Taking Wi-Fi Beyond Offload


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Integrated Wi-Fi access can differentiate service and generate new revenues

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Taking Wi-Fi Beyond Offload

  1. 1. White Paper Taking Wi-Fi Beyond Offload Integrated Wi-Fi access can differentiate service and generate new revenues Monica Paolini President, Senza Fili Consulting© Copyright Openet Telecom, 2012
  2. 2. White Paper - Taking Wi-Fi Beyond Offload 2 INTRODUCTION - Wi-Fi is more than offload Everybody loves Wi-Fi in their smartphones. For mobile operators, Wi-Fi has softened the impact of mobile broadband adoption, absorbing, through a low-cost or even free wireless interface, traffic that otherwise would have led to congestion. For subscribers, Wi-Fi is synonymous with fast, unlimited and free connectivity. Among tablet and laptop users, Wi-Fi is and is likely to remain the primary and preferred access interface for a long time. Yet mobile operators tend to have mixed feelings about Wi-Fi. It is used as an offload mechanism, to protect cellular networks from congestion and to provide a better service to subscribers when needed. Wherever possible, however, they prefer to avoid Wi-Fi, because in most cases they lose visibility into subscribers’ activities and do not know what the quality of the subscriber experience is. The reliance of Wi-Fi on heavily used licensed-exempt spectrum makes it difficult to manage interference and provide a consistent service to subscribers. And, finally, operators have used Wi-Fi as an enticing, but free, add-on, from which they have not been able to extract revenues. Wi-Fi can be—and increasingly is—more than an offload interface onto which operators direct traffic and forget about it. When adopting an integrated, carrier-grade Wi-Fi access platform with policy functionality in the core network, operators retain visibility into the subscriber experience, can support new services that add value to their mobile broadband plans, and increase revenues. In this paper we explore how Wi-Fi networks can become more tightly integrated within mobile broadband networks and, equally important, within the service platforms, by using programs such as Hotspot 2.0, Passpoint, NGH (Next Generation Hotspot), and ANDSF (Access Network Discovery and Selection Function). We outline examples of how operators can use Wi-Fi to increase revenues, offer better customer service and choice, and control costs. These use-case examples include add-on services that provide enterprise or carrier-grade security for enterprise customers, personalized Wi-Fi access, optimized use of network resources, roaming across domestic and global hotspots, and venue-based analytics and applications. Table 1: A preference for Wi-Fi 85% of subscribers prefer Wi-Fi over cellular for some activities, and 87% would like to see greater Wi-Fi availability, according to a Wakefield Research study sponsored by the Wi-Fi Alliance in 2012. According to a Cisco IBSG study in 2012, subscribers prefer Wi-Fi over cellular for its cost, speed, reliability, performance and ease of use, but they rate cellular higher on coverage. Subscribers considered security to be comparable in Wi-Fi and cellular networks. Only a quarter of downloads among Android smartphone subscribers are over cellular (870 MB/ month on average), according to a 2012 report from NPD Connected Intelligence. The rest (2.5 GB) is over Wi-Fi. Cisco VNI estimates that 36% of current IP traffic is delivered through Wi-Fi. By 2015, Wi-Fi will carry six times the traffic of mobile networks (this includes fixed and mobile devices). Mobile Data (92% CAGR) Fixed/Wired (24% CAGR) Fixed/Wi-Fi (39% CAGR) Figure 1: Cisco Visual Networking Index(VN) Global IP Traffic Forcast, 2010-2015© Copyright Openet Telecom, 2012
  3. 3. White Paper - Taking Wi-Fi Beyond Offload 3 Wi-Fi offload today - A remarkable success story Initially viewed with suspicion, Wi-Fi gained support from mobile operators when they found out that Wi-Fi was the only solution that enabled them to address the rapid increase in data traffic driven by mobile broadband adoption that was cost effective, did not require new spectrum allocations, was already available on many mobile devices and at many homes, offices and hotspots, and provided even better performance than mobile networks. The initial attitude among operators was that Wi-Fi was a temporary solution to a largely unexpected, although welcome, increase in data traffic. But it has become clear that there is room for both LTE and Wi-Fi. And operators will need both. There are many ways in which LTE and Wi-Fi will coexist, and they will lead to different strategies in monetization, service creation and customer retention. Wi-Fi offload allows mobile operators to reduce the pressure from subscriber demand in locations with a high concentration of users or traffic. Cellular networks still provide the wide-area and outdoor coverage across the operator footprint that is required to support mobility (e.g., handoffs for voice calls). Wi-Fi mostly provides indoor connectivity for data-intensive applications, which impose a huge strain on mobile network resources, but it has only limited support for mobility, mainly in two environments: ¨¨ Private networks—Home or enterprise networks, where Wi-Fi infrastructure and backhaul are typically owned or controlled by the venue owners. ¨¨ Public hotspots—In public locations such as stadiums, airports and downtown areas, providing access to a large number of users. The Wi-Fi infrastructure is owned by a mobile, fixed or hotspot operator, who controls the backhaul. It is a balancing act that effectively segregates different traffic types. The mobile network best serves sessions frequently conducted while in motion, such as voice calls, but a lengthy video streaming session isn’t typically conducted on the move, and Wi-Fi is often the preferred option. With small- cell LTE deployments, mobile networks will be able to take on a larger portion of the indoor, high- throughput traffic that today is carried by Wi-Fi, but spectrum limitations, cost considerations and expectedly high traffic growth rates suggest that Wi-Fi capacity will continue to be required in the foreseeable future. As video is forecast to the be the heaviest use of data, operators could use Wi-Fi for video traffic due to the stationary nature of the users when watching video. Most people watch videos in one place (e.g., in the coffee shop, on the train or at home) which in many cases is covered by Wi-Fi. The data usage related to video which most adversely impacts mobile networks is also the one the people least rely on mobility for. By preferentially allocating video traffic to Wi-Fi where available, operators can improve network performance and deliver a better customer experience.© Copyright Openet Telecom, 2012
  4. 4. White Paper - Taking Wi-Fi Beyond Offload 4 The future of Wi-Fi access Integrating Wi-Fi in mobile and fixed networks With the increase in availability and use of Wi-Fi offload, several factors that limit further growth potential of Wi-Fi access and the ability of operators to monetize the service have become apparent. Today, when subscribers move to Wi-Fi, most operators lose track of what they do, what their experience is, or whether their connection is secure (Table 2). Subscribers may prefer Wi-Fi over wireline or cellular, but they often find establishing a connection to new networks cumbersome and time consuming. Carrier Wi-Fi is evolving from a hands-off offload approach to an integrated Wi-Fi access approach. The integrated approach gives operators visibility into the Wi-Fi traffic and a fine-grained ability to manage it in the same way they manage cellular traffic (Table 2). The urgency of these changes is driven by multiple trends: ¨¨ Increase in video traffic, with a corresponding desire from mobile operators to shift as much video traffic as feasible over to Wi-Fi (through either private or public access). ¨¨ Increased use of VoIP applications over Wi-Fi. These require low latency and jitter, and hence can greatly benefit from deep-packet-inspection (DPI) and quality-of-service (QoS) functionality. ¨¨ Growing reliance on bring-your-own device (BYOD) programs in the enterprise, which reduces enterprise IT departments’ control over mobile devices. ¨¨ Planned small-cell deployments combining 3G and LTE interfaces with Wi-Fi in the same enclosure, as a way to further increase the capacity of the underlay network. Operators need to integrate cellular and Wi-Fi networks to effectively allocate traffic within the site across available wireless interfaces. Table 2. Wi-Fi access: offloaded or integrated Wi-Fi offload Integrated Wi-Fi accessTraffic Offloaded at the Wi-Fi hotspot User plane: offloaded at the Wi-Fi hotspot Control plane: through the mobile networkSubscriber experience No visibility Real-time analyticsNetwork selection Left to subscriber, leads to inefficiencies Managed by operator, based on network loadPolicy Not implemented over Wi-Fi traffic Policy & charging rules function (PCRF) extensible to Wi-FiSecurity No visibility outside operator’s own Comparable to mobile network with SIM-based Wi-Fi hotspots authenticationTraffic management Very limited Real time, integrated with mobile networkMonetization Difficult because of lack of visibility Policy-based charging wholesale and roaming revenues or control over Wi-Fi trafficDifferentiation Same functionality across networks Advanced services allow differentiation across operators and market segmentation Enabling integration of Wi-Fi in mobile networks The Wi-Fi Alliance Passpoint certification program and the Hotspot 2.0 specifications provide seamless Wi-Fi access in public hotspots and when roaming. With SIM-based authentication, mobile devices can automatically connect to any hotspot operated by a mobile operator or any of its partners, as they do with cellular data roaming. The Wireless Broadband NGH initiative provides a roaming framework that facilitates roaming agreements among mobile and Wi-Fi operators, and establishes roaming best practices for Wi-Fi. ANDSF facilitates discovery and selection of non-3GPP networks in mobile devices. With ANDSF, operators can use PCRF-defined policies and real-time traffic management across mobile and Wi-Fi networks.© Copyright Openet Telecom, 2012
  5. 5. White Paper - Taking Wi-Fi Beyond Offload 5 Sample use cases Integrated Wi-Fi can deliver new revenues, differentiate services and provide additional capacity The next sections look at how these changes will transform Wi-Fi from an offload solution to a wireless interface that plays a central role in mobile and fixed networks, both to provide additional capacity and to generate revenue. We use five scenarios as examples of new Wi-Fi based services (Figure 2): ¨¨ End-to-end, policy-based security ¨¨ Personalized, flexible access ¨¨ Optimized resource allocation ¨¨ Roaming ¨¨ Venue-based analytics Figure 2: Monetization opportunities for mobile and fixed operators. Source: Senza Fili© Copyright Openet Telecom, 2012
  6. 6. White Paper - Taking Wi-Fi Beyond Offload 6 1 - Securing mobile devices across interfaces Increased vulnerability to security threats Mobile devices operate in an environment of growing complexity, in which they: ¨¨ Support multiple over-the-air interfaces. ¨¨ Can access multiple public networks, often operated by multiple operators, in addition to home and enterprise networks. ¨¨ Can establish peer-to-peer connections to other devices. As the number of connectivity points increases, so does the number of potential entry points for malicious attacks. At the same time, the rapidly rising adoption of mobile broadband makes mobile devices a more highly prized target for security exploits, as evidenced by the multiplying number of malware samples (from 1,000 in 4Q 2011 to 25,000 in 2Q 2012) isolated by TrendMicro’s Trendlabs. In this context, Wi-Fi can be a key security concern. Wi-Fi Protected Access II (WPA2) provides state- of-the-art protection for the over-the-air Wi-Fi link. But to protect mobile devices, mobile traffic also has to be protected within and beyond the Wi-Fi access point, through the backhaul link and all the way to the internet or to the corporate network. In the dominant offload usage model, subscribers who move to Wi-Fi have very little control over security, because it depends on the entity that operates the hotspot. In many cases they are not even aware of the security risks. Operators and vendors can play an important role in this context, because operators know from the network perspective and vendors know from the device perspective how secure the connections used by subscribers are, and how to manage traffic accordingly (Table 3). As a result, they can assist: ¨¨ Individual users who want to enjoy secure connectivity, without having to actively manage connection and establish their level of security. For instance, a smartphone user might want to connect only to trusted Wi-Fi hotspots, but might not know which ones they are. Another user might accept an unsecure connection when streaming YouTube videos, but might not want to send payment information over untrusted networks. ¨¨ Enterprises requiring that their employees access the corporate network using only specific interfaces, but otherwise give them more flexibility. Because mobile devices can access multiple interfaces, managed by multiple entities (e.g., home networks, coffee shops, airports, mobile operators), and employees use their own devices under BYOD programs, it has become a challenge for enterprises to manage security over public networks. Entrusting this task to an operator that has better visibility into the network can be very attractive and result in better connectivity and lower costs. Government, military and other verticals (e.g., the financial services) with a high level of security requirements are likely to be the most interested in security services, especially if operators can guarantee that their end-to-end security policy can be extended beyond their internal network and implemented within the mobile network. Table 3. SecurityProviders Mobile operators: for mobile devices with cellular connectivity (e.g., smartphones) Cable, DSL, and fiber operators; hotspot operators: for mobile devices without cellular connectivity (e.g., Wi-Fi–only tablets)Services End-to-end security: provide secure connectivity across all interfaces supported (e.g., 2G, 3G, LTE and Wi-Fi) Policy-based security: provide multiple security levels depending, for example, on network accessed (e.g., tighter security for access to corporate network), application (e.g., video streaming may have lower security requirements than video calls), interface type (e.g., no corporate access through third- party hotspots)Targets Enterprise users: operator can implement policy defined by enterprise consistently over different wireless interfaces Individual users: seamlessly protect subscribers regardless of interface used© Copyright Openet Telecom, 2012
  7. 7. White Paper - Taking Wi-Fi Beyond Offload 7 2 - Cellular or Wi-Fi? Flexibility and choice for a personalized service For most of today’s mobile devices, Wi-Fi and cellular connectivity coexist as parallel, but mostly separately, functioning modes. When using Wi-Fi, data caps no longer apply and the throughput increases—so most subscribers try to be in a location with Wi-Fi access when they want to use Skype, Pandora or YouTube, or want to download software upgrades. Mobile operators also encourage this approach; in some cases, they make Wi-Fi the default interface for services such as upgrades. The prevailing model is a user-driven pull, where the subscriber makes an active decision to switch to Wi-Fi, with a possible exception when the subscriber is within the coverage area of a hotspot owned by the mobile operator. This model is effective, because most subscribers have clear incentives— cost and performance—to switch to Wi-Fi. It does not, however, maximize the offload potential, because most users use only a fraction of their mobile allowance, or may use applications like email or social networking that require little bandwidth. In both cases, switching to Wi-Fi grants little advantage, and turning Wi-Fi on shortens the battery life of the device. Many of these subscribers are not likely to use Wi-Fi offload even when available. With the introduction of faster LTE networks, the performance incentive to move to Wi-Fi will be greatly reduced. Unless operators take a more active role, we may see a drop in the percentage of Wi-Fi traffic where LTE is available. With a user-driven pull model, mobile operators benefit from Wi-Fi access mostly as a cost-cutting and customer-retention tool. With Wi-Fi offload, per-bit costs go down (especially when using private access) and customer satisfaction increases (better performance for Wi-Fi users, less congestion for everybody else). But the monetization opportunities are minimal, because Wi-Fi access is a free add-on. Operators can change this by switching to a nudge model that creates the appropriate incentives for subscribers to use Wi-Fi where available, but eschewing a heavy-handed push model, in which the operator automatically switches all subscribers to Wi-Fi where this is cost effective. Not only is a push model unlikely to be well received by subscribers, it also would be ineffective at optimizing the use of network resources (more on this in the next section). Of course, charging subscribers for private Wi-Fi access is going to remain a difficult proposition, because the subscriber owns the access point and pays for backhaul. (In the US, though, T-Mobile charges for voice-over-Wi-Fi calls the same way it does for calls over the mobile network.) “ a policy-based, personalized approach to Wi-Fi access.... enables mobile operators to more effectively segment the market and meet different preferences “ A more effective approach is to avoid a “tonnage-based” charging model for Wi-Fi access, with the exception of roaming, where we expect that access fees will continue to prevail, and move to a policy-based, personalized approach to Wi-Fi access management that enables mobile operators to more effectively segment the market and meet different preferences among its subscribers.© Copyright Openet Telecom, 2012
  8. 8. White Paper - Taking Wi-Fi Beyond Offload 8 For instance, the operator can provide different options in addition to the current user-pull model, such as: ¨¨ Best performance: The operator seamlessly moves the mobile device to the network that has the best performance. This can be done regardless of cost (for performance-oriented, less price-sensitive subscribers), or taking into account cost considerations (e.g., connect to LTE if performance is better than Wi-Fi, but only if monthly usage is still well within the traffic allowance limits). The subscriber can change the preferences on a real-time basis (e.g., use the best-performance option only during business trips, not on weekends, if additional costs may be incurred as a result of selecting this option). ¨¨ Freedom: The subscriber sets his or her own policy for Wi-Fi connectivity, on the basis of cost and performance trade-offs (e.g., move to LTE, at additional cost, but do so only after asking subscriber’s approval and/or under conditions defined by the subscriber), type of networks allowed (e.g., do not allow Wi-Fi connectivity over unsecure networks, even if free), and/or application type (e.g., allow video streaming only over Wi-Fi, but VoIP across all interfaces). ¨¨ Lowest cost: For price-sensitive subscribers the operator may offer an option in which it is the operator that decides which interface the device should use (e.g., Wi-Fi when it is cost effective, but in some cases the operator may prefer to move traffic back to cellular to provide a better experience to its top-tier subscribers using Wi-Fi), either always, or for a percentage of time, or at some hours during the day (e.g., during peak hours). These options go beyond the time-based charges for Wi-Fi access. They also require that Wi-Fi be integrated with the mobile network, that the mobile operator can manage traffic in real-time over both the mobile and Wi-Fi networks, and that the Wi-Fi network supports policy-based charging as well as Hotspot 2.0 and ANDSF functionality. Of course operators can choose from a wide array of options those that will be a better fit for their market or those that will differentiate them from their competitors. These options will enable operators to offer a more personalized service that provides additional value and flexibility to their subscribers.© Copyright Openet Telecom, 2012
  9. 9. White Paper - Taking Wi-Fi Beyond Offload 9 3 - Traffic management Increasing the efficiency of network resources The coexistence of mobile and Wi-Fi interfaces can be used to provide a personalized, flexible service in which subscribers can choose the policy for Wi-Fi use that best fits their needs and willingness to spend. At the same time, the choice between mobile and Wi-Fi networks is a very important tool for operators to increase the utilization of network resources, when it is combined with real-time traffic management across the network interfaces. The two approaches—service personalization and network usage optimization—nicely complement each other: the operator can prioritize traffic, finding the best tradeoff between subscriber preferences and availability of network resources. In most cases, today’s Wi-Fi offload is driven by static policies that are not affected by location, time of day, application, or, even more importantly, real-time traffic load of networks available to the device. In an environment where Wi-Fi provides lower-cost, better-performance connectivity but limited coverage, this is a simple, easy-to-implement approach that works reliably well. As we move to new scenarios where the Wi-Fi network might be more overloaded than the cellular network (as most subscribers move to the Wi-Fi network hoping for a faster connection) and where cellular capacity might be much higher due to the use of wider LTE channels and/or small cells, the current approach will quickly become insufficient for managing traffic effectively. Operators will want to maximize the use of their cellular networks while avoiding congestion, and encouraging Wi-Fi offloading might leave them with precious mobile capacity unused. Subscribers, used to moving to Wi-Fi for better performance, might in fact find that the cellular network is now preferable. Of course, leaving subscribers in charge of network selection, as is the case today, eliminates the opportunity to fully monetize the opportunity offered by multi-tier, multi-interface networks where relative performance varies as a function of location, subscriber load, and infrastructure availability. This is where the options presented in the previous section become more powerful. In addition to providing choice, they also are a way to efficiently allocate network resources and maximize revenues. In the example on page 8, the operator would prioritize traffic to best-performance subscribers in most cases, but keep an eye also to the freedom subscribers. So, for instance, voice calls can be kept on the LTE network for both types of subscribers, but high-throughput video streaming from a fixed location could be moved to a Wi-Fi network if there is sufficient capacity and the traffic flow can be prioritized. At the same time, low-cost subscribers will be assigned to the network with the best residual capacity after traffic from other subscribers is taken into account. As a result, these subscribers can get as good a connection as higher-paying subscribers at off-peak times and locations, but will experience slower connections when the Wi-Fi or mobile network is at capacity. The adoption of integrated real-time traffic management across the Wi-Fi and mobile networks will also widen the scope for dynamic pricing that allows operators to provide faster connectivity or additional traffic allowances, charging fees that are determined by real-time traffic load (e.g., the operator could charge a premium during peak hours at congested locations, but provide free, unlimited access during the lowest traffic hours in the middle of the night to encourage scheduling of non real-time services such as downloads and software upgrades when capacity is virtually free).© Copyright Openet Telecom, 2012
  10. 10. White Paper - Taking Wi-Fi Beyond Offload 10 4 - Seamless data roaming Making Wi-Fi roaming as easy as mobile roaming Wi-Fi has long been a favorite option of subscribers traveling abroad, because it works in every country and, where available, it is typically cheaper than mobile access or even free. Security, though, is a bigger issue, because a visitor might not know which hotspot operators can be trusted, either with credit card information shared for payment or with the connection itself. Another source of dissatisfaction is that it often takes significant time and effort just to establish a connection, with the user required to enter considerable amounts of information. Home operators—either fixed or mobile broadband ones—can greatly facilitate international roaming by enabling secure and seamless connectivity through roaming partners, charging the subscribers through the monthly bill, and by using the same authentication credential used in the home network. This is the functionality that the Passpoint and NGH programs strive to bring to Wi-Fi roaming. The operator establishes a network of partnerships with hotspot operators in a way that is comparable to that used among 3GPP operators and subscribers gain seamless access to these hotspots as they would with across mobile operators in different countries. With SIM-based authentication enabled, subscribers know they are connected to a trusted network and will not be required to enter any personal or payment information. As a paid service, they can also expect their performance and reliability expectations to be met. Ease of use and security greatly increase the value of connectivity and we would expect that many users—especially if they want to connect to their home corporate network—would rather use a secure, fee-based solution via a trusted operator than the free connection at the nearby coffee shop with unreliable service provided by an unknown entity. Policy can further improve the quality of the experience, if set to provide international roaming plans that offer automatic connectivity to a specific set of hotspots (e.g., hotspots operated in another country by the home operator) or to hotspots within a specified country, or that offer only limited connectivity in terms of applications (e.g., to avoid excessive charges) when roaming, or that cap charges at a certain monthly amount. Operators can experiment with different policy approaches to find out which ones are the most effective. Yet they will be able to leverage policy from the outset by creating a more transparent environment in which subscribers have more information, flexibility and choice in their roaming options in general, and for Wi-Fi in particular. For instance, subscribers will be more likely to accept a roaming connection if they know that the maximum daily charges cannot exceed a pre-set amount, or if they know that the hotspot partner they selected supports SIM-based authentication and has a secure Wi-Fi network.© Copyright Openet Telecom, 2012
  11. 11. White Paper - Taking Wi-Fi Beyond Offload 11 5 - Venue-based intelligence and retail incentives Leveraging the power of location Wi-Fi hotspots are valuable not only to operators for offloading traffic and to subscribers who want a faster connection. They are also valuable to the owners of the venues where the hotspots are located. Knowledge about which customers are on the premises, where they are, and how they are moving within the covered area is highly valuable to, say, a mall owner—even if, of course, anonymized to protect privacy. The ability to reach these users to inform them of promotions, discounts, or upcoming events is equally valued, whether it is free, ad-based Wi-Fi access or tied to a subscription- and location-based service (e.g., the subscriber agrees, upon entering a mall, to receive coupons through the smartphone). As more and more subscribers use price-comparison tools while visiting retail stores but end up making their purchases online, the ability to gather intelligence about customer behavior and act on it is becoming an asset worth paying for. Operators that have Wi-Fi hotspots within a venue can work together with venue owners to help them collect visitor analytics and manage customer-facing offers and services. They can also jointly offer specific venue-based services or applications targeted at the operator’s subscribers. For instance, a museum can provide information on an exhibition free to the operator’s subscribers but charge others for it, or provide free additional content. Or an operator could offer its subscribers free or prioritized access at a venue where it operates, but have a revenue-sharing agreement with the venue owner for other visitors. In a hospital or school, the hotspot operator could help the institution manage communications with patients or students in exchange for access to the hotspot sites in the area deployed, in order to provide access to its subscribers. Summary: Monetizing integrated Wi-Fi access Beyond offload, Wi-Fi brings more flexibility, new services and greater efficiency Wi-Fi is ready to move beyond offload. Ubiquitously installed in mobile data-centric devices, Wi-Fi is expanding its role in carrying wireless broadband traffic in both private and public networks. As it becomes more deeply integrated into the mobile network infrastructure, Wi-Fi will provide the same seamless experience that subscribers are used to in cellular networks. Automatic SIM- based authentication, optimized network selection, secure connectivity, and policy-based service options will increase the value of Wi-Fi access even as operators move to higher-capacity, faster LTE networks. Operators can leverage the evolution in Wi-Fi access and—with the complement of policy, QoS and DPI functionality—offer more choice and flexibility to their subscribers, manage their network resources more efficiently, differentiate their services from the competition, and segment their market effectively. They will also be able to expand their roaming Wi-Fi offering with SIM-based, secure authentication and a common framework enabled by Passpoint and NGH, to provide seamless connectivity across global networks of partner operators. And their ties with venue owners will enable operators to establish partnerships to support the venue owners’ efforts to collect visitor analytics and provide venue-based offers and services. ACRONYMS 2G - Second generation IT - Information technology 3G - Third generation LTE - Long Term Evolution 3GPP - Third Generation Partnership Project NGH - Next Generation Hotspot ANDSF - Access network discovery and selection function PCRF - Policy and charging rules function BYOD - Bring your own device QoS - Quality of service CAGR - Compound average growth rate SIM - Subscriber identity module DPI - Deep packet inspection VoIP - Voice over internet protocol DSL - Digital subscriber line WPA2 - Wi-Fi Protected Access II© Copyright Openet Telecom, 2012
  12. 12. White Paper - Taking Wi-Fi Beyond Offload 12 About OPENET Since the introduction of mobile data services in 1998, Openet has helped service providers capitalize on opportunities and overcome challenges. With competitive pressure accelerating, today’s service providers rely on Openet software to evolve business models around networking smartphones, M2M devices, and third party services. Openet’s portfolio combines policy and charging control with device and third party interaction to enable innovative charging models, to control operatingcost, and to personalize services. More than 80 of the world’s largest service providers in 28 countries use Openet’s high performance software. For more information, please visit www.openet.com. About Senza Fili Senza Fili provides advisory support on wireless data technologies and services. Senza Fili have in-depth expertise in financial modeling, market forecasts and research, white paper preparation, business plan support, RFP preparation and management, due diligence, and training. Their client base is international and spans the entire value chain: clients include wireline, fixed wireless and mobile operators, enterprises and other vertical players, vendors, system integrators, investors, regulators, and industry associations. Senza Fili provide a bridge between technologies and services, helping their clients assess established and emerging technologies, leverage these technologies to support new or existing services, and build solid, profitable business models. Independent advice, a strong quantitative orientation, and an international perspective are the hallmarks of their work. For additional information, visit www.senzafiliconsulting.com or contact them at info@senzafiliconsulting.com or +1 425 657 4991. About the author Monica Paolini is the founder and president of Senza Fili. Monica writes extensively on the trends, technological innovation, and financial drivers in the wireless industry in reports, white papers, blogs, and articles. At Senza Fili, she assists vendors in gaining a better understanding of the service provider and end user markets. She works alongside service providers in developing wireless data strategies, and in assessing the demand for wireless services. Independent advice, a strong quantitative approach, and an international perspective are the hallmarks of her work. Monica has a PhD in Cognitive Science from the University of California, San Diego, an MBA from the University of Oxford, and a BA/MA in Philosophy from the University of Bologna (Italy). She can be contacted at monica.paolini@senzafiliconsulting.com Dublin, IRELAND Reston, Virginia, USA Kuala Lumpur, MALAYSIA 6 Beckett Way / 1886 Metro Center Drive / Level 26, Centrepoint South / Park West Business Park / Suite 310 / The Boulevard, Mid Valley City / Dublin 12 Reston, VA 20190 Lingkaran Syed Putra / 59200 Kuala Lumpurwww.openet.com info@openet.com Tel: +353 1 620 4600 Tel: +1 703 480 1820 Tel: +60 (3) 2 289 8500 © Copyright Openet Telecom, 2012