It is thus an important tool for changing individuals by giving them new knowledge and skills. Training is a process through which a person enhances and develops his efficiency, capacity, and effectiveness at work by improving and updating his knowledge and understanding the skills relevant to his or her job.
In short, training creates a pool of qualified applicants in the right numbers and with the right skills for higher- level jobs inside an organization
Exercises are designed around real problems so that when the training program is over, the solutions are of practical value on the job.
As a consequence of pressures inside and outside an organization, individuals face new problems and forces for change. These pressures call for new skills from job holders and can change expectations about desirable job performance. While anticipating future change is no simple matter and is fraught with problems (not the least of which is inaccurate prediction),
Successful implementation of long-term organizational strategy is not the sole responsibility of top managers, though formulation might be. What employees and managers do on a daily basis can and does affect successful implementation of strategy through actions taken with customers, suppliers, distributors, and other such stakeholders of the organization.
Implication: conclusion that can be drawn from something , consequences
Training is only an appropriate solution when skill deficiency is the cause of a problem. Training is not appropriate to deal with execution deficiency and thus cannot solve problems such as unclear work contexts, mental/physical disability, or lack of feedback. In those cases, other corrective measures have to be taken, and they must usually be taken by the organization’s management.
Somewhat narrow than organizational analysis
Most narrow of all.Some training needs are predictable. They require repetitive programs offered on a regular schedule. Orientation is one such program. All new employees lack knowledge of an organization’s unique ways of doing thing.As a consequence, an orientation program is designed to help meet this predictable need for all newcomers.Other needs are short term. Suppose the company purchases a new machine. Workers who will labor on that machine, perhaps one with which they have never before come into contact, need training. When a new word processor is purchased, for instance, everybody who will use it has a training need.
A program can be part of a curriculum intended to meet predictable long-term needs or be a one-shot offering to meet a short-term need.
An instructional objective is the link between needs and results. Objectives help identify what instruction to offer so as to meet a need and thereby close a performance gap.
Terminal objectives express what learners will be able to do upon completion of a course or program. They are most frequently the center of a trainer’s attention.
CHapTER 12<br />TRAINING<br />
Introduction to Training <br />Training consists of organized learning activities capable of improving individual performance through <br /><ul><li>Changes in knowledge
Rectify knowledge or skill deficiencies, and evoke new insights or even create new knowledge</li></li></ul><li>Importance of Training <br />Training is growing more important due to a “Dynamic Workplace” that requires almost continuous upgrading, organizations are beginning to emphasize the importance of training <br />Training Improves quality and productivity<br />Meet organizational objectives<br />Improves organizational climate<br />Support personal growth <br /> and development<br /><ul><li>Provide employees with greater </li></ul> opportunity to grow <br />
The Role of Training in Implementing HR Grand Strategy<br />Training has several possible roles in the implementation of HR Grand Strategy.<br />First,it is a way to create a supply of talent within the organization. Through <br /><ul><li>Structured but flexible long-term learning plans OR individual development plans. </li></li></ul><li>Cont. . .<br />Second,training can be an important and useful tool for equipping individuals with the knowledge, skills, and attitudes they need to implement organizational strategy <br />In this sense, it is a short-term instrument for change, geared to existing jobs and problems faced in implementing an existing strategy. <br />
Cont. . . <br />Third, Training can help an organization that is moving toward implementation of a new strategy in a changing environment. <br />Training can serve as a medium “To Anticipate Future Events”<br />One benefit of this approach is that it helps people understand what knowledge and skills they might need in the future, thereby motivating them to learn to meet future rather than past needs<br />
Cont. . . <br /> Fourth,training is a potential tool for giving individuals the skills they need <br />“To Think Strategically”<br /><ul><li>One implication of a rapidly changing environment is that everybody must think strategically, especially when decision-making is highly decentralized. </li></li></ul><li>Implication of Training in Organization<br />
Implication of Training in Organization<br />1. Training is a potential Alternative to Recruitment, and vice versa.<br /> Needed skills can be acquired from outside through recruitment, or cultivated from inside through training.<br />2. Training can be integrated with the selection process so that an employee’s learning time on a new job is reduced. The Result: Increased Efficiency<br />3. Training can admittedly increase the risk of turnover, especially when it builds skills transferable from one job to jobs in other organizations.<br />
Cont. . . <br />4. Training is a Vehicle for Career Progress that can help move people in a way that is consistent with their career plans and/or the career management programs of the organization.<br />5.Training tends To build Expectations For Change, and thereby helps foster new attitudes. It thus influences organization development efforts and can be used as a tool in such efforts.<br />
Cont. . . <br />6.Training builds skills or range of skills possessed by job incumbents.<br />7.Training can convey information about how to Deal with Personal Problems. <br />8.Training can Increase Individual Productivity by giving employees skills they did not have before. <br />9.Training can create the expectation for increasing compensation and benefits as employees improve their productivity and knowledge.<br />
Conclusion<br />When the organization’s corporate and HR grand strategies call for growth in the present business or diversification into utterly new businesses, training is an appropriate tool for building new skills among people already employed by the organization.<br />During retrenchment efforts such as downsizing, smart- sizing, or rightsizing, training is useful in helping employees obtain new jobs in the same or in different occupations<br />
Steps in Training Process<br />Step-1 Analyze performance problems<br />Step-2 Identify employee training needs<br />Step-3 Devise instructional objectives<br />Step-4 Prepare test items based on objectives<br />Step-5 Select or design instructional content or subject matter based on objectives and test items<br />Step-6 Choose delivery methods in line with subject matter and with recourse constraint<br />Step-7 Offer instruction<br />Step-8 Evaluate transfer of training back to the job<br />
Step-1 Analyze Performance Problems<br />Performance analysis is sometimes called front-end analysis<br />Performance analysis pinpoints the causes of job performance problems.<br />Gilbert defined a Deficiencyas skill mastery minus initial skill repertory. <br /> Two types of deficiencies are Possible: <br /><ul><li>Skill deficiency
execution deficiency</li></li></ul><li>Cont. . . <br />Skill Deficiency: <br />Which is appropriately addressed through training<br />Arising from<br /><ul><li>If training is not properly given
And interruptions preventing performance</li></li></ul><li>Cont . . .<br />HRP practitioners should consider the following questions when they confront any human performance problem<br />(1) What is happening <br />(2) What should be happening<br />(3) What is the difference between what is happening and what should be happening<br />(4) How important is that difference<br />(5) What is the likely cause of that difference?<br />
Step-2 Identify Employee Training Needs<br />Training is based on Needs, defined as gaps or discrepancies between an ideal and an optimal state.<br />Training Needs Assessment <br /> Is the process of discovering precisely what gaps exist between what people know, do, or feel and what they should know, do, or feel in order to perform competently. <br />
Cont. . .<br />Training needs should be indentified from three sources:<br /><ul><li>Organizational Analysis
Individual Analysis</li></li></ul><li>Organizational Analysis<br />In Organizational analysis, trainers compare what the organization is doing and what it should be doing. <br />Trainers focus attention on organizational objectives, skills, inventories & organizational climate including <br /><ul><li>Costs for labor
Distribution</li></li></ul><li>Work Analysis/Task Analysis<br />In work analysis trainers identify individual skill deficiency, the gap between what people need to perform and what they can presently do <br />Such deficiencies are measured by comparing <br /><ul><li>Job results to work standards
Perceptions of job requirements to those actually demonstrated on the job</li></li></ul><li>Individual Analysis<br />Individual analysis is centered on a person doing the job. <br />Does he or she know what to do? <br />How to do it? <br />The minimal acceptable level of performance?<br /><ul><li>Identifying who needs training
Determining employees’ readiness for training</li></li></ul><li>Training Curriculum<br />A training curriculum is geared to long-term needs <br />It consists of a series of organized learning experiences over time for those in a job <br />It is implemented through planned classroom experiences and planned work experiences, such as developmental job assignments<br />
Step-3 Preparing Instructional Objectives<br />An instructional objective describes the results or outcomes sought from instruction. <br />There are three parts to any objective: <br />Performance:what learners will be capable of doing after the instructional experience is completed<br />Conditions:what context and what tools will be necessary for performance to occur<br />Criterion: how well the performance will be exhibited. <br />
Cont. . . <br />There are three types of objectives: <br />Cognitive objectives: That are related with knowledge and information<br />Affective objectives:That are related with feelings and beliefs<br />Psychomotor objectives: That are related with the ability to manipulate objects. <br />
Cont. . .<br />There are two scope of objectives: <br />1. Terminal:<br /> Which are behaviors that exhibited at the end of instruction<br />2. Enabling:<br /> Which are behaviors that contribute to mastery of terminal objectives. <br />
Step # 4<br />Preparing Test Items<br /> <br />
Tests for Training are Categorized into Two Types: <br />1. norm referenced, in which achievement is assessed relative to other learners<br />2. criterion referenced, in which achievement is assessed relative to individual success in mastering instructional objectives. <br /><ul><li>In short, norm-referenced tests compare each learner to others, while criterion-referenced tests compare a learner’s progress to pre-established measures</li></li></ul><li>Cont. . .<br /><ul><li>Another way to think about tests is on the kinds of behaviors or skills they measure.
There are four types, all criterion-referenced: </li></ul>An entry test <br /> A pretest<br />A post-test<br />An embedded test<br />
Cont. . .<br /><ul><li>There are essentially five formats for tests used in training:</li></ul>(1) paper-and- pencil tests, in which learners tackle all-too-familiar multiple choice,<br /> true-false, and fill-in-the-blank test items;<br /> (2) oral objective tests, in which learners are asked to respond orally rather than in<br /> writing <br /> (3) ratings tests, in which learners respond with a numerical score; <br /> (4) essay tests, in which learners write a composition to answer a question<br />(5) performance tests, in which learners perform a task or exhibit a behavior. <br />
Cont. . .<br /><ul><li>The choice of which format to use depends on what objectives are being tested:
Cognitive objectives lend themselves to paper-and-pencil tests, oral objective tests</li></ul> and essay tests; <br /><ul><li>Affective objectives lend themselves to ratings or essays
Psychomotor objectives lend them- selves to performance tests.</li></li></ul><li>To prepare a test, the Trainer must do the following<br />1. List all objectives, terminal objectives and enabling objectives.<br />2. Identify the purpose of the test. Is it to be an entry test, a pretest, an embedded test, or a post-test?<br />3. Decide what kind of test to use. Should it be paper and pencil, oral objective, rating, essay, or performance?<br />4. Establish standards for test performance. They can be expressed as a percentage of items correct in paper/pencil and rating tests, or as absolute scores in other tests.<br />5. Test the test yourself to make sure that items are not ambiguous and that the test matches the instruction offered and the instructional objectives on which the test items are based, and to make sure it can be scored<br />
Step-5 Selecting or Designing Instructional Content<br /><ul><li>The decision of what to teach—that is, the selection or</li></ul>design of instructional content—is based on test items and<br />instructional objectives. <br />In this process, it is important to consider whether the content should be:<br />1. Located from existing sources, such as textbooks, other training courses, and/or published articles, <br />2. Tailor-made for the purpose at hand<br /> 3. Prepared from some combination of externally available and internally developed content. <br /><ul><li>In many cases, the choice depends on instructor</li></ul>preferences and on relative costs and benefits<br />associated with each method<br />
Step-6 Selecting or Designing Instructional Content<br />The decision of how to teach is closely related to what to teach<br /><ul><li>Content and choice of delivery method depends to some extent on instructor preferences.
Strategic Training<br />It is basically to make familiar training programs with organizational strategic plans and HR plans<br />
Some questions arise in the mind of trainer while conducting strategic training<br />What is the purpose of training programs and training department?<br />How trainer can compare training program and training department?<br />What are the conditions affecting future training needs, future training programs, future training departments?<br />What are the long term strategies use by training departments to meet future needs?<br />What are the present strengths and weaknesses versus future opportunities and threats facing training programs?<br />What are the present strengths and weaknesses versus future opportunities and threats facing training departments?<br />What will the most successful strategy for training?<br />How they can evaluate the results of strategy? <br />
Purpose of Strategic Training<br />To anticipate the performance problems<br />To build individual competencies those are required to implement organizational strategy<br />
Problem with Strategic Training<br />“The need to conduct strategic training is felt when it is recognized as a necessity when they had experience, consequence of past, not future events”<br />
Planning and Managing HR Training<br />To motivate learners and to anticipate the future<br />trainers might have to simulate the experience<br />under future conditions<br />
Reorientation of Traditional steps in Training<br /> Need Assessment for Training<br />Trainer first <br />Compare present conditions to present criteria<br />Forecast future conditions that influence by external trends on organization, jobs and individuals.<br />Envision what organization jobs and individuals should be in future?<br />Compare expected future conditions to future criteria.<br />
Difference between HR Strategic and Training Strategy <br />There is the only difference in the formulation the<br />training strategy that is scope of analysis is much<br />narrower. It is restricted to knowledge and skill<br />deficiency only<br />
Preparation of Objectives<br /> Parameters of objectives<br />What learners will able to do after instructional experience is over?<br />Furnish a measurable criterion that how will learner will be able to perform?<br />What are the tools learners will use to perform?<br />
Criticism on Objectives<br />Some authors reviewed that these objectives are restrictive and short terms, there is need to focus on testing how will training is being applied back on the job<br />
Two Ways to Asses the Instructions<br />Focus on future oriented employee appraisals<br />Trainers go out to the job setting and observe learners<br />
Selection of Instructional Delivery Methods<br />Here question arise how can instructions be delivered in<br />an appropriate way. Trainers answer this question<br />saying this it depends upon<br />Relative cost associated with different methods <br />Compatibility with instructional objectives<br />Type of learners<br />Type of instructions<br />Availability of space and time<br />
Appropriate Method for Trainings<br />Here they discussed only a single method for training<br />that is lecture<br />
Two matters regarding choosing delivery methods<br />Learner experience<br />Small group decision making<br />Learning experience<br />In directive training learning experience isn't important<br />Purpose<br />Purpose of directive training is to present distilled experience and give trainee an opportunity to practice newly acquired skills<br />Nondirective training<br />In it learner experience is important<br />Instructor become facilitator<br />Helping learner share insights<br />
Responsibilities of Designer<br />There is responsibility of the person who is conducting training , he should create exercises like<br />Role plays<br />Case studies<br />Scenarios<br />
Purpose of Non Directive Training<br />Simulate future conditions<br />Giving learner an opportunity to gain experience before they confront real conditions<br />Small group decision making<br />It is important because to do better job in dealing unusual decisions and situations<br />
Transfer the Learning<br />It’s a issue to transfer learning and it permeates the entire instructional process during <br />Need assessment<br />Preparation of objectives and tests<br />Instruction delivery<br />Following up instructions<br />
Benefits of Strategic Training<br /> To evoke to new insights and ideas<br />Use to increase efficiency <br />It enables to think strategically<br />It helps in the implementation of HR grand strategy by meeting future labor needs<br />
Purpose of Strategic Training<br />Its purpose is to anticipate the future and prepare for it<br />