Managing data offload over wlan access networks with iwlan


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Managing data offload over wlan access networks with iwlan

  1. 1. cc ess LA NA W ver ad O Offlo AN Data I-WL ging With ana rksM WHITEPAPER
  2. 2. AbstractCellular operators are increasingly shifting their focus for alternative wireless access methods tomanage data offload. Legacy cellular networks were designed for low bandwidth consumption andinsufficient to cope with the growth of data requirements today. Although operators continuouslyupgrade their networks with greater capacity and advanced technologies, heavy investments for cellbuild is not an economical approach in the longer term.The availability of WiFi hotspots are highly accessible and appropriate for data offloading. Takingadvantage of the unlicensed spectrum and better bandwidth utilization, data offloading can beachieved with lower cost per bit. In this paper, we present I-WLAN to effectively manage thedata offloading between 3GPP and non-3GPP networks in a unified platform for theimprovement of service experience and service extension.WHITEPAPER
  3. 3. ContentsOverview 01Handling Mobile Data Traffic Efficiently 02Enhancing WiFi Offloading with I-WLAN 04Use Cases of i-WLAN 07 (A) Accessing 3G Services from a WIFI Network 07 (B) Accessing Home 3G Services while on a Roamed WIFI network 07 (C) Accessing Home 3G Services while on a Home WIFI network with Mobility 08i-WLAN and Smart Client, How it Works 09Green Packet’s i-WLAN Implementation 11 Greenpacket Components 11 Interworking between Smart Client, MIP and iWLAN 12Secure and Seamless Data Offloading for Enhanced Network and Service Quality 13Shaping Your Network for Fitnes 14References 15WHITEPAPER
  4. 4. OverviewThe advent of laptops and smart devices are driving data traffic and the fundamental shift in the way peoplecommunicate. Findings reveal that average amount of traffic per smart phone in 2010 was 79MB per month, up from35MB per month in 2009. Mobile data, video and TV is increasingly becoming an essential part of consumer lives.Mobile Network Operators (MNOs) driven by economic sense to deliver access to IP data and interactive communicationservices over wireline, wireless and blended broadband connections look towards deploying wireless LAN (WLAN) asalternative access portfolios to complement existing cellular access and services.Realizing the advantage of offering packet based services to subscribers on networks other than its own 3GPP network,MNOs are focusing today on how to converge existing 3G experiences into WIFI for existing subscribers. An importantfactor that many are considering is how transparently and invisible can the WIFI offload experience be to end users.Among multiple of organizations and bodies that are embarking on projects to marry both 3GPP and non 3GPPexperiences together, the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) has defined specifications that focuses on theinterworking of WLAN and existing cellular networks with projects like I-WLAN (Interworking Wireless LAN).This paper will examine the pressing issues of MNO’s network coverage, capacity, service experience and the potentialbenefits from offloading in the framework of the I-WLAN Solution. This paper talks about how the I-WLAN conceptprimarily addresses the ability to handle operator roaming; i.e. roaming from GSM/3G to WIFI and vice-versa, forwidespread adoption without affecting the existing network architecture. I-WLAN also addresses the issues related toauthentication between 3GPP networks and non 3GPP network, unified billing & charging, service extension (wherevercellular coverage is lacking), application mobility and session persistence across interworking networks. 01WHITEPAPER
  5. 5. Handling Mobile Data Traffic EfficientlyThe accessibility of high speed wireless data has affected the consumer choices dramatically in terms of the way wework, and play, incorporating Internet services that complement users’ lifestyles. In a recent forecast report by Cisco®Visual Networking Index (VNI) Global Mobile Data Traffic Forecast Update 2011, mobile data traffic grew by a factor of2.6 in 2010 from 2009. The Global mobile data traffic forecast estimates the increase by a factor of 26 by 2015. Overallmobile data traffic will grow at CAGR of 92% from 2010 – 2015. 92% CAGR 2010-2015 Terabytes per Month 6.3EB 6,000.000 3.8EB 3,000.000 2.2EB 1.2EB 0.6EB 0.24EB 0 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Source : Cisco VNI Mobile,2011Figure 1 Forecast CAGR of data traffic growth from 2010 - 2015Rather than capital expenditure spending for network upgrade on cell sites build-out or core network expansion,coherent investments in its operational indexes are the driving force for a network’s sustainability as opposed to timeconsuming expansions. The legacy infrastructure was largely designed for low bandwidth, simple, walled-gardenservices. Since the onset of 3G data services, operator networks are at risk of experiencing congestion beyond capacity,affecting its network service quality; while battling corrective efforts to satisfy consumers have proved to be a challengein its public relations.MNOs are challenged with weighing the costs of upgrading TDM backhaul infrastructure with IP and hybrid IP backhaulover the Iub interface and managing the packet data network (PDN) that interacts with the internet . The primary intentionis to reduce the pressure on the provider edge (PE) egress and ingress routers towards external IP networks along thePDN axis. Instead of modernizing the legacy 3GPP SGSN/GGSN architecture, an intermediary functional element isintroduced to intercept the data traffic flow from congesting the backplane of the network. This is achieved with intelligentcontrol in the User equipment (UE) over the air interface. In a previous whitepaper “Operators Can Save $14 million YearlyThrough Data Offloading”, a TCO Study describes in detail how offloading congested networks can benefit theoperators. 02WHITEPAPER
  6. 6. The transition of a mobile voice business model to mobile data business model has pushed operators to look closelyat alternative unlicensed spectrum and WIFI as part of the mobile strategy. Offloading the RAN and adoptingalternative wireless access networks are nothing new, albeit little attention was accorded in its early days, due toskepticism in • Security • Inter-operability with existing mobile networks. • Quality of Service (QoS)Offloading data to WIFI hotspots is an economically attractive alternative, because many carriers already operate asubstantial number of hotspots. Mobile operators can provide a user experience on WIFI networks similar to thatprovided on 3rd Generation networks with mutual authentication and link-layer security. WIFI offload must not degradebut improve or enhance the overall service to the end user. To do so, WIFI offloading is to achieve: • Seamless connectivity between cellular networks and WIFI • Transparent/Automated authentication • Application mobility • Service mobility 03WHITEPAPER
  7. 7. Enhancing WIFI Offloading with I-WLANMobile Network Operators require WIFI to offer the same security, authentication, experience and services as whatthey offer on their cellular networks. Interworking WLAN (3GPP TS23.234), is a defined standard for the interworkingbetween 3GPP networks and Wireless LAN.I-WLAN allows scalability and flexibility in deploying secured, automatic and value added WIFI access both in trustedand also in unmanaged or untrusted hotspots (hotspots that are operated by neither the carrier nor its roamingpartner). The interworking access mechanism discussed is not merely a remedy to the operator’s network congestionbut aims to provide a solution that effectively and securely offloads data from 3GPP systems to WLAN networks,wherever it fits the overall Operator’s business objective. These business objectives may include providing nativeoperator service and content to WLAN hot spots and ensure the same subscriber provisioning, authentication, andservice authorization that are already in place for GSM/3G services with ease of integration towards backend systems.Network authentication by a mobile device and authentication to the selected network should be carried outautonomously by the device without the need for user intervention (for example, the user entering a username andpassword every instance, it detects a WIFI network). With I-WLAN, GSM carriers will use the subscriber identitymodule (SIM) credentials already carried in their subscribers’ mobile devices to perform WIFI Authentication usingEAP-SIM. Similarly, Universal Mobile Telecommunications Service (UMTS) carriers will use USIM credentials withExtensible Authentication Protocol Method for EAP-AKA as a form of WIFI authentication.Also, carriers that provide uninterrupted communications using dual-mode technologies are susceptible to commonInternet attacks that can compromise their systems, reducing availability and damaging their reputation. Thus, tomitigate information privacy and security attacks, authentication method enhanced with IKEv2 over IPSec tunnelingis implemented between the end points of the user device and core network is provided by I-WLAN.Access to 3GPP PS based services (eg: SMS, MMS, ringtones) can also be provided via the WLAN interworkingarchitecture. By identifying the type of service authorization allowed from the access layer (subscriber aware) andnetwork layer (service aware) early on gives clues as to how best to address the problem of potential congestion,coverage or service experience with added policy control and enforcement in place.In order to fully capitalize on the effectiveness of the I-WLAN, it is necessary for the operator to examine the aspectof profiling or dissecting the network to address any inadequacies. 04WHITEPAPER
  8. 8. SecuritySecurity threats can occur in tampering of IDs and credentials, bill shock due to lack of service aware alerts and violationof data protection from a user’s perspective. Likewise, an operator is susceptible to fraudulent billing; possible DoSattacks on its systems due to open access over public IP network, potential data mining from 3rd parties, all of whichindirectly affects the quality of user experience.Security in WLAN environment should have the same resiliency with cellular networks to prevent unauthorized access.Thus, a strong encryption and tunneling protocols enforced in I-WLAN facilitates the exchange of IP packets securelyover trusted networks.AuthenticationCommon authentication architecture (EAP-SIM/ EAP-AKA/EAP-TLS)Operators want subscribers to use the same credentials that are used for WIFI networks as this ensures that theswitching between 3G and WIFI requires no user intervention and remains transparent to the end user.Mobility ExperienceThe Mobility Experience for I-WLAN and 3GPP systems is defined in 3GPP TS 23.237. IP Session persistence ismaintained for mobile users using Mobile IP for a better handover experience.ServicesIWLAN tethers WIFI traffic back to the 3G Packet core. With this, the 3G operator regains visibility on subscribeprovisioning and service authorization when the user is offloaded to a WIFI network. At the same time, extend 3GPPservices and functionality to the W-LAN access environment, continuity of VAS (traditional wall garden services andinternet service) over operator network such as SMS, ringtones, videos, news, sports by streamlining apps and contentbased on user segmentation.Operators deploying enterprise services such as IP telephony, hosted applications, multi-media and e-commerceservices can deploy the same service quality with the security of a 3G network.RoamingRoaming* between 3GPP and WIFI is also further improved with IWLAN. Users can still enjoy operator services via thevisited network, with unified charging and billing of the home network.*pre-requisite for roaming agreement in place between operator and partner WIFI operator 05WHITEPAPER
  9. 9. All these functionalities are deployed with deploying an iWLAN Client on UE side. The iWLAN Client manages end to endaccess authentication and authorization relationship between the UE and the PDG that sits on the Operator’s Corenetwork.Combined with Green Packet’s Connection Management solution and Mobility Solutions, MNOs would be able to rolloutthe following functionalities to the subscribers• Connectivity experience for multi-access network switching without user intervention• Service and Applications mobility for a better WIFI experience during network transitions via Mobile IP to ensure session persistence for all IP-based applications during Soft and Hard Handovers.• Operator-Initiated network selection policies• Automated location based, network selection, alerts and notifications of roaming to prevent bill shock• Active connection tracking for easy retrieval of usage and balanceFigure 2 Macro 2.5G/3G coverage and WIFI hotspot overlay 06WHITEPAPER
  10. 10. Use Cases of iWLANBelow are some examples of use cases that illustrate the relationships of 3GPP and non 3GPP access networks.(A) Accessing 3G Services from a WIFI NetworkA 3GPP network user with smartphone handset also has WIFI capability with corporate voice and data plan. The usersubscribes to the native 3GPP hosted intranet service and also regularly accesses internet content via YouTube on WIFIhotspots like airports, cafes and train terminals as a regular traveler.The user accesses its 3GPP network for mobile TV (eg: live football match results) where there exists cellular coveragein the shopping mall with a smartphone. While waiting for his friends to arrive, the user enters into a café, where WIFI hotspot is available (this assumes the WIFI network is operator managed). The Green Packet Connection Manager (alsoknown as the Smart Client) detects a WIFI network with stronger signal strength and performs a handover of the 3GPPnetwork to WIFI. After successfully connecting to the WIFI network the iWLAN Client is triggered to establish aconnection back to the 3G network. The iWLAN Client authenticates the user onto the WIFI network with the USIMidentity via the iWLAN Client.Once the user is tethered back to the 3GPP Core network, the user continues to enjoy hosted 3GPP intranet services(video call, SAP, email, database) provided by its home network, over a trusted IP network. When the user moves awayfrom the WIFI network, the Smart Client re-establishes connection back to the 3G network and the iWLAN Client willterminate the IPSec tunnel thereby terminating the connection to the PDG.(B) Accessing Home 3G Services while on a Roamed WIFI networkA 3GPP network user with smartphone handset also has WIFI capability. The user travels to neighboring country. Whenthe smartphone is powered on, it performs a network scan and attaches to the visited 3GPP network that has roamingagreement with its home 3GPP network under normal roaming instances. Data packet and voice service are providedby the visited PLMN (VPLMN).If for example, the macro 3GPP visited network coverage is poor and a WIFI is in range; the smartphone will display thepre-configured SSIDs of the WIFI roaming partner in the visited 3GPP network. The iWLAN Client can detect thepreferred WIFI access point and seamlessly authenticate the user.The user attaches and authenticates to the WIFI roaming partner in the visited network by means of the SSIDs that itidentifies with USIM credentials. The Smart Client on the smartphone checks, if roaming agreement exists and operatorpolicies connecting to the new WIFI operator is allowed by its home 3GPP network. The smartphone establish aconnection to the visited WIFI operator and access 3GPP services via the visited network. 07WHITEPAPER
  11. 11. (C) Accessing Home 3G Services while on a Home WIFI network with MobilityGenerally, the UE periodically scans to attach to its home 3GPP network. There may in instances, where home 3GPPnetwork coverage is poor or unavailable. As such, the UE will scan for the next available network to attach. A 3GPPnetwork user with smartphone handset also has WIFI capability. The user attempts to connect to its home WIFI networkwhich has stronger signal strength, as 3G network coverage is weak. The Smart Client triggers a connection to WIFI.Once connected onto WIFI, the iWLAN Client with pre-set iWLAN settings will select the associated W-APN, SSID,authentication mode etc. All iWLAN settings are configured by operators within the Smart Client.The iWLAN Client authenticates the user based on the USIM credentials by establishing and IP Sec tunnel between theUE and PDG endpoint. This pre-set iWLAN attributes allows operator to select selected WIFI connections to be tetheredto its home 3GPP Core network to push hosted services such as video messaging, voice calls and ringtones. The usercan simultaneously chat and stream mobile TV over the WIFI network on the smartphone seamlessly while being awayfrom its home 3GPP network. When the user moves back into a full 3GPP coverage area, the Smart Client will detectstronger signal strength and perform a handover to the 3GPP network. 08WHITEPAPER
  12. 12. i-WLAN and Smart Client, How it Works the Internet 1 1 HOME NETWORK 0 Billing 4 PCRF VISITED NETWORK AAA HLR 9 Prox Proxy AAA y VAS VAS HA AAA GGSN GGS PDG WAG Connect N SGSN to PDG 8 SGSN 2 5 Roaming WIFI 3G Partner/Trust A 3G Network Network Network ed/Untrusted WIFI Network 6 C Content continues to be streamed over WIFI Handover Handover Handover Make before Break before Break before make Break make 3 7 Mobile CM detects a Mobile CM detects a Mobile CM detects a WIFI hotspot in range, WIFI hotspot in range, roaming network and initiates a and initiates a and trigger a switchover with switchover with handover to the iWLAN client iWLAN client visited 3GPP networkFigure 3 Accessing 3GPP and non 3GPP networks with iWLANStep 1Under normal network conditions and adequate 3GPP coverage, the user attaches to its home 3GPP network for bothdata packet and voice services in the absence of iWLAN. With the implementation of iWLAN Client relationship on theUE side, it allows operators to extend 3GPP based service experience over ubiquitous networks.Step 2Operators push 3GPP based service to the user such as IPTV, sports, news, SMS over the home network.Step 3Data offload can happen when the UE moves in and out of its home 3GPP coverage areas or when congestion occurs.When a UE moves out of the home 3GPP coverage, the iWLAN Client in the UE triggers a scan for the closest WLANAN in range.Step 4Handover is triggered from 3G to WIFI. The user first connects to the WIFI over the internet connection. 09WHITEPAPER
  13. 13. Step 5The iWLAN Client requests for Access Authentication via EAP-based messages to the Packet Data Gateway (PDG). AnIP Sec tunnel is established between the UE and PDG of trusted relationship. The MIP agent will setup a MIP tunnelinside the IPSec tunnel. The Access Authentication procedure may include policies for user IP connectivity to PDG andexternal IP networks. The subscription information of user is retrieved from the HLR/HSS and forwarded to the 3GPPAAA Server to perform checking and authorization of service subscription. The 3GPP home network (HPLMN) willresolve the DNS queries for the UE’s remote IP address and the requested W-APN. Once the IP address is allocated, theuser will have IP connectivity over the PDG and external IP networks, if it is authorized. (IP address allocation canperformed before or after access authentication).Step 6The 3GPP based service continues to be streamed over the WIFI network, without interruption of service. The operatorhas full visibility and control of the user’s behavior after switching from 3GPP to WIFI. This allows operator to deliver all ofthe 3GPP subscribed content to the user from the home network, while in WIFI and also push new IMS services in thelikes of VoIP, video sharing and applications all within a unified billing and charging platform.Step 7User exits the WIFI network range and signal strength is weak, as it moves ie roaming. The Smart Client triggers anetwork scan for alternative network connection (if available). Upon detection of a 3G network, it requests for a handoverfrom WIFI to the visited 3G network. A break before make handover is initiated.Step 8UE attaches to visited 3GPP network. Access authentication and authorization is performed by the iWLAN Client in theUE similar to step 5. The resolution of the IP address at the PDG providing access to the selected service will beperformed in visited PLMN. A mapping relationship between the PDG and WLAN Access Gateway (WAG) is established.The WAG routes data to/from WLAN access network to the PLMN.Step 9The 3GPP AAA Proxy passes service subscription information to the home 3GPP AAA to check the authorized servicesubscription information which is required by the Visited Network to perform the service together with charginginformation. The home network decides whether visited service (external IP networks) is allowed or not based onW-APN, the user subscription information, visited network capabilities and roaming agreement.Step 10The Smart Client detects WIFI with stronger signal and initiates a switchover attempt from 3G to WIFI. Similarly, theiWLAN Client in the UE authenticates the over EAP-SIM/EAP-AKA onto WIFI with the contained subscriber provisioning,authentication, and service authorization similar to steps 3, 4 and 5 in the VPLMN. 10WHITEPAPER
  14. 14. Greenpacket’s i-WLAN ImplementationGreenpacket ComponentsGreenpacket Smart ClientThe Smart Client component serves as an intelligent connection client on UE which manages access networkconnections such as WIFI, WiMAX or 3G. It supports seamless mobility capability allowing ubiquitous network accessand ensuring uninterrupted subscribers connectivity experience. The Smart Client is equipped with several functionalattributes like the rule manager, profile manager to ensure real time control policies for switch decision making based onpriority, best performance, most economic and network policy. The Smart Client interworks with iWLAN Client onestablishing connection to the PDG and interworks with the Mobile IP (MIP) client to enable Mobility Functionality.Greenpacket i-WLAN ClientThis component is an integrated client built to handle establishment of connection to the PDG. The iWLAN Client isresponsible for performing authentication of UE onto access network using EAP-SIM or EAP-AKA over an IP Sec tunnelthat is established between the UE and PDG endpoints. Upon successful authentication, signaling and traffic flow canbe securely exchanged between the UE and PDG. Tunnel security is ensured using IPSecIKEv2. Green Packet iWLANClient supports the following I-WLAN functionalities:• UE Authentication on EAP-SIM• UE Fast Re-authentication on EAP-SIM• UE Authentication on EAP-AKA• UE Fast Re-authentication on EAP-AKA• IMS Emergency Call on EAP-SIM• IMS Emergency Call on EAP-AKA• IPSec Tunnel Disconnection• IKEv2 Cryptographic Suite 1• IKEv2 Cryptographic Suite 2• DNS ResolutionGreenpacket Mobile IP ClientMobile IP (MIP) is defined by IETF as a standard communication protocol to allow mobile node to move from one networkto another network and maintain a permanent IP address. Mobile IP (MIP) Client can be an optional component to handleMobility Functionality. It interworks with the Smart Client and Home Agent (HA) and is responsible for establishing theMobile IP tunnel within the WLAN IPSec Tunnel between the PDG-UE endpoints if Mobility Functionality is enabled. 11WHITEPAPER
  15. 15. Interworking between Smart Client, MIP and i-WLANThe Smart Client acts as the main control point of both the MIP Client and the iWLAN Client. It contains all the settingsrequired for both clients to connect to the PDG and HA.The iWLAN Client do not activate itself. The Smart Client contains settings to enable/disable iWLAN under its WIFISettings which the Smart Client allows certain WIFI connections to be tagged to certain iWLAN setting. This ensuresflexibility for operators to select which WIFI connection should be tethered back to the 3G network and which will remainon the WIFI network. All iWLAN settings including IP address, authentication type, W-APN, ID, Emergency modesettings etc are set within the Smart Client. In commercial deployments, these are usually preconfigured and transparentto the end user.Smart Client will first establish a WIFI connection based on its configured policy (can be operator configured or userconfigured). When this option is turned on, Smart Client will automatically trigger the iWLAN Client to establish a connec-tion to the PDG. Smart Client will only do so if the device contains a valid SIM card for EAP SIM/AKA authentication. If aSIM card does not exist, the Smart Client will not establish the WLAN connection.Upon successful WIFI network connection, Smart Client will invoke I-WLAN Module to initiate I-WLAN IKEv2 authentica-tion (EAP-SIM or EAP-AKA) and establishment of IPSec tunnel to PDG/TTG. The I-WLAN Module will execute therequired PDG Call Flow establishment. The I-WLAN Module will indicate the success or failure to Smart Client on theinteraction status with PDG/ TTG. All notifications are displayed on the Smart Client.In the case where WIFI network is disconnecting either via manual user disconnect or network handover based on avail-ability, Smart Client will trigger a ‘Disconnect’ to the PDG to ensure that the tunnel tear down or terminated. All logs onthe iWLAN connection history are kept by the Smart Client. If Mobility settings are enabled by the Smart Client, the SmartClient will trigger the MIP Client to establish the Mobile IP tunnel within the WLAN IPSec Tunnel. 12WHITEPAPER
  16. 16. Secure and Seamless Data Offloading for EnhancedNetwork and Service QualityDeploying next generation networks require greater interoperability, portability and service availability. Many businessmodels and opportunities can emerge from advertising, application developers, content development and partnershipfor service providers and operators. Operators can strategically incorporate new services by leveraging on the speed andaffordability provided by WIFI data offloading.Addressing the issues of a simple and integrated legacy network is important to the operator’s service delivery withoutaffecting the backend systems. The controlled and managed data offloading with I-WLAN approach addresses theoperators concerns for• unified charging & billing• access security over trusted and non trusted IP networks• seamless authentication• service mobility• applications session persistence• service extension for indoor and outdoor coverage inadequacies• quality of serviceThe seamless authentication and connectivity is assured with support for EAP-based authentication. The Smart Clienttriggers network selection and the I-WLAN establishes a secure IP tunneling between the UE and PDG, mitigates the riskof attacks from external IP networks over unsecured shared infrastructure. Operators have full visibility on the users IPservices over its home network and ease of a unified charging & billing mechanism.Service and applications mobility can easily transition between networks 3GPP and non-3GPP, with a MIP client. Thehandovers can be initiated by the device or the network, depending on operator implementation. Other consideration foroffload occurs in cases where indoor coverage fails. Offloading to WIFI is an affordable alternative to deploying femtocellsor cell build out. Likewise, in areas where outdoor coverage is weak on the 3GPP network, it can autonomously switchto WIFI for service continuity.Looking towards the future of delivering LTE services, the consideration of 3GPP I-WLAN approach delivered today canhave migration path towards LTE for inter-technology access. The 3GPP core network PDG will evolve to ePDG, withbackward compatibility; with minimal integration on the network interfaces. Given the 3GPP I-WLAN approach on theRAN, the device will perform the network selection, access authentication and authorization between inter-accesstechnologies; closely coupled to the HSS/HLR architecture of the converged LTE core network. As with LTE networks,quality of service (QoS) is a candidate feature in providing VoLTE and IMS services yet to be witnessed commercially.Deploying the 3GPP-IWLAN solution today can resolve the immediate issues inherent in operator network in termsimproving service delivery, coverage and capacity in an economical manner, while strategizing future business objectives. 13WHITEPAPER
  17. 17. Shaping Your Network for FitnessGreenpacket welcomes you to embark on the offloading journey today with iWLAN for optimizing your networkoperations and service quality. At Greenpacket, we understand the demands placed on Operators like you. That is whyour solutions are designed to give you the capacity to constantly deliver cutting-edge offerings without exhausting yourcapital and operating expenditures.With Greenpacket, limitless freedom begins now!Free ConsultationIf you would like a free consultation on how you can manage data offloading with iWLAN, feel free to contact us (kindly quote the reference code, WPS042011 when you contact us). 14WHITEPAPER
  18. 18. References1. The Cisco® Visual Networking Index (VNI) Global Mobile Data Traffic Forecast Update 20112. 3GPP TS 23.234 V9.0.0 (2009-12)3. GSMA Wi-Fi Offload Whitepaper version 1.0 15WHITEPAPER
  19. 19. About Green Packet Greenpacket is the international arm of the Green Packet Berhad group of companies which is listed on the Main Board of the Malaysian Bourse. Founded in San Francisco’s Silicon Valley in 2000 and now headquartered in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Greenpacket has a presence in 9 countries and is continuously expanding to be near its customers and in readiness for new markets. We are a leading developer of Next Generation Mobile Broadband and Networking Solutions for Telecommunications Operators across the globe. Our mission is to provide seamless and unified platforms for the delivery of user-centric multimedia communications services regardless of the nature and availability of backbone infrastructures. At Greenpacket, we pride ourselves on being constantly at the forefront of technology. Our leading carrier-grade solutions and award-winning consumer devices help Telecommunications Operators open new avenues, meet new demands, and enrich the lifestyles of their subscribers, while forging new relationships. We see a future of limitless freedom in wireless communications and continuously commit to meeting the needs of our customers with leading edge solutions. With product development centers in USA, Shanghai, and Taiwan, we are on the cutting edge of new developments in 4G (particularly WiMAX and LTE), as well as in software advancement. Our leadership position in the Telco industry is further enhanced by our strategic alliances with leading industry players. Additionally, our award-winning WiMAX modems have successfully completed interoperability tests with major WiMAX players and are being used by the world’s largest WiMAX Operators. We are also the leading carrier solutions provider in APAC catering to both 4G and 3G networks and aim to be No. 1 globally by the end of 2010. For more information, visit: Francisco · Kuala Lumpur · Singapore · Shanghai · Taiwan · Sydney · Bahrain · Bangkok · Hong Kong Associate MemberCopyright © 2001-2011 Green Packet Berhad. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, transmitted, transcribed, stored in a retrieval system, or translated into any language, in any formby any means, without the written permission of Green Packet Berhad. Green Packet Berhad reserves the right to modify or discontinue any product or piece of literature at anytime without prior notice.