Pre-pottery Neolithic (stone age)<br /> -  6000 BCE<br />Jericho, the oldest city in the world, in existence<br />Modern J...
Early Bronze<br />3300-2000 BCE<br />Towns of Hazor, Megiddo, and Ai founded<br />Aerial view of Tel Megiddo<br />Middle B...
Israelites enslaved in Egypt. <br />Hittite empire established (Gen. 23:10)<br />First mention of &quot;Hebrews&quot; in L...
FIRST TEMPLE PERIOD orIron Age II<br />1000 - 586 BCE<br />United Kingdom <br />(David and Solomon)<br />David becomes kin...
The Divided Kingdom<br />   Israel and Judah<br />925 - 721 BCE<br />The Kingdom divided (I Kings 12: 17).<br />The fall o...
Babylonian Exile<br />586 - 538 BCE<br />Chronicle Concerning the Early Years of Nebuchadnezzar II, Stele inscription<br /...
Hellenistic Period<br />332-167 BCE<br />Conquest by Alexander of Macedonia<br />305 – 198 BCE<br />Ptolemaic Rule from Eg...
Roman Period<br />67 BCE-324 CE<br />Conquest by the Romans under General Pompey<br />following civil war between two Hash...
66-70 CE<br />Rebellion against Rome <br />Conquest and destruction of Jerusalem and 2nd Temple <br />by Roman General Tit...
Byzantine Period<br />324-636<br />Christianity legalized by Emperor Constantine the Great<br />The writing of the Jerusal...
Crusader Period<br />1099-1291<br />Conquest by European Crusaders<br />Establishment of Kingdom of Jerusalem<br />Battle ...
Ottoman Period<br />1516-1917<br />Conquered by Ottomans<br />1536<br />Walls of Jerusalem rebuilt by Suleiman the Magnifi...
British  Mandate<br />1917-1948<br />Conquest by General Allenby for the British<br />British Mandate of Palestine establi...
- 1948<br />Jewish resistance against British policies in Palestine<br />Blowing up of south wing of King David Hotel<br /...
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Historical Outline of Israel

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I remember when I first came to Israel and started learning its history. I was confused and perplexed. I just could
not make it fit together. Until I was presented with a time line. Now I had a tool to refer back to and make events
fall into place.

This is also may experience as a guide. Many of my tourists get mixed up. After all Israel has quite a long and rich h
history with many events that have had impact on the world.

Because of this I have created a timeline with the most important events. I made it pictorial, only to make it more
colorful. It does not go into all the intricate details, but I have included the most important events for each time
period.

I made it as a slide show, as all my attempts to put it onto one page failed miserably. Here I have created a linear
time line without events, just the historical periods.

I hope you will find this useful and inspiring.

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Historical Outline of Israel

  1. 1. Pre-pottery Neolithic (stone age)<br /> - 6000 BCE<br />Jericho, the oldest city in the world, in existence<br />Modern Jericho, but what it may have looked like<br />Pottery Neolithic<br />6000-4300 BCE<br />BeitShean is founded, among others<br />Tel BeitShean, the hill in the back<br />Calcolithic<br />4300 – 3300 BCE<br />Towns of Beer Sheva, Gezer, Arad founded,<br /> among others<br />Entrance gate to ancient Beer Sheva<br />BCE - before common era = BC - before Christ<br /> CE - common era = AD - anno domine<br />
  2. 2. Early Bronze<br />3300-2000 BCE<br />Towns of Hazor, Megiddo, and Ai founded<br />Aerial view of Tel Megiddo<br />Middle Bronze <br />2000-1550 BCE<br />First written documents appear in <br />Acadian cuneiform language<br />Period of the patriarchs Abraham, Isaac, <br />Jacob<br />1900 BCE<br />Abraham Sacrificing Isaac1650 - Laurent De La HireMusée Saint-Denis, Reims<br />
  3. 3. Israelites enslaved in Egypt. <br />Hittite empire established (Gen. 23:10)<br />First mention of &quot;Hebrews&quot; in Land of Israel <br />on Egyptian Stele (1220 BCE)<br />Settlement of the Sea People (Philistines) on the coastal plain<br />International marine trade established ; <br />coastal cities of Ashdod and Ashkelon founded<br />Late Bronze <br />1550-1200 BCE<br />Wall painting of workers, Egypt<br />Iron Age I<br />1200 - 1000 BCE<br />Exodus from Egypt led by Moses (Book of Exodus) ; <br />Conquest of the mountain regions of Canaan led by Joshua (Book of Joshua);<br />Period of the Judges (Judges)<br />Moses parting the waters<br />
  4. 4. FIRST TEMPLE PERIOD orIron Age II<br />1000 - 586 BCE<br />United Kingdom <br />(David and Solomon)<br />David becomes king (II Samuel 5: 3), <br />captures Jerusalem (II Samuel 5: 7) <br />brings the Ark to Jerusalem (II Samuel 6: 12). <br />1000 - 925 BCE<br />David playing the harp<br />Apethorpe Hall, England<br />David slaying Goliath<br />Solomon builds the First Temple in Jerusalem (I Kings 6: 1). <br />Possible rendering of Solomon’s Temple<br />
  5. 5. The Divided Kingdom<br /> Israel and Judah<br />925 - 721 BCE<br />The Kingdom divided (I Kings 12: 17).<br />The fall of Israel to Assyrian king Shalmaneser<br /> (II Kings 17: 6)<br /> Loss of the Ten Tribes of Israel<br />Map of Israel and Judah<br />Kingdom of Judah<br />925 - 586 BCE<br />Jerusalem fortified by King Hezekiah <br />(II Chronicles 32:4-5)<br />Attack by Assyrian King Sennacherib<br /> (II Kings: 18:13; II Chron. 32: 1).<br />702 BCE<br />Kingdom of Judah conquered by Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon (II Kings 25:1; II Chron. 36: 10). <br />The First Temple destroyed (II Kings 25: 9).<br />586 BCE<br />Hezekiah burning pagan idols<br />Henry VIII Bible, 1538<br />End First Temple Period<br />
  6. 6. Babylonian Exile<br />586 - 538 BCE<br />Chronicle Concerning the Early Years of Nebuchadnezzar II, Stele inscription<br />SECOND TEMPLE PERIOD<br />538 BCE-70CE<br />Persian Period<br />Cyrus II, King of Persia, conquers Babylon and allows the Jews to return to Judea<br />538-332 BCE<br />Return to Zion (Ezra 1: 5);<br />Rebuilding of the Temple (Ezra 3: 8)<br />Walls of Jerusalem rebuilt (Nehamiah 6:15) <br />Cyrus cylinder, disc. Early 20th C,<br />Southern Iraq, Robert Koldeway<br />British Museum, London<br />
  7. 7. Hellenistic Period<br />332-167 BCE<br />Conquest by Alexander of Macedonia<br />305 – 198 BCE<br />Ptolemaic Rule from Egypt<br />198 – 167 BCE<br />Seleucid Rule from Antioch (modern Turkey)<br />Statue and bust of Alexander the Great<br />Found Pergamum<br />Istanbul Archaeological Museum<br />Hashmonean Period<br />167-67 BCE<br />Rebellion against Seleucids under Judah Maccabee<br />Jerusalem and Temple freed and purified, <br />Beginning of holiday of Hanukkah<br />Sculpture of Judah Macabee with hanukkiah<br />
  8. 8. Roman Period<br />67 BCE-324 CE<br />Conquest by the Romans under General Pompey<br />following civil war between two Hashmonean <br />brothers <br />Bust of General Pompey<br />37 – 4 BCE<br />Rule of Herod the Great<br />Massive building of Jerusalem, Temple Mount, Caesarea, Masada <br />Head of Herod the Great<br />1st Century, Florence<br />Ministry of Jesus<br />Last Supper,<br />Leonardo da Vinci<br />Milano<br />
  9. 9. 66-70 CE<br />Rebellion against Rome <br />Conquest and destruction of Jerusalem and 2nd Temple <br />by Roman General Titus, son of Emperor Vespasian<br />Detail from Arch of Titus, Rome<br />depicting capture of Temple treasures<br />End Second Temple Period<br />132-135<br />Bar Kochba Rebellion against Rome<br />Jerusalem rebuilt as Roman city AelinaCapitolina by Emperor Hadrian<br />Coin minted during Bar Kochba rebellion<br />The writing of the Mishnah (first Jewish commentary on Bible)<br />200<br />
  10. 10. Byzantine Period<br />324-636<br />Christianity legalized by Emperor Constantine the Great<br />The writing of the Jerusalem Talmud in Tiberias<br />400<br />585<br />Mohammad founds Islam in Mecca<br />614<br />Invasion by Persia, great destruction of buildings and towns<br />Mosaic of Emperor Constantine <br />Hagia Sophia, Istanbul, c. 1000<br />Early Arab Period<br />636-1099<br />Conquest by Muslims<br />Rule by Umayyad and Abbasid dynasties<br />Umayyad palace in Jerusalem<br />
  11. 11. Crusader Period<br />1099-1291<br />Conquest by European Crusaders<br />Establishment of Kingdom of Jerusalem<br />Battle at the Horns of Hittin, loss of Kingdom<br />Establishment of 2nd Kingdom with Acco as capital<br />1187<br />Crusader Knight<br />1291<br />Final defeat to Mameluke Sultan Beybars<br />Mameluke Period<br />1291-1516<br />Conquered by Mamelukes<br />Mameluke Horseman<br />
  12. 12. Ottoman Period<br />1516-1917<br />Conquered by Ottomans<br />1536<br />Walls of Jerusalem rebuilt by Suleiman the Magnificent<br />19th Century <br />First roads and railways built by Ottomans<br />Extensive exploration of the Holy Land by European and American explorers<br />1882<br />First wave of Jewish Zionist immigration and the <br />beginning of the rebuilding of the land<br />Suleiman the Magnificent<br />1897<br />Establishment of World Jewish Congress by Theodore Herzl in Basel<br />Theodore Herzl<br />1914-1918<br />First World War<br />
  13. 13. British Mandate<br />1917-1948<br />Conquest by General Allenby for the British<br />British Mandate of Palestine established through the League of Nations<br />1920<br />Allenby entering Jerusalem, Jaffa Gate<br />December 11, 1917<br />Map of full British Mandate in Palestine<br />1933-1948 <br />Holocaust in Europe<br />1939-1945<br />Second World War<br />
  14. 14. - 1948<br />Jewish resistance against British policies in Palestine<br />Blowing up of south wing of King David Hotel<br />July 22, 1946<br />November 29, 1947<br />UN vote and acceptance of Palestine Partition Plan<br />Map of partition plan<br />State of Israel<br />May 14, 1948<br />Declaration of State of Israel<br />May 15, 1948<br />Final British withdrawal<br />David Ben Gurion reading Declaration of Independence<br />

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