Future of urban water management by kala vairavamoorthy

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  • Steps to Implement the Principles IUWMConstruct integrated framework for assessmentLook at all possible water streams if they are a potential resources (all water is good water)Cost estimate of the potential water resourcesDevelop scenarios how to meet the future demandSelect most appropriate combination of different resources
  • 20 m NPV – drainage, treatment, etc. + low OAM costRevenue = Avg cost of water (master plan – water from Nairobi dam)……Hence drainage and sanitation would effectively cost 850 - 780
  • Of course if we are to realistically get maximum benefits from the water cycle we need a systems approach. This effectively means an integrated approach to management that requires institutions to work together. Concepts like IWRM or IUWM that promote integration have been around for a while and in my opinion have not gone beyond rhetoric. They have not gained meaningful traction on ground. While we have talked about IWRM and IUWM for years we are still not able to translate these concepts into tangible outputs on the ground. Now we have started to talk about the integration of water and energy. Are these concepts just slogans and academic constructs that will never be implemented in our generation? What do these concepts actually mean is still elusive among practitioners. We need to have an honest and frank discussion on these issues otherwise we will be in the same place 10 years from now. We have got to move from rhetoric to action.
  • Future of urban water management by kala vairavamoorthy

    1. 1. FUTURE OF URBAN WATER MANAGEMENT Kala Vairavamoorthy UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH FLORIDA + GWP
    2. 2. Water Security - Good News & Bad News ‘Open the loop’ - linear supply and disposal Good News • Upper income countries have revolutionized public health outcomes • Also have made major progress in mitigation of environmental damage Bad News • Systems built for narrow objectives with little resilience – not suited to the challenges ahead • Extraordinarily resource intensive • ‘All or nothing’ - Unaffordable to 2/3 of the planet
    3. 3. Bad News – External pressures make the future difficult• Entire earth system is changing!
    4. 4. The Urban Arithmetic for 2050• 155,000 persons per day• 90% in developing countries• ~90% in urban areas• ~850,000 per week in urban settings Growing but also ‘Growing Up’
    5. 5. Opportunity to do Things Differently G Source: UN (2003)
    6. 6. Asia has fastest growing economies (World Bank, 2012)
    7. 7. Window of Opportunity is Small Shenzhen 1980 TodayFishing village of City of 7 million – big inseveral thousand electronic manufacturing
    8. 8. Need to think differently
    9. 9. When designing urban water systems keep in mind the following• Urban Water Cycle is one system: understand the relationship between various components• Urban water cycle closely linked to watershed: City depends on and impacts the wider watershed• Security through diversity: explore diverse and flexible options for water sources• Water should be fit for purpose – matching water quality to its intended use.• Maximize benefits: great potential for water, energy and nutrient recovery (beneficiation)
    10. 10. When designing urban water systems keep in mind the following• Innovative technologies can play a role: in helping to serve more people with less• Adaptive systems work: IUWM must take into account that the future is inherently uncertain• Water should be managed across institutions: good governance is a critical to operationalize IUWM• Involve all the players: integration of all stakeholders in decision-making process
    11. 11. When designing urban water systems keep in mind the following• Innovative technologies can play a role: in helping to serve more people with less• Adaptive systems work: IUWM must take into account that the future is inherently uncertain• Water should be managed across institutions: good governance is a critical to operationalize IUWM• Involve all the players: integration of all stakeholders in decision-making process
    12. 12. We need to break down barriers Catchment KI WU … … UP Urban Township 6
    13. 13. And involve all the players• Why? • Poor uptake of available research findings • Fragmented institutional arrangements • ‘Wicked’ problems - need for ‘integrated’ solutions• Who? • Policy makers, planners, regulators, service providers, NGOs, researchers, developers…• How? • Inception (training, stakeholder analysis…) • Operational (visioning, planning processes..)) • Backstopping support (monitoring, evaluation…)
    14. 14. Example: Bogota, ColombiaIssue:• pollution of upper Rio Bogota (tanneries)Key players:• Association of tanners, Regulator, Local government, NGO, University,…Outcomes:• Almost half of small enterprises have implemented cleaner production principles removing 90% pollution
    15. 15. Example: Lodz, PolandIssue: • restoring polluted riversKey players: • city office, University, Ecohydrology institute, service providers, developersOutcomes: • Demonstration technologies being scaled up as part of city redevelopment • development of a city- wide strategic plan for water
    16. 16. We need to put water in the minds of people?
    17. 17. Doing more with less‘Integration the key’ Holistic systems approach to the urban watershed
    18. 18. Tailored IUWM Framework forDeveloping Countries Required Intermittent Irregular Water Energy & Irregular Scarcity Supply Highly Polluted Supply Water Bodies Fast Growing Cities Low Pressure Lack of High Levels of Leakage Wastewater Poor Solid Collection and Waste Treatment Management Source: CSIRO
    19. 19. Case Study: Water Resources for Nairobi and Satellite Towns • Today 3.14 M Inhabitants • Prediction year 2035 between 6.4 and 11.2 M Inhabitants • Huge supply/demand gap Case study for the application of the framework and the principles.
    20. 20. IUWM Application 1 (stormwater, leakage, demand management) 70000 m3/d 780831m3/d 192851 m3/d DM=50537 m3/d 111081 m3/dDemand =1205300 m3/d
    21. 21. IUWM Application 1 (stormwater, leakage, demand management)• Unit costs of US$ 0.29/m3 (cf. to 0.36)
    22. 22. Nairobi - It’s about having a Portfolio of viable options Greywater Harvesting Private Boreholes Existing Leakage Mgt. Water New Sources Conventional Sources Stormwater Harvesting New Conventional Sources Existing Water Demand Mgt. Water SourcesConventional Approach IUWM Approach Unit costs US$ 0.36/m3 Unit costs US$ 0.29/m3
    23. 23. Phnom Penh’s Water Success Story • NRW reduced from 72% to 6.19% (1993-2008)• Water saving about 25,000m3/d (serving about one million more people)• Increasing revenues by over US$ 20 million per annum Biswas and Tortajada 2009
    24. 24. It’s already happening: Ethekwini Fresh Water SupplyFresh Water Source [Ehekwini Water Services: Build on PPP Concept] Small Water Consuming Industry Waste Water from Durban City Waste Water Reuse of Water [7% (47.50 Ml/d) of City’s Current Demand ] [Reduction in Wastewater discharge @10%]
    25. 25. It’s already happening: Windhoek NGWRP Dam Water Groundwater Reuse for drinking water 26% 66% 8% 10% Unaccounted 90% for Water Consumers Security through diversity 83% 7% 38% Domesti Consumed Industrial c 45% WW Treatment WW Treatment 26% 6% OGWRO 13% Irrig. - Fodder River Irrig. -Parks Reuse for Irrigation
    26. 26. It’s already happening: Singapore Rain Sea Security through diversity Direct Non- Potable Use
    27. 27. Unconventional water sources: more energy intensive NEWRI 2010
    28. 28. Natural systems can help close the water cycle bank filtration, soil-aquifer treatment, constructed wetlands, hybrid systemsO2 O2
    29. 29. Natural systems can help close the water cycle LBF Lake Bank Filtration Reservoir EH 0.012 -0.024 $/m3 Irrigation Water WW (cf 0.05-0.15 $/m3) Dam Water Primary Treatment Consumer and/or CW & WSP Trans. Distribution Constructed Wetlands Stabilization Ponds (0.17 $/m3)Ecohydrology RBF River Bank Filtration EH SAT/ARR $0.067/m3 (cf 0.28/m3) Soil Aquifer Treatment River Artificial Recharge Recovery Low Energy – Water Efficient’ Closed Loop
    30. 30. Flows from Kibera pollute Nairobi Dam No longer used as a water sourceGreywater from Polluted runoff Overflow from unserviced from streets pit latrines households Kibera Ngong River Nairobi Dam
    31. 31. Urban water infrastructure provision to Kibera benefit all of Nairobi Condominium sewers Cost for provision of drainage and sanitation for Kibera SUDS • EAC US$ 1.0M DEWATS Potential water resources after slum improvementCondominium sewers • Yield 17,300m3/d SUDS • Cost of water (0.16 $/m3) • More than US$ 800,000 revenue per year DEWATS
    32. 32. Slum networking can provideimproved flood protection to city Flooding Slum City
    33. 33. Slum networking can provideimproved water services to all Pressur e Slum Illegal City connections Pressure deficits Equity pressure distribution
    34. 34. Take home messageManage water supply, wastewater & stormwatertogether (one urban water cycle)……. and thinkcreatively about what could be your watersources (and don’t focus on the obvious ones).(educate future urban leaders on the integrated perspectiveof the urban water cycle and contextualize each componentof the water system within this perspective)
    35. 35. We need to build connections between silos Potable Wast Storm Gray Rain water e water Water water waterG, I
    36. 36. The water sector can’t do it alone Land planners Gov’t officials Architects Financiers Developers Energy experts
    37. 37. Think about Harvesting Integrated Treatment
    38. 38. Entrepreneurs see theharvesting potential, India Collection, transport, treatment and reuse-system (GTZ,2009)
    39. 39. Entrepreneurs see the harvesting potential, DurbanFecal sludge into safe fertilizer: LaDePa machine
    40. 40. We’re harvesting for Agriculture: ChinaUnder the 11th five-year plan, 400 million m3 treatedwastewater available for agriculture in Beijing in 2010
    41. 41. MITIGATION Harvesting heat from sewers Heat exchanger in sewers Heat is reclaimed from treated sewage water of the adjacent sewage treatment plantDalian-Xinghai (China) : Environment-friendly heating and cooling
    42. 42. Think about a Water Machine Reclaimed Potable Quality non-potable Water A,B,CSurface Water Urine BrownwaterGround Water Grey water Rain Water Solid waste Energy Nutrients Hygienized Sludge G,R,F X-S
    43. 43. Water Machine – ‘designer waters’Photos courtesy: West Basin MWD
    44. 44. Water Machine: Semi - Centralized TU Darmstadt | Institute IWAR | Cornel et al.
    45. 45. Xing Dao – water machine proposal TU Darmstadt | Institute IWAR | Cornel et al.
    46. 46. But how will water machines be plumbed? Challenge: Deliver Water Quality Fit for Purpose Kitchen Bath Toilet Laundry Garden Pipe Bundles for DifferentWater Machine Water Qualities Water Users Service water for toilet & laundry Service water for garden Potable water
    47. 47. Take home message Driver for water management should be beneficiation –maximize value added(institutions & regulations to support and not hinder) ‘All water is good water: fit for purpose’(educate future urban leaders on all benefits of water –public health, aesthetics, economic development, drivegreen economy)
    48. 48. Clustered Approach to UWMIn order to implement the principles a clustered approach to water management is helpful.
    49. 49. Clusters allow maximum efficiency while giving adaptive capacity A supply and treatment unit (water machine) for each district • Semi central supply and treatment unit as part of clustered city structure • Use scalability of treatment technology (membranes) • Customized supply and treatment for each cluster • Utilizing synergy effects and re-use potentialsTU Darmstadt | Institute IWAR | Cornel et al.
    50. 50. Energy sector is already thinking in these lines CHP CHP CHP CHPCHP CHP CHP CHP CHP CHP CHP
    51. 51. Look for opportunities to create new paradigms (not extended old ones) Small scale providers Formalised Water System Newdemand Growth Expansion of existing system to serve new Decentralized demand community based
    52. 52. Xi’an – newly developed district as independent water system Qujiang New District Xi’an Central city District wastewater North lake network Gardening Forestation (Regulation lakes) Car washing District wastewater Miscellaneous Associated uses treatment wetland plant (Tertiary treatment) South lake (Secondary treatment) District storm water drainage
    53. 53. ARUA MBALE
    54. 54. Central infrastructure core expanding
    55. 55. Let’s ring fence the old paradigm A2 A1 A3 A4 A8 A6 A5 A7
    56. 56. Let’s ring fence the old paradigm A2 A1 A3 A4 A8 A6 A7 A5
    57. 57. Tailor made solutions for clusterA8 Potable Black water water Greywater Surface water Biogas Productio Groundwater n Discharge to the river
    58. 58. Semi-Centralized is cheaper? A 9Average Annual Costs Average Annual Costs 5,148,000 US$ 3,787,000 US$
    59. 59. Take home messageManage water supply, wastewater & stormwatertogether (one urban water cycle)……. and thinkcreatively about what could be your watersources (and don’t focus on the obvious ones).(educate future urban leaders on the integrated perspectiveof the urban water cycle and contextualize each componentof the water system within this perspective)
    60. 60. Smart ThinkingSmart Water, Smart Networks, Smart by Design
    61. 61. New low pressure/super strong membranes make them attractive to developing countries Source: eawag 0.4m hydrostatic pressure To the tap S t Clean water o storage tank r a g e Buckyball treated membranes Super smooth carbon nano-tubes Richard Merritt (2009)
    62. 62. Scalability of membranes makes them very attractive across a continuum of options City/Town Scale Point-of-Use
    63. 63. Networks of the future will have lives of their own Smart Pipes Self Healing Frictionless• Nano scale sensors • Various strategies: capsule, • Slippery Liquid-Infused embedded into pipes during vascular, intrinsic Porous Surfaces (SLIPS) manufacturing. • Pipes store healing agents • Super-thin Nano-• Sensors monitor data on and polymerizers that substrates infused with a hydraulic, material, and solidify when mixed liquid lubricant creates a environmental • Healing efficiencies 100% smooth surface• Sensors provide geo- • Recovery strength >100% • Reduced biofilm formation referenced data points by 96-99% Corrosion Corrosion Metje et al. 2011 formation Repair White et al. 2011 Epstein et al. 2012
    64. 64. ‘Smart’ helps manage pipe-bursts more effectively Calculate Location of Burst Optimal Valve IsolationAllen et al. 2011
    65. 65. ‘Smart’ helps manage pipe-bursts more effectively Isolate LeakAllen et al. 2011
    66. 66. ‘Smart’ helps manage pipe-bursts more effectively Alert Customer Repair Team Pipe Break - Location GPS - Pipe Material - Pipe Depth -…Allen et al. 2011
    67. 67. ‘Smart’ allows appliances to negotiate with the water market Water Demand Electric Demand Time
    68. 68. ‘Smart’ allows appliances to negotiate with the water market Smart meter Smart meterWater Demand Electric Demand Central Control Unit Time
    69. 69. ‘Smart’ allows appliances to negotiate with the water market Flattened PeakWater Demand Flattened Peak Electric Demand Central Control Unit Time
    70. 70. Transitioning
    71. 71. Transitioning Transitioning Existing System Future System Future SystemBased on Old System Totally New System Graph Theory Transition Systems
    72. 72. 0 10 20 30 40
    73. 73. 0 10 20 30 40
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    75. 75. 0 10 20 30 40
    76. 76. 0 10 20 30 40
    77. 77. 0 10 20 30 40
    78. 78. 0 10 20 30 40
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    80. 80. 0 10 20 30 40
    81. 81. 0 10 20 30 40
    82. 82. 0 10 20 30 40Sempewo, J., Vairavamoorthy, K. and Grimshaw, F. (2010)
    83. 83. Take home messageMove away from tinkering and think abouthow you might have designed from scratch-then look at transitional pathways & don’tbe scared to decommission Institutions are the origin of change and the medium for legitimizing changeMMM
    84. 84. Choices Before UsStay in Lane - Try Harder, Truly Different Business as Spend More for Approach Usual Traditional Sys What You What You What You Know.. Don’t Know.. Know..
    85. 85. Thank YouKalanithy Vairavamoorthy vairavk@usf.edu

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