
slime mold; the...
kingdom: Rhodophyta (red algae)
• phycoerythrin (red
pigment) which allowed
Rhodophyta to live in
deeper waters
• Most are...
kingdom: Rhodophyta (red algae)
• Uses
– eaten as food
– agar: food, petri dish
– coralline algae secrete
shells of calciu...
kingdom: chlorophyta (green algae)
1. chlorophylls
2. charophyceans

• have chloroplasts
– chlorophyll a and b
– store sug...
Slides: slime mold
1. endamoeba histolytica
2. foraminisera
3. trypanosome
gambienso nasco
4. paramecium
5. plasmodium
6. ...
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  • endo-end of the world
  • 11/21
  • Biology exam iv for dec 9-2013 monday

    1. 1. Biology Exam IV Final: Monday, 12/9 75% new material 25% old
    2. 2. Gram-negative • meningococcal menintus • Thin cell wall • outer wall (OM): toxic to humans • sensitive to osmotic pressure • antibiotic tolerant • thin peptidoglycan layer
    3. 3. Gram-positive • THICK peptidoglycan layer • resistant to osmotic pressure
    4. 4. Classify bacteria by habitat 1. halophile 2. coliform: your digestive tract 3. thermophile 4. acidophile
    5. 5. Classify bacteria by metabolic pathway 1. obligate aerobe: require O2 2. anaerobe: O2 kills anaerobes 3. facultative aerobe: can live with O2 and not 4. heterotroph v photoautotroph
    6. 6. Classify bacteria by metabolic pathway • M. tuber 1. obligate aerobe: require O2
    7. 7. Classify bacteria by metabolic pathway • Cl. tetanic 2. anaerobe
    8. 8. Classify bacteria by metabolic pathway • E. coli (facultative) 1. obligate aerobe: require O2 2. anaerobe: O2 kills anaerobes 3. facultative aerobe: can live with O2 and not
    9. 9. Classify bacteria by metabolic pathway • cyanobacteria (photoautotroph) 1. obligate aerobe: require O2 2. anaerobe: O2 kills anaerobes 3. facultative aerobe: can live with O2 and not 4. heterotroph v photoautotroph
    10. 10. capsule: sugar material that covers cell wall • Strep pyroxenes, H. influenza • protect against phagocytosis • protect against desiccation • allow adherence
    11. 11. fimbriae & pile: attachment purpose structures • pile: used for conjugation (sexual reproduction)
    12. 12. slime layer: sticky matrix of polysaccharides that protects the bacteria • Streptococcus mutans cause tooth decays
    13. 13. taxis: movement toward or away from stimulus
    14. 14. internal/genome structure of bacteria • one chromosome (DNA) • no organelles • plasma membrane carries out metabolic processes • Some bacteria have additional genomes, circular DNA, plasmids
    15. 15. binary fission: similar to mitosis • one bacteria splits to two • mitosis: split nucleus
    16. 16. endospore • anthrax (Bacillus anthracis)
    17. 17. endospore • botulism
    18. 18. endospore • tetanus
    19. 19. endospore • gas gangrene (Clostridium perfringen)
    20. 20. classify bacteria via nutritional intake 1. 2. 3. 4. photoautotrophy chemoautotrophy photoheterotrophy chemoheterotrophy
    21. 21. photoautotrophy • energy from sunlight • carob from CO2
    22. 22. chemoautotrophy • energy from inorganic molecules like sulfur • carbon from CO2
    23. 23. photoheterotrophy • carbon from organic sources (other organisms)
    24. 24. chemoheterotrophy • energy and CO2 from organic sources
    25. 25. eubacteria aka “bacteria” • cell wall made of peptidoglycan
    26. 26. Archae • cell wall made of pseudomurein
    27. 27. methanogen • anaerobic Archae • remove excess hydrogen, O2
    28. 28. symbiotic categories 1. mutualism 2. commensalism 3. parasitism
    29. 29. Genus of bacterial diseases! 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Borelia Treponema Staphylococcus Mycobacterium Yersinia Neisseria 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Lyme syphilis toxic shock (MRSA) tuberculosis plague gonorrhea
    30. 30. Lyme • Borelia
    31. 31. syphilis • Treponema
    32. 32. MRSA • Staphylococcus
    33. 33. tuberculosis • Mycobacterium
    34. 34. plague 1. Bubonic 2. pneumonic • Yersinia
    35. 35. gonorrhea • Neisseria
    36. 36. exotoxin • G positive
    37. 37. botulin • exotoxin • Gram positive
    38. 38. tetanus • exotoxin • Gram positive
    39. 39. endotoxin • Gram negative • you get more sick • bacteria has outer membrane
    40. 40. Gram-positive • EXOtoxin
    41. 41. Gram-negative • ENDOtoxin • have outer membrane
    42. 42. Gram • exotoxin – made of G positive – botulin and tetanin are examples – can elicit immune response  – can be vaccinated against  • endotoxin – made of G-negative – made of outer membrane (OM) – are released when bacteria die – does NOT elicit an immune response  – you get more sick  – vaccination is difficult 
    43. 43. Chlamydomonas • eyespot • pyrenoid • protist
    44. 44. Diatom • protist
    45. 45. Algae • photosynthetic protist
    46. 46. Protists • Lecture: Thursday 11/21 • • • • Cercozoans Forams Radiolarians Amoeba – 4 clades • Rhodophyta (red algae) • Chlorophyta (green algae) • Lab 26: slime molds
    47. 47. Cerocozoans • Amoeba-looking cells • Clade foraminiferans (“forams”) • Feed by pseudopodia
    48. 48. Phylum: Forams • shrimp • Porous, multichambered calcium carbonate shells called tests • Pseudopodia extend through the pores • ocean pH environmental problem: acidity dissolves tests
    49. 49. Forams (importance) • layers of foram tests in marine sediments from limestone and oil deposits – Egyptian pyramids • act as carbon reservoir • used by geologists to locate oil reserves (oil explorer) • used to determine age of rocks and pas climate
    50. 50. forams • limestone cliff in Dover England
    51. 51. Kingdom: radiolarians • have silica tests fused into one piece (like diatoms) • pseudopodia are called axopodia, which radiate from central body • only ONE clade
    52. 52. Kingdom: amoeba • have lobe-shaped pseudopodia (false feet) rather than threadlike • do not have tests and have no shape • The Blob (film)
    53. 53. Four Clades of Amoeba 1. 2. 3. 4. Gymnanoebas Entaamoeba plasmodial slime mold cellular slime mold
    54. 54. Gymnanoebas 1. 2. 3. 4. Gymnanoebas Entaamoeba plasmodial slime mold cellular slime mold • free living (not disease causing) • found in damp, environmental conditions (in your guts, soil, bottom of lakes)
    55. 55. Entaamoeba 1. 2. 3. 4. Gymnanoebas Entaamoeba plasmodial slime mold cellular slime mold • generally parasitic  – ex. Entaamoeba histolytica: causes dysentery and organ damage – Naegleria: cause fatal encephalitis • found in warm fresh waters in southern states • infections occur via nose and in summer months • very rare: you’re more likely to win the lottery – E. histolyta in stool: cyst, trophozoite – N. fowleri in brain
    56. 56. plasmodial slime mold 1. 2. 3. 4. Gymnanoebas Entaamoeba plasmodial slime mold cellular slime mold • spend most life cycle as a unicellular plasmodium • made up of thousands of cells that fuse to ONE giant cell with many nuclei • When stressed, plasmodium develop to sporangia and produce spores. • Spores germinate into biflagellated cells, which act as gametes or as amoeboid cells. • Syngamy of gametes produce new plasmodium.
    57. 57. plasmodial slime mold 1. 2. 3. 4. Gymnanoebas Entaamoeba plasmodial slime mold cellular slime mold • Life cycle 1. fruiting body 2. spores released 3. signal: cells come together and fuse 4. form plasmodium
    58. 58. cellular slime mold 1. 2. 3. 4. Gymnanoebas Entaamoeba plasmodial slime mold cellular slime mold • cells do NOT fuse; but they act as one organism • spends most life cycle as feeding individual protist cells • form pseudopodia (slug) when food is depleted • slug develops to fruiting body to produce spores
    59. 59. cellular slime mold • life cycle – fruiting bodies – amoebas – signal: cells aggregate and form plasmodium slime mold; they do NOT fuse – they move as one
    60. 60. kingdom: Rhodophyta (red algae) • phycoerythrin (red pigment) which allowed Rhodophyta to live in deeper waters • Most are large and multi-cellular • store sugar as floridean starch (glycogen) like humans • found in tropical waters
    61. 61. kingdom: Rhodophyta (red algae) • Uses – eaten as food – agar: food, petri dish – coralline algae secrete shells of calcium carbonate, which form coral reefs. Algae are NOT coral. They are part of the ecosystem that supports corals.
    62. 62. kingdom: chlorophyta (green algae) 1. chlorophylls 2. charophyceans • have chloroplasts – chlorophyll a and b – store sugar in the form of starch – have accessory pigments and stacked thylakoids – ex. Volva – ulva (sea lettuce) – calberna (sea feather)
    63. 63. Slides: slime mold 1. endamoeba histolytica 2. foraminisera 3. trypanosome gambienso nasco 4. paramecium 5. plasmodium 6. radiolarian ooze tropical pacific

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