Training & Development Complied & presented by REKHA TIWARY
Agenda• Introduction of training & development• Distinction between training, development & education• Purpose of training• Advantage & disadvantage of Training• Areas of Training• Steps in training process• Types of training & development• Evaluation of training 2
• THERE IS NOTING TRAINING CAN NOT DO; NOTHNG IS ABOVE ITS REACH;IT CAN TURN BAD MORALS TO GOOD, IT CAN DESTROY BAD PRINCIPLES and CREATE GOOD ONES, IT CAN LIFT MEN TO ANGELSHIP. Mark Twain 3
DELIVERING CUSTOMISED TRAINING SUCCESSFULLY “Tell me and I forget, teach me and I remember, involve me and I learn” - Benjamin Franklin 4
Introduction• Training is the formal and systematic modification of behavior through learning which occurs as a result of education, instruction, development and planned experience• Development is any learning activity, which is directed towards future, needs rather than present needs, and which is concerned more with career growth than immediate performance.
Training, Development and EducationHRD programs are divided into three main categories: Training, Development, andEducation.Training is the acquisition of technology, which permits employees to performtheir present job to standards. It improves human performance on the job theemployee is presently doing or is being hired to do. Also, it is given when newtechnology in introduced into the workplace.Development is training people to acquire new horizons, technologies, orviewpoints. It enables leaders to guide their organizations onto new expectationsby being proactive rather than reactive. It enables workers to create betterproducts, faster services, and more competitive organizations. It is learning forgrowth of the individual, but not related to a specific present or future job
Contd…Education is training people to do a different job. It isoften given to people who have been identified as beingpromotable, being considered for a new job eitherlateral or upward, or to increase their potential. Unliketraining, which can be fully evaluated immediatelyupon the learners returning to work, education can onlybe completely evaluated when the learners move on totheir future jobs or tasks.
Distinction between Training and EducationThe following table draws a distinction between training and educationmore clearly Training EducationShort term process Long term processKnowledge & skill for specific purpose For overall developmentPrimarily related to technical skills Related to managerial behavioral &learning attitudinal developmentapplication Theoretical orientationJob Experience Classroom learningSpecific Tasks General conceptsNarrow perspective Broad perspective
Distinction between Training and Development Learning Training Development Non-managers Managers WHO Technical Theoretical WHAT Specific job General WHY Short term Long term WHEN
Purpose of Training1. Respond to technology changes affecting job requirements.2. Respond to organizational restructuring.3. Adapt to increased diversity of the workforce.4. Support career development.5. Fulfill employee need for growth.6. To reduce the number of accidents7. To increase productivity and quality8. To promote versatility and adaptability to new methods 10
Advantages of Training1. Leads to improved profitability and/or more positive attitudes toward profits orientation.2. Improves the job knowledge and skills at all levels of the organization.3. Improves the morale of the workforce.4. Helps people identify with organizational goals.5. Helps create a better corporate image.6. Fosters authentically, openness and trust.7. Improves the relationship between boss and subordinate.8. Aids in organizational development.9. Learns from the trainee.10. Helps prepare guidelines for work.
Areas of TrainingThe Areas of Training in which training is offered may be classified into the following categories:KnowledgeHere the trainee learns about a set of rules and regulations about the job, the staff and the products or services offered by the company. The aim is to make the new employee fully aware of what goes inside and outside the company.Technical SkillsThe employee is taught a specific skill (e.g., operating a machine and handling computer) so that he can acquire that skill and contribute meaningfully.
Contd…Social SkillsThe employee is made to learn about himself and other, develop a right mental attitude, towards the job, colleagues and the company. The principal focus is on teaching the employee how to be a team member and get ahead.TechniquesThis involves the application of knowledge and skill to various on- the-job situations. In addition to improving the skills and knowledge of employees, training aims at clouding employee attitudes: When administered properly, a training programme. It will go a long way in obtaining employee loyalty, support and commitment to company activities.
Training Process Model II. Developing & I. Needs ConductingAssessment Training III. Evaluating Training 14
Contd… 2. Job Level • Job and task analysis. • Identify Key areas.• Review procedural and technical manuals. Design Training Program 17
Contd… 3. Individual LevelDetermine who needs training and what kind. • Tests. • Prior training and experience. • Performance review. • Career assessment. 18
II. Developing and Conducting Training1. Determine location and who will conduct the training. o Onsite facilities vs. offsite. o Inside training staff vs. outside vendors. 2. Develop training curricula. Based on job/task analysis and individual needs. 3. Select training methods. o Considering learning principles. o Consider appropriateness and cost. 19
How do Employees Learn the Best? • Learning is the acquisition of skills, knowledge, or attitudes. • The adult learning theory is a field of research that examines how adults learn. A number of the following tips come from the adult leaning theory. 20
How employees learn the best:• When they are actively involved in the learning process-(to do this choose a appropriate teaching method).• Training is relevant and practical.• Training material is organized and presented in chunks.• Training is in an informal, quiet, and comfortable setting.• When they have a good trainer.• When they receive feedback on performance.• When they are rewarded. 21
Training Methods: In house• On the job training• Apprenticeship• Vestibule Training – Next to actual work site and hands-on experience• Job Rotation – Target all employees – Leadership track
Training Methods: Off-Site• Lecturing• Behavioral modeling• Simulations• Computer assisted training
Training Methods: Management• Case Studies• Role playing• Experiential management “games” and simulations• Conferences – Facilitated open discussions
Training Methods: Management• Mentoring – Traditional, Step-ahead, Peer – Informal vs. formal• Coaching
1. SKILLS TRAINING Focus on job knowledge and skill for: • Instructing new hires. • Overcoming performance deficits of the workforce. 27
2. RetrainingMaintaining worker knowledge and skill as job requirements change due to:• Technological innovation• Organizational restructuring 28
3. Cross-Functional TrainingTraining employees to perform a wider variety of tasks in order to gain:• Flexibility in work scheduling.• Improved coordination. 29
4. Team TrainingTraining self-directed teams with regard to:• Management skills.• Coordination skills.• Cross-functional skills. 30
5. Creativity TrainingUsing innovative learning techniques to enhance employee ability to spawn new ideas and new approaches. 31
6. Literacy TrainingImproving basic skills of theworkforce such as mathematics,reading, writing, and effectiveemployee behaviors such aspunctuality, responsibility,cooperation etc. 32
7. Diversity TrainingInstituting a variety of programs toinstill awareness, tolerance, respect,and acceptance of persons of differentrace, gender, etc. and differentbackgrounds. 33
8. Customer Service TrainingTraining to improve communication, better response to customer needs, and ways to enhance customer satisfaction. 34
Training Methods Classroom Video Computer Assisted InstructionSimulation On-the-Job 35
When to Evaluate?Before, During, and After Training
Why Evaluate? Before Training• Identify needs or problems.• Identify specific job competencies to close gaps.• Identify the type of evaluation needed.
Why Evaluate? During Development of Training• Determine which staff should be the targets of training.• Provide feedback to curriculum designers on content, methods, and materials.• Determine if course delivery is consistent and follows curriculum specifications.
Why Evaluate? After Training• Note changes in participants’ attitudes and reactions to the course.• Assess trainees’ mastery of knowledge.• Assess trainees’ mastery of skills.• Assess transfer of new knowledge and skills to the job.• Measure whether or not performance gaps have begun to close.• Measure relationship of training to agency goals and client outcomes.
III. Evaluating Training Effectiveness• Formal evaluation: uses observation, interviews, and surveys to monitor training while its going on.• Summative evaluation: measures results when training is complete in five ways: 1. Reaction 2. Knowledge 3. Behavior 4. Attitudes 5.Productivity 40
Types of Evaluation Designs Train MeasurePost Test Only. Cannot tell if there is a change in knowledge or skill.Measure Train Measure Pre-test with Post-test. Detects a change, but cannot tell if training was responsible. 41
Types of Evaluation Designs Measure Train Measure Measure No Measure TrainScientific Method: Training Group and Control Group.Compare performance of Training Group and Control Group after training. If Training Group has higher performance, it can be attributed to a training effect. 42
Criteria for Training & Development• There are two criteria for evaluation –1) Internal criteria – associated with the content of training & development.2) External criteria – associated with cost benefit analysis of training and development.
Internal criteria for Training & Development• Under this there are many approaches, three most common are –1) Urile- patrick approaches –2) CIRO approaches3) CIPP approaches
Urile- Patrick approaches• This approach involve four levels of evaluation and answers to four question : Level QuestionReaction Were the participant pleased with the programme?Learning What did the participant learn from the programme?Behavior Did the participant change their behavior based on what was learned ?Result Did the change in behavior positively affect the organization.
CIRO Approaches• This approach gives importance to training and development evaluation in term of context, input, reaction and output (CIRO).• Context Evaluation – it involves collecting of information about performance deficiency and setting objective with three levels – immediate, intermediate & ultimate.• Input evaluation – answer of question like :a) Relative merit & demerit of different training & development?b) Is it feasible for outsourcing the training programme?c) Should it be organized with internal resources?d) How mush time required for preparation?e) What result were obtained when a similar programme was conducted in the past?
Contd…• Reaction Evaluation – This includes subjective reports from the particulars about the whole programme and contains question about training and development materials, instructors, pedagogy, presentation, facilities etc.• Outcome Evaluation – This includes the following aspects –1) Defining training and development objective2) Constructing measures of these objectives3) Assessing the result and using them to improve future programmes.
CIPP Approach• This approach takes context , input, process & product.1. Context Evaluation- involves evaluation of training and development need analysis & formulating objective in the light of these needs.2. Input evaluation – involves evaluation of determining policies, budgets, schedule & procedure for organizing programme.3. Process evaluation – involve evaluation of preparation of reaction sheets, rating scales and analysis of relevant records.
Contd..• Product evaluation – involves measuring & interpreting the attainment of training & development objectives.