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As given april 24 2013 with 10 questions

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Providing Water, Sanitation and Training applied solutions in developing countries

Providing Water, Sanitation and Training applied solutions in developing countries

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  • 1. Design Management and Construction of Sanitation and Water Projects in the Third World Presented by Dr. James J. Yarmus, F.NSPE, F.ASCE Regional Vice-Chair NSPE PEC Past President of NYSSPE Past President ASCE, Mid-Hudson Past President Rockland NYSBOC drjamesjyarmus@yarmusconsulting.com Phone: 646-340-8500 Fax: 845-230-6616
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  • 3. Rotary International (RI) US Agency for International Development (USAID) Water & Sanitation Project in Ghana
  • 4. RI/USAID Alliance Project - Ghana  A Long term approach to meeting and sustaining crucial water and sanitation needs in 114 communities with a population of more than 86,000 people  Includes (3 components): • Infrastructure construction (indigenous contractors, competitive bidding) • Capacity building at local, district and regional level • Behavior modification to improve basic sanitation habits 4
  • 5. Project Overview  The Rotary Foundation and Rotarians worldwide are contributing $1,000,000 for: • 57 wells with hand pumps in rural villages • *17 Modern Institutional latrines in 15 schools • 2 WC/Shower blocks in two public facilities • *Modern water supply and distribution systems in 3 communities of a municipal assembly  USAID is contributing $1,000,000 for: • 20 wells with hand pumps in rural villages • 31 Modern Institutional latrines in 25 schools? • 1 WC/Shower block in a public facility • All training, capacity building and behavioral modification activities 5 * Works completed to date on-time and within budget
  • 6. The Need for Clean Water In many communities, residents (mostly women and children) must make a daily round trip(s) on foot to fetch water in cans or other containers from contaminated sources. Some may walk several miles. These sources shrink or dry up in the dry season. 6
  • 7. The Need 7 Upstream Downstream
  • 8. 8 Current water source for a village The Need There is a steep uphill trek back to the village
  • 9. Distended bellies on children disappear shortly after they get clean water and have been treated for worms 9 The Need
  • 10. 10 The Need for Sanitation Schools need proper sanitary facilities
  • 11. 11 The Need This “trestle” straddles an open pit latrine located in a dilapidated structure too near a classroom building. The stench is overwhelming. Students and staff use this facility. There is little privacy. Corncobs and paper scraps are provided for necessary “paperwork”. There is no soap or water for hand washing. “This is the worst I’ve seen!” PDG Ron Denham
  • 12. 12 The Need Great kids! Typical sanitary facilities at their schools
  • 13. Fulfilling the Need A successful community well with hand pump and drainage sump compliant with World Health Organization (WHO) standards. This well was part of a Ghana Rotary club community service project completed 3 years ago. 13 A new “Alliance Project” well, built to the same standards, awaiting a hand pump and other finishing touches
  • 14. Fulfilling the Need 14 A modern water supply and distribution system
  • 15. Fulfilling the Need 1510,030 users in 3 communities can choose to draw water at ground level or overhead.
  • 16. Fulfilling the Need A modern institutional latrine with cistern and hand washing facility for schools. Compliant with WHO standards. 16 Built to last !
  • 17. 17 The back of an institutional latrine showing vent pipes to minimize odor, access panels for pump outs and one of two faucets used for hand washing. 17 of these, serving 4,700 students, have been completed. 31 to go.
  • 18. Fulfilling the Need One of two 12–seater Water Closets (WCs) each with 6 showers and 10 hand washing basins currently under construction. A third will be constructed by USAID. These will serve a large market complex, a busy border crossing and a health center. 18
  • 19. 19 Fulfilling the Need Floor plan – WC with Shower Block
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  • 23. Filtro Bioarena BSF (Bio Sand Filter)  El agua contaminada se filtra a través de 3 capas de arena y grava (marrón)  El agua sube por su propio peso por un tubo localizado al costado del filtro (escondido)  Si el agua pasa muy lenta, se necesita hacer limpieza y mantenimiento.  Casi 100,000 filtros en uso en mas de 50 países.  Filtros que ya brindan mejor calidad de agua a mas de medio millón de personas.
  • 24. Componentes Filtro Bioarena (BSF) Tapa Impide que los contaminantes penetren en el filtro Placa de difusión Protege el schmutzdecke cuando se vierte el agua en el filtro Capa de agua Mantiene el schmutzdecke vivo durante periodos de descanso. Arena fina Permite de retener los contaminantes Tubo de salida Lleva el efluente de la base del filtro al exterior Grava de drenaje Promueve el flujo vertical del agua hacia el tubo Arena gruesa Separa la arena fina de la grava
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  • 32. Questions to Evaluate Learning Objectives in the Design, Management and Construction of Sanitation and Water Projects in underdeveloped areas: 33 What are the challenges in finding water sources? Which are the three major purifying processes? Why are group latrines preferred to single latrines? When are bio-sand filters used in some projects? What are the maintenance problems in bio-sand filters? What are the alternatives to bio-sand filters in those projects? Describe distribution modes for tank or dam projects? When are wells preferred as a water source in some areas? Why are latrines used more than conventional water closets? How do Professional Engineers work on third world projects?
  • 33. 34 THIS RESPONDS TO THE FIRST TWO QUESTIONS: Challenges to find water sources include constructing or repairing a dam, running piping without excessive pressure, and constructing a nearby tank. The purifying processes include removing turbidity, neutralizing PH, and providing means to remove contaminants such as e-coli. Sometimes, chemical treatment is needed such as removal of excess minerals (like iron).
  • 34. 35 Group latrines can provide for less frequent maintenance and better venting. They can also justify proper maintenance when residents cannot replace as they get filled and no longer serve the residential group or single house.
  • 35. 36 Bio-sand filters can be used when only certain bacterial contaminants generate health dangers to users. The “schmutzdecke” eliminates contaminants with bacteria That consumes the e-coli and similar threats
  • 36. 37 The maintenance problems include disturbing the schmutzdecke, removing the sand under it, adding the contaminated water too fast, insufficient frequency of cleaning the tubes that carry the purified water and protecting the filter from insects or other vermin.
  • 37. 38 The alternatives to biosand filters are usually less effective but better than not cleaning the water during maintenance cycles when local supplies are unavailable. Porous clay filters are in use for transient workers and as back ups when needed.
  • 38. 39 Distribution modes include methods to relieve excess pressure, piping to pilas, piping to toilets if they exist, providing central chlorination when indicated, usually on the top of the local tank.
  • 39. 40 The wells are preferred when equipment is available and the aquifer quality eliminates the need for additional purification processes. Often wells are manual and the women get their buckets filled very close to their homes.
  • 40. 41 Latrines are used when water closets cannot be built due to insufficiency of supplies. Usually, latrines serve more than one household, depending on proximity.
  • 41. 42 Professional Engineers can be mentors with EWB with or without going to the field, they can join Rotary and volunteer for CADRE projects, or they can donate to both. This is the last slide. For additional information, email me or call: Email: drjamesjyarmus@yarmusconsulting.com Cell: 845-300-6666 Thank you for coming and in advance for acting on these world projects. Jim