Chapter09 -- networking with unix and linux

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Basic Networking Guide

Basic Networking Guide

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  • 1. Chapter 9: Networking with Unix and Linux Network+ Guide to Networks
  • 2. Objectives:
    • Describe the origins and history of the UNIX operating system
    • Identify similarities and differences between popular implementations of UNIX
    • Understand why you might choose a UNIX or Linux server for a corporate network
  • 3. Objectives: (continued)
    • Explain and execute basic UNIX and Linux commands
    • Install Linux on an Intel-based PC
    • Use Linux to add groups and users and to change file access permissions
    • Explain how UNIX and Linux can be internetworked with other operating systems
  • 4. A Brief History of UNIX
    • AT&T Source code
    • System V.
    • BSD (Berkeley Software Distribution)
    • The SCO Group
    • The Open Group
  • 5. Varieties of UNIX
    • UNIX features:
      • Multiple, simultaneously logged on users
      • Multiple, simultaneously running tasks
      • Mount disk partitions upon demand
      • Permissions for file and directory access
      • Uniform method of issuing or receiving data from hardware devices, files, and running programs
  • 6. Varieties of UNIX (continued)
    • UNIX features:
      • The ability to start a program without interfering with a currently running program
      • Hundreds of subsystems, including dozens of programming languages
      • Source code portability
      • Window interfaces that the user can configure, the most popular of which is the X Window system
  • 7. Varieties of UNIX (continued)
    • Proprietary UNIX
      • Licensed copy from The SCO Group
      • Popular Vendors
        • Sun Microsystems--Solaris
        • IBM--AIX
        • HP--HP-UX,
  • 8. Varieties of UNIX (continued)
    • Proprietary UNIX
      • Proprietary UNIX system advantages:
        • Accountability and support
        • Optimization of hardware and software
        • Predictability and compatibility
      • One drawback
        • No access to the system’s source code
  • 9. Open Source UNIX
    • Open Source UNIX
      • Open source software or Freely distributable software
        • GNU
        • BSD
        • Linux
  • 10. Open Source UNIX (continued)
    • Open Source UNIX
      • Primary advantage
        • Cost
        • Users can modify its code
        • Freely distributable
        • Run not only on Intel-based processors, but also on other processor brands
  • 11. Why Choose Linux?
    • What considerations:
      • Is it compatible with my existing infrastructure?
      • Will it provide the security required by my resources?
      • Can my technical staff manage it effectively?
      • Will my applications run smoothly on it?
      • Will it accommodate future growth (is it scalable)?
  • 12. Why Choose Linux? (continued)
    • What considerations: (cont.)
      • Does it support the additional services required by my users?
      • Does it fit my budget?
      • What additional training will it require?
      • Can I count on competent and consistent support from its manufacturer?
  • 13. Linux Server Hardware Requirements
    • Table 9-1 shows the minimum hardware requirements for the various components of a Linux server.
    • Hardware compatibility list (HCL) at www.tldp.org/HOWTO/Hardware-HOWTO/.
  • 14. Linux Server Hardware Requirements (continued)
  • 15. Linux Server Hardware Requirements (continued)
    • What additional hardware your server may require:
      • Which applications and services will run
      • How many users
      • How much random access memory (RAM)
      • How much secondary storage (hard disk)
  • 16. A Closer Look at Linux
    • Linux Multiprocessing
      • In addition to processes, Linux also supports threads
      • Allocates separate resources (such as memory space) to each process as it is created
      • Symmetric multiprocessing (SMP)
  • 17. A Closer Look at Linux (continued)
    • The Linux Memory Model
      • Use both physical and virtual memory efficiently
      • Allocates a memory area for each application
      • Attempts to decrease the inefficiency of this practice, however, by sharing memory between programs wherever it can
  • 18. A Closer Look at Linux (continued)
    • The Linux Kernel
      • Kernel
        • Core of the Linux system
      • Kernel module
        • Instructions for performing a specific task
  • 19. A Closer Look at Linux (continued)
    • Linux File and Directory Structure
      • Hierarchical file system
        • UNIX system was one of the first to implement
        • Method of organizing files and directories on a disk in which directories may contain files and other directories
        • Most operating systems use hierarchical file systems
  • 20. A Closer Look at Linux (continued)
  • 21. A Closer Look at Linux (continued)
    • Linux File Services
      • Native file system type, called ext3
      • Allows you to access DOS FAT as well as NTFS
      • Can both attach shared file systems and share local partitions with other users
        • Windows or NetWare
        • Network File System (NFS)
  • 22. A Closer Look at Linux (continued)
    • Linux Internet Services
      • UNIX-based systems have deep roots in Internet services
      • Leading Internet Web server is an open source software application called Apache
      • Original Web tools—including the first browsers and servers—were developed on UNIX-based systems
      • Full range of Internet services as standard components
  • 23. A Linux Command Sampler
    • The command line is the primary method of interacting with a Linux system
      • Command interpreter
      • Shell
  • 24. A Linux Command Sampler (continued)
      • Manual pages (Online documentation)
        • Section 1 covers the commands that you most typically enter while typing in a command window.
        • Sections 2 through 5 document the programmer’s interface to the Linux system.
        • Section 6 documents some of the amusements and games that are included in the Linux system.
  • 25. A Linux Command Sampler (continued)
      • Manual pages (Online documentation)
        • Section 7 describes the device drivers for the system.
        • Section 8 covers the commands used by administrators to manage the system.
        • Section 9 documents the Linux kernel functions programmers use when writing device drivers.
  • 26. A Linux Command Sampler (continued)
  • 27. A Linux Command Sampler (continued)
  • 28. A Linux Command Sampler (continued)
    • Command ls (with -l)
      • Learn everything about a file except its contents:
        • The filename
        • The file size (in bytes)
        • The date and time that the file was created
        • The date and time that the file was last accessed (viewed or printed)
  • 29. A Linux Command Sampler (continued)
    • Command ls (with -l) (cont.)
        • The date and time that the file contents were last modified
        • The number of “aliases” or links to the file
        • The numeric identifier of the user who owns the file
        • The numeric identifier of the group to which the file belongs
        • The access rights for the owner, the group, and all others
  • 30. A Linux Command Sampler (continued)
  • 31. A Linux Command Sampler (continued)
    • Command ls (with -l) (cont.)
      • Files with a type of “d” are directories
      • “ -” are regular files such as word-processing files or spreadsheet files
      • “ l” for symbolic link files
      • “ b” for block device files
      • “ c” for character device files
  • 32. A Linux Command Sampler (continued)
  • 33. Planning for Installation
    • Answer the following questions:
      • What is the new server’s name?
      • What is the server’s IP address?
      • What kind of video card is installed in the server?
      • What do you want the administrative user’s password to be?
      • How can I remember all of this information?
  • 34. Installing and Configuring a Red Hat Linux Server
    • Step by step
      • Select the language the system will use
      • Confirm the keyboard layout
      • Confirm your mouse type
      • Select disk drive partitioning options
      • Choose booting options
  • 35. Installing and Configuring a Red Hat Linux Server (continued)
    • Step by step (cont.)
      • Configure the network interface (or interfaces)
      • Configure the network firewall options
      • Add support for additional languages
      • Set the time and time zone
      • Enter (and confirm) the root (administrator) password
  • 36. Configuring Linux for Network Administration
    • The basics of adding users and groups
    • The basics of modifying file access permissions
      • Two commands:
        • groupadd
        • useradd.
  • 37. Configuring Linux for Network Administration (continued)
  • 38. Configuring Linux for Network Administration (continued)
    • To add group IDs to your Linux system:
      • Type groupadd instructors and then press Enter at the command prompt. The group instructors is added.
      • Type groupadd students and then press Enter . The group students is added.
      • Type groupadd administrators and then press Enter . The group administrators is added.
  • 39. Configuring Linux for Network Administration (continued)
    • To add a new user and assign the user a password:
      • Type useradd –g users –G instructors thomas and then press Enter to add a new user account named thomas.
      • Type passwd thomas and then press Enter.
  • 40. Configuring Linux for Network Administration (continued)
      • Linux prompts you to type the new password.
      • Linux prompts you to retype your password. Enter the same password again; this confirmation helps ensure that you type your new password accurately.
  • 41. Configuring Linux for Network Administration (continued)
    • Changing File Access Permissions
      • To create a directory and assign it to a group
        • If you are still logged on to your Linux system, log off by typing exit and then pressing Enter.
        • To log back on to your system as user thomas, type thomas at the login prompt and then press Enter .
  • 42. Configuring Linux for Network Administration (continued)
        • Type the password you assigned for thomas and then press Enter .
        • You see a command window and a command prompt. To create the new directory, type mkdir PROGRAMS and then press Enter .
  • 43. Configuring Linux for Network Administration (continued)
          • Type ls -l and then press Enter . Notice that the directory belongs to the group users. That’s because the primary group to which the user thomas belongs is users.
          • Type chgrp instructors PROGRAMS and then press Enter to assign ownership of the PROGRAMS directory to the group instructors.
  • 44. Configuring Linux for Network Administration (continued)
          • Type ls -l and then press Enter . Notice that the directory is now assigned to the group instructors.
  • 45. Configuring Linux for Network Administration (continued)
      • To change the access permissions for the PROGRAMS directory:
        • Log on as the user thomas (whose primary directory is instructors ). Type chmod g+w PROGRAMS and then press Enter . This command adds write access for the instructors group to the directory PROGRAMS.
        • Next, you will remove read and write access to the PROGRAMS directory for all others. To do so, type chmod o-rw PROGRAMS and then press Enter .
  • 46. Configuring Linux for Network Administration (continued)
        • Type ls -l and then press Enter to view the access permissions assigned to PROGRAMS.You should see a line for PROGRAMS that includes permissions of drwxrwx--x.
  • 47. Internetworking with Other Network Operating Systems
    • Samba
      • Communicates with Windows servers
    • WINE
      • Enables Windows programs to run on Linux
    • VMware
      • Emulates a complete Intel-based computer
    • Telnet
  • 48. Internetworking with Other Network Operating Systems (continued)
  • 49. Internetworking with Other Network Operating Systems (continued)
  • 50. Chapter summary
    • Describe the origins and history of the UNIX operating system
    • Identify similarities and differences between popular implementations of UNIX
    • Understand why you might choose a UNIX or Linux server for a corporate network
  • 51. Chapter summary (continued)
    • Explain and execute basic UNIX and Linux commands
    • Install Linux on an Intel-based PC
    • Use Linux to add groups and users and to change file access permissions
    • Explain how UNIX and Linux can be internetworked with other operating systems