Finding Water
Through Rain
     By Steven Andrew Williams
               ©2008
An Answer to the Atlanta, GA
         urban...
What We Have
                   in the
Metro N. GA Water
Planning District!

Population of Metro Atlanta - 5,723,788

Metr...
87,560,480,000
        Gallons of water



      1
 from    inch of evenly
distributed rain over the
  14 county metro are...
It could supply
Atlanta’s water for
      145 Days
             Steve Williams
Urban Ecosystem
         Analysis
    The City of Atlanta
Tree loss in the Atlanta metro area from 1974 to 1996
resulted i...
The total stormwater retention capacity of our
urban forest cover in 1996 was worth about $2.36
billion, down from 1974's ...
AT $85,900,000
Per Year from
 1996 - 2006
plus inflation
$1.07 Billion




  The CSO Consent Decree is $1.1 Billion
Water Runoff
from Development
Development in Atlanta, GA and sur rounding counties

contribute to a yearly loss of g roundwater infiltration

ranging fr...
If managed on site, some of this rainwater
which could support annual household needs
of 1.5 to 3.6 million people, can be...
Where is
the Water
  Going?
Traditional
 Solutions
Retention Ponds

Sidewalks to Sewer

Streets to Sewers
Retention
            Ponds
Sidewalks to Sewers
Streets
     to
Sewers
What is the
 Effect?
Streets Flooding

Erosion and Loss of Top Soil

The Flooding of Creeks and Streams
Flooding Streets
Erosion & Loss
           Top Soil
Overflowing Creeks
This is Arrow creek in Metro Atlanta
showing REAL examples of Downcutting,
  Widening, Sedimentation and Stable,
Entrenchm...
Effects of Current
Watershed Management
Downcutting
Widening
Sedimentation
Stable,
Entrenchment
What do these
     Projects
  have in Common?
The Massachusetts Turnpike Authority - The Big Dig Tunnel
Project Connecting...
Big Dig
                     Problems
The Big Dig, the $14.6 Billion reconstruction of
downtown Boston’s roadways, had bee...
The
                         Chunnel
                              One of the
                            Seven Wonders
  ...
The
                            Atlanta
                              CSO
                            Project
 Will it hel...
What can be done to
   bring these
    overflows
  Down to Zero?
many of the issues plaguing
   our water supply can be
resolved in an economical and
environmentally friendly way.


BIOMI...
By working with nature
and trying to imitate the
   way nature works
BIOMIMICRY
 Nature as Model 	
 A solar cell inspired by a leaf.


 Nature as Mentor 	
 Biomimicry uses an ecological stand...
How to Mimic Nature
  Greenway Acquisition
Greenway Acquisition
                                         Scientists know
                                         tha...
Atlanta’s
                                    Greenway
                                   Acquisition
                    ...
How to Mimic Nature
  Greenway Acquisition
  Small Reservoirs (Ponds) & Wetlands
Reservoirs




Small Reservoirs otherwise known as ponds are more
efficient holding water then large lakes and are cheaper
...
Wetlands                   or
                  Detention ponds
                              Attractive Landscaping




A...
Constructed wetlands provide protection against initial
  storm-flows which are typically high in pollutants.




Plant upt...
What are other benefits of using (constructed) wetlands for stormwater management?

    The negative water quality impacts ...
How much does it cost to
 construct and maintain
  stormwater wetlands?


Capital Cost:
       $ 1,500/impervious acre.

M...
How to Mimic Nature
  Greenway Acquisition
  Small Reservoirs (Ponds) & Wetlands
  Cisterns
Cisterns




A rain harvesting technique that can store water for shortages, reduce
 stormwater and replace potable water ...
Reason for using cisterns
  to collect rainwater.
The idea of collecting rainwater has been around for thousands of
years....
Domestic Usage
       Less than 50% of American household water
     usage requires the purification of drinking water.

 R...
Industrial use
Dust Control


Agriculture and Animal Husbandry

Specialized Cleaning Processes


Washing Vehicles

Manufac...
Commercial use
In large offices and public buildings, rainwater can be used for flushing
toilets and urinals and for cleanin...
How to Mimic Nature
  Greenway Acquisition
  Small Reservoirs (Ponds) & Wetlands
  Cisterns
  Pervious Concrete
Pervious Concrete




A solution to restoring groundwater and
reducing stormwater runoff.
Pervious Concrete
ADVANTAGES

The advantages of using porous pavement include:

    Water treatment by pollutant removal.
...
Pervious Concrete
   USES

A few ideas for Pervious Concrete


       Parking lots

       Driveways

       Paths and wal...
Pervious Concrete
CONCERNS
Many pavement engineers and contractors lack expertise with this
technology.
Porous pavement ha...
How to Mimic Nature
  Greenway Acquisition
  Small Reservoirs (Ponds) & Wetlands
  Cisterns
  Pervious Concrete
  Contouri...
Contouring Through
    Earthworks
Place swales and naturalistic rock walls through out the
landscape to slow down the stor...
Earthworks




Use landscaping techniques that divert water to stay on the
land, not run off on the side walk or the road.
Earthworks




Raise sidewalks and curbs to keep the water on the
pervious land and off the streets and sidewalks.
Earthworks




By creating an oasis stormwater runoff can be treated and
returned to the ground in an attractive way.
How to Mimic Nature
  Greenway Acquisition
  Small Reservoirs (Ponds) & Wetlands
  Cisterns
  Pervious Concrete
  Contouri...
Why Green Roofs?
Economic Benefits
 Amenity Space and Aesthetics
Economic Benefits
 Moderation of the Urban Heat Island Effect
Economic Benefits
 Food Production
Economic Benefits
 Sound & Temperature Insulation
Economic Benefits
 Improved Air Quality
Economic Benefits
 Stormwater Reduction
Conclusions
With almost 50 inches of rain a year. Atlanta has many
options to extend the current water supply for decades
...
Resources
H. David Thurston Professor Emeritus - Department of Plant Pathology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY,
14850
Farm...
Steven Andrew Williams


       C on t a ct In fo
       404-234-1358
  ww ww.Th eRa in S a ve r.com
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Finding Water Through Rain

1,224 views

Published on

Finding Water Through Rain introduces several
conservation alternatives in rainwater and stormwater
management. These concepts include greenway
acquisition, wetlands, cisterns, pervious concrete,
earthworks, native plants and green roofs. By
implementing these practices Atlanta could use rainwater
more efficiently.

Published in: Technology, Business
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,224
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
11
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
2
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Finding Water Through Rain

  1. 1. Finding Water Through Rain By Steven Andrew Williams ©2008 An Answer to the Atlanta, GA urban water quantity and quality problems
  2. 2. What We Have in the Metro N. GA Water Planning District! Population of Metro Atlanta - 5,723,788 Metro Atlanta Area - 4832 Square Miles Water used per day - 600,000,000 gallons Amount of water produced in Atlanta from 1 inch of rain?
  3. 3. 87,560,480,000 Gallons of water 1 from inch of evenly distributed rain over the 14 county metro area.
  4. 4. It could supply Atlanta’s water for 145 Days Steve Williams
  5. 5. Urban Ecosystem Analysis The City of Atlanta Tree loss in the Atlanta metro area from 1974 to 1996 resulted in a 33% increase in stormwater runoff (from each 2-year peak storm event). This translates into an estimated 591 million cubic feet of water or 4,420,987,013 gallons. Costs to build engineered systems to intercept this runoff would cost $1.18 billion ($2/cubic ft. of storage) in 2001 dollars. Data from the American Forests study Urban Ecosystem Analysis, Atlanta, GA
  6. 6. The total stormwater retention capacity of our urban forest cover in 1996 was worth about $2.36 billion, down from 1974's value of $3.54 billion. This translates to $85.9 million per year.
  7. 7. AT $85,900,000 Per Year from 1996 - 2006 plus inflation
  8. 8. $1.07 Billion The CSO Consent Decree is $1.1 Billion
  9. 9. Water Runoff from Development
  10. 10. Development in Atlanta, GA and sur rounding counties contribute to a yearly loss of g roundwater infiltration ranging from 57 to 133 billion gallons from 1982-1997.
  11. 11. If managed on site, some of this rainwater which could support annual household needs of 1.5 to 3.6 million people, can be captured in cisterns (reservoirs). The rest can be allowed to filter through the soil to recharge aquifers and increase underground flows to replenish rivers, streams and estuaries. American Rivers, Natural Resources Defense Council and Smart Growth America, Report: Paving Our Way to Water Shortages: How Sprawl Aggravates the Effects of Draught August 28, 2002
  12. 12. Where is the Water Going?
  13. 13. Traditional Solutions Retention Ponds Sidewalks to Sewer Streets to Sewers
  14. 14. Retention Ponds
  15. 15. Sidewalks to Sewers
  16. 16. Streets to Sewers
  17. 17. What is the Effect? Streets Flooding Erosion and Loss of Top Soil The Flooding of Creeks and Streams
  18. 18. Flooding Streets
  19. 19. Erosion & Loss Top Soil
  20. 20. Overflowing Creeks
  21. 21. This is Arrow creek in Metro Atlanta showing REAL examples of Downcutting, Widening, Sedimentation and Stable, Entrenchment with in a 1/4 mile stretch.
  22. 22. Effects of Current Watershed Management
  23. 23. Downcutting
  24. 24. Widening
  25. 25. Sedimentation
  26. 26. Stable, Entrenchment
  27. 27. What do these Projects have in Common? The Massachusetts Turnpike Authority - The Big Dig Tunnel Project Connecting Downtown Boston to East Boston. The Chunnel connecting England and France, has become a classic example of a technological marvel that has been unable to justify the costs. The Clean Water Atlanta initiative, the capital improvement program underway to help resolve stormwater issues through underground tunnels.
  28. 28. Big Dig Problems The Big Dig, the $14.6 Billion reconstruction of downtown Boston’s roadways, had been rife with troubles since construction began 15 years ago.
  29. 29. The Chunnel One of the Seven Wonders of the World? The $27.5 billion Eurotunnel, nicknamed the Chunnel, has become a classic example of a technological marvel that has been unable to justify the costs of its creation.
  30. 30. The Atlanta CSO Project Will it help and What will it cost? Under the approved plan, all overflow volumes will be captured and treated, except for approximately 4 large rain events per year, when the volume of overflow exceeds the storage capacity.
  31. 31. What can be done to bring these overflows Down to Zero?
  32. 32. many of the issues plaguing our water supply can be resolved in an economical and environmentally friendly way. BIOMIMICRY (from the Greek, bios - life and mimesis - imitation)
  33. 33. By working with nature and trying to imitate the way nature works
  34. 34. BIOMIMICRY Nature as Model A solar cell inspired by a leaf. Nature as Mentor Biomimicry uses an ecological standard to judge the quot;rightnessquot; of our innovations. Nature as Measure Biomimicry is a new way of viewing and valuing nature. ~Janine Benyus (1997) Biomimicry: Innovation Inspired by Nature.
  35. 35. How to Mimic Nature Greenway Acquisition
  36. 36. Greenway Acquisition Scientists know that headwater streams make up at least 80 percent of the nation’s stream network. Streams provide is a filtering process Small streams and wetlands play a key role in storing and modifying potential pollutants. 64 percent of inorganic nitrogen entering a small stream is retained or transformed into a less harmful substance within 1,000 yards
  37. 37. Atlanta’s Greenway Acquisition Project Targeted streams are Marked in red. The $25 million Greenway Acquisition Project is to be implemented in the City of Atlanta and fourteen (14) counties in Metro Atlanta through March, 2007.
  38. 38. How to Mimic Nature Greenway Acquisition Small Reservoirs (Ponds) & Wetlands
  39. 39. Reservoirs Small Reservoirs otherwise known as ponds are more efficient holding water then large lakes and are cheaper to build and maintain.
  40. 40. Wetlands or Detention ponds Attractive Landscaping A Hole to Store Stormwater.
  41. 41. Constructed wetlands provide protection against initial storm-flows which are typically high in pollutants. Plant uptake of dissolved compounds such as nitrogen and phosphorus. Filtering, settling, and retention of suspended particulate matter. Transformation of compounds in the soil and water column. Adsorption of metals into clay particles.
  42. 42. What are other benefits of using (constructed) wetlands for stormwater management? The negative water quality impacts of storm-flow to receiving streams is reduced. Wildlife habitat, especially waterfowl and warm water fisheries, is improved. Downstream channels are protected from scour, erosion and sedimentation by reducing peak flow. Aesthetic and landscaping value is enhanced.
  43. 43. How much does it cost to construct and maintain stormwater wetlands? Capital Cost: $ 1,500/impervious acre. Maintenance: Costs vary, but normally range from 3 to 5% of construction costs annually.
  44. 44. How to Mimic Nature Greenway Acquisition Small Reservoirs (Ponds) & Wetlands Cisterns
  45. 45. Cisterns A rain harvesting technique that can store water for shortages, reduce stormwater and replace potable water uses with non-potable water.
  46. 46. Reason for using cisterns to collect rainwater. The idea of collecting rainwater has been around for thousands of years. Treated water is an expensive resource. Rainwater is a healthier alternative to potable water for plants and irrigation. Of all the water on Earth, 3% is suitable for human consumption. And of that 3%, most is either locked in polar ice caps and glaciers or hidden beyond the reach of commercial technologies. A little less than 1% of our water is found in lakes, rivers, and approachable underground aquifers. By diverting rainwater during heavy rains, cisterns can store it for use during draught, this will also reduce stormwater run off. Technology is readily available and relatively inexpensive. Rainwater collection is insurance for your plants.
  47. 47. Domestic Usage Less than 50% of American household water usage requires the purification of drinking water. Rainwater Uses 63% 1: Toilets 2: Laundry 3: Outdoor 4: Other Purified Water Uses 37% 5: Drinking/Cooking 6: Dishwashing 7: Shower and Bath
  48. 48. Industrial use Dust Control Agriculture and Animal Husbandry Specialized Cleaning Processes Washing Vehicles Manufacturing Processes Concrete and Construction
  49. 49. Commercial use In large offices and public buildings, rainwater can be used for flushing toilets and urinals and for cleaning. Another use for rainwater in the commercial sector is ir rigation. Rainwater allows for an inexpensive and healthy way to water plants during droughts.
  50. 50. How to Mimic Nature Greenway Acquisition Small Reservoirs (Ponds) & Wetlands Cisterns Pervious Concrete
  51. 51. Pervious Concrete A solution to restoring groundwater and reducing stormwater runoff.
  52. 52. Pervious Concrete ADVANTAGES The advantages of using porous pavement include: Water treatment by pollutant removal. Reduces demand on stormwater infrastructure. Recharges local aquifers. Retrofit existing imperious areas.
  53. 53. Pervious Concrete USES A few ideas for Pervious Concrete Parking lots Driveways Paths and walkways Curbing for streets Retrofit existing imperious areas.
  54. 54. Pervious Concrete CONCERNS Many pavement engineers and contractors lack expertise with this technology. Porous pavement has a tendency to become clogged if improperly installed or maintained. Porous pavement can have a high rate of failure. There is some risk of contaminating groundwater, depending on soil conditions and aquifer susceptibility. Some building codes may not allow for its installation. Anaerobic conditions may develop in underlying soils if the soils are unable to dry out between storm events. This may impede microbiological decomposition.
  55. 55. How to Mimic Nature Greenway Acquisition Small Reservoirs (Ponds) & Wetlands Cisterns Pervious Concrete Contouring Land-Earthworks
  56. 56. Contouring Through Earthworks Place swales and naturalistic rock walls through out the landscape to slow down the stormwater runoff and allow for ground water recharge. Watch the water when it rains Play and Experiment
  57. 57. Earthworks Use landscaping techniques that divert water to stay on the land, not run off on the side walk or the road.
  58. 58. Earthworks Raise sidewalks and curbs to keep the water on the pervious land and off the streets and sidewalks.
  59. 59. Earthworks By creating an oasis stormwater runoff can be treated and returned to the ground in an attractive way.
  60. 60. How to Mimic Nature Greenway Acquisition Small Reservoirs (Ponds) & Wetlands Cisterns Pervious Concrete Contouring Land-Earthworks Green Roofs
  61. 61. Why Green Roofs?
  62. 62. Economic Benefits Amenity Space and Aesthetics
  63. 63. Economic Benefits Moderation of the Urban Heat Island Effect
  64. 64. Economic Benefits Food Production
  65. 65. Economic Benefits Sound & Temperature Insulation
  66. 66. Economic Benefits Improved Air Quality
  67. 67. Economic Benefits Stormwater Reduction
  68. 68. Conclusions With almost 50 inches of rain a year. Atlanta has many options to extend the current water supply for decades These options include: Restoration of the natural environment in streams and rivers in urban, suburban and rural areas of at least 100 feet. Research, train, educate and reward professionals and the public in using landscaping and agricultural practices that manage and use stormwater more efficiently. Research traditional water management practices that have been used for thousands of years and merge them with modern technology, to use rainwater and stormwater more effectively. Evaluate construction of the stormwater tunnels success to see if the remaining cost of construction can be offset by more natural and cost efficient stormwater management practices. Finally and most important is the support of the Governor and Mayor for these measures of water use and influence the public to open their minds to new ways.
  69. 69. Resources H. David Thurston Professor Emeritus - Department of Plant Pathology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, 14850 Farming in Nature's Image by Judith D. Soule and Jon K. Piper, is a book about the science of sustainable agriculture. The authors, two professional ecologists at the Land Institute, Kansas USA. Georgia Stormwater Management Manual: Volume 1: Atlanta Regional Commission www.StarkEnvironmental.com Wikipedia Rainwater Harvesting for Drylands by Brad Lancaster Construction Resources is Britain's first ecological builders' merchant, and a center for ecological building. Urban Ecosystem Analysis, Atlanta Metro Area, Calculating the Value of Nature, AMERICAN FORESTS P.O. Box 2000 Washington DC 20013 Where Rivers Are Born:The Scientific Imperative for Defending Small Streams and Wetlands. American Rivers and the Sierra Club American Rivers, Natural Resources Defense Council and Smart Growth America, Report The Alcovy Watershed Protection Project, University of Georgia’s Institute of Energy and the Northeast Georgia Regional Developmental Center Brad Lancaster www.HarvestingRain.com Rainwater Harvesting for Drylands Vol. I&II
  70. 70. Steven Andrew Williams C on t a ct In fo 404-234-1358 ww ww.Th eRa in S a ve r.com

×