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Chapter09  -- networking with unix and linux
 

Chapter09 -- networking with unix and linux

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Basic Networking Guide

Basic Networking Guide

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    Chapter09  -- networking with unix and linux Chapter09 -- networking with unix and linux Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 9: Networking with Unix and Linux Network+ Guide to Networks
    • Objectives:
      • Describe the origins and history of the UNIX operating system
      • Identify similarities and differences between popular implementations of UNIX
      • Understand why you might choose a UNIX or Linux server for a corporate network
    • Objectives: (continued)
      • Explain and execute basic UNIX and Linux commands
      • Install Linux on an Intel-based PC
      • Use Linux to add groups and users and to change file access permissions
      • Explain how UNIX and Linux can be internetworked with other operating systems
    • A Brief History of UNIX
      • AT&T Source code
      • System V.
      • BSD (Berkeley Software Distribution)
      • The SCO Group
      • The Open Group
    • Varieties of UNIX
      • UNIX features:
        • Multiple, simultaneously logged on users
        • Multiple, simultaneously running tasks
        • Mount disk partitions upon demand
        • Permissions for file and directory access
        • Uniform method of issuing or receiving data from hardware devices, files, and running programs
    • Varieties of UNIX (continued)
      • UNIX features:
        • The ability to start a program without interfering with a currently running program
        • Hundreds of subsystems, including dozens of programming languages
        • Source code portability
        • Window interfaces that the user can configure, the most popular of which is the X Window system
    • Varieties of UNIX (continued)
      • Proprietary UNIX
        • Licensed copy from The SCO Group
        • Popular Vendors
          • Sun Microsystems--Solaris
          • IBM--AIX
          • HP--HP-UX,
    • Varieties of UNIX (continued)
      • Proprietary UNIX
        • Proprietary UNIX system advantages:
          • Accountability and support
          • Optimization of hardware and software
          • Predictability and compatibility
        • One drawback
          • No access to the system’s source code
    • Open Source UNIX
      • Open Source UNIX
        • Open source software or Freely distributable software
          • GNU
          • BSD
          • Linux
    • Open Source UNIX (continued)
      • Open Source UNIX
        • Primary advantage
          • Cost
          • Users can modify its code
          • Freely distributable
          • Run not only on Intel-based processors, but also on other processor brands
    • Why Choose Linux?
      • What considerations:
        • Is it compatible with my existing infrastructure?
        • Will it provide the security required by my resources?
        • Can my technical staff manage it effectively?
        • Will my applications run smoothly on it?
        • Will it accommodate future growth (is it scalable)?
    • Why Choose Linux? (continued)
      • What considerations: (cont.)
        • Does it support the additional services required by my users?
        • Does it fit my budget?
        • What additional training will it require?
        • Can I count on competent and consistent support from its manufacturer?
    • Linux Server Hardware Requirements
      • Table 9-1 shows the minimum hardware requirements for the various components of a Linux server.
      • Hardware compatibility list (HCL) at www.tldp.org/HOWTO/Hardware-HOWTO/.
    • Linux Server Hardware Requirements (continued)
    • Linux Server Hardware Requirements (continued)
      • What additional hardware your server may require:
        • Which applications and services will run
        • How many users
        • How much random access memory (RAM)
        • How much secondary storage (hard disk)
    • A Closer Look at Linux
      • Linux Multiprocessing
        • In addition to processes, Linux also supports threads
        • Allocates separate resources (such as memory space) to each process as it is created
        • Symmetric multiprocessing (SMP)
    • A Closer Look at Linux (continued)
      • The Linux Memory Model
        • Use both physical and virtual memory efficiently
        • Allocates a memory area for each application
        • Attempts to decrease the inefficiency of this practice, however, by sharing memory between programs wherever it can
    • A Closer Look at Linux (continued)
      • The Linux Kernel
        • Kernel
          • Core of the Linux system
        • Kernel module
          • Instructions for performing a specific task
    • A Closer Look at Linux (continued)
      • Linux File and Directory Structure
        • Hierarchical file system
          • UNIX system was one of the first to implement
          • Method of organizing files and directories on a disk in which directories may contain files and other directories
          • Most operating systems use hierarchical file systems
    • A Closer Look at Linux (continued)
    • A Closer Look at Linux (continued)
      • Linux File Services
        • Native file system type, called ext3
        • Allows you to access DOS FAT as well as NTFS
        • Can both attach shared file systems and share local partitions with other users
          • Windows or NetWare
          • Network File System (NFS)
    • A Closer Look at Linux (continued)
      • Linux Internet Services
        • UNIX-based systems have deep roots in Internet services
        • Leading Internet Web server is an open source software application called Apache
        • Original Web tools—including the first browsers and servers—were developed on UNIX-based systems
        • Full range of Internet services as standard components
    • A Linux Command Sampler
      • The command line is the primary method of interacting with a Linux system
        • Command interpreter
        • Shell
    • A Linux Command Sampler (continued)
        • Manual pages (Online documentation)
          • Section 1 covers the commands that you most typically enter while typing in a command window.
          • Sections 2 through 5 document the programmer’s interface to the Linux system.
          • Section 6 documents some of the amusements and games that are included in the Linux system.
    • A Linux Command Sampler (continued)
        • Manual pages (Online documentation)
          • Section 7 describes the device drivers for the system.
          • Section 8 covers the commands used by administrators to manage the system.
          • Section 9 documents the Linux kernel functions programmers use when writing device drivers.
    • A Linux Command Sampler (continued)
    • A Linux Command Sampler (continued)
    • A Linux Command Sampler (continued)
      • Command ls (with -l)
        • Learn everything about a file except its contents:
          • The filename
          • The file size (in bytes)
          • The date and time that the file was created
          • The date and time that the file was last accessed (viewed or printed)
    • A Linux Command Sampler (continued)
      • Command ls (with -l) (cont.)
          • The date and time that the file contents were last modified
          • The number of “aliases” or links to the file
          • The numeric identifier of the user who owns the file
          • The numeric identifier of the group to which the file belongs
          • The access rights for the owner, the group, and all others
    • A Linux Command Sampler (continued)
    • A Linux Command Sampler (continued)
      • Command ls (with -l) (cont.)
        • Files with a type of “d” are directories
        • “ -” are regular files such as word-processing files or spreadsheet files
        • “ l” for symbolic link files
        • “ b” for block device files
        • “ c” for character device files
    • A Linux Command Sampler (continued)
    • Planning for Installation
      • Answer the following questions:
        • What is the new server’s name?
        • What is the server’s IP address?
        • What kind of video card is installed in the server?
        • What do you want the administrative user’s password to be?
        • How can I remember all of this information?
    • Installing and Configuring a Red Hat Linux Server
      • Step by step
        • Select the language the system will use
        • Confirm the keyboard layout
        • Confirm your mouse type
        • Select disk drive partitioning options
        • Choose booting options
    • Installing and Configuring a Red Hat Linux Server (continued)
      • Step by step (cont.)
        • Configure the network interface (or interfaces)
        • Configure the network firewall options
        • Add support for additional languages
        • Set the time and time zone
        • Enter (and confirm) the root (administrator) password
    • Configuring Linux for Network Administration
      • The basics of adding users and groups
      • The basics of modifying file access permissions
        • Two commands:
          • groupadd
          • useradd.
    • Configuring Linux for Network Administration (continued)
    • Configuring Linux for Network Administration (continued)
      • To add group IDs to your Linux system:
        • Type groupadd instructors and then press Enter at the command prompt. The group instructors is added.
        • Type groupadd students and then press Enter . The group students is added.
        • Type groupadd administrators and then press Enter . The group administrators is added.
    • Configuring Linux for Network Administration (continued)
      • To add a new user and assign the user a password:
        • Type useradd –g users –G instructors thomas and then press Enter to add a new user account named thomas.
        • Type passwd thomas and then press Enter.
    • Configuring Linux for Network Administration (continued)
        • Linux prompts you to type the new password.
        • Linux prompts you to retype your password. Enter the same password again; this confirmation helps ensure that you type your new password accurately.
    • Configuring Linux for Network Administration (continued)
      • Changing File Access Permissions
        • To create a directory and assign it to a group
          • If you are still logged on to your Linux system, log off by typing exit and then pressing Enter.
          • To log back on to your system as user thomas, type thomas at the login prompt and then press Enter .
    • Configuring Linux for Network Administration (continued)
          • Type the password you assigned for thomas and then press Enter .
          • You see a command window and a command prompt. To create the new directory, type mkdir PROGRAMS and then press Enter .
    • Configuring Linux for Network Administration (continued)
            • Type ls -l and then press Enter . Notice that the directory belongs to the group users. That’s because the primary group to which the user thomas belongs is users.
            • Type chgrp instructors PROGRAMS and then press Enter to assign ownership of the PROGRAMS directory to the group instructors.
    • Configuring Linux for Network Administration (continued)
            • Type ls -l and then press Enter . Notice that the directory is now assigned to the group instructors.
    • Configuring Linux for Network Administration (continued)
        • To change the access permissions for the PROGRAMS directory:
          • Log on as the user thomas (whose primary directory is instructors ). Type chmod g+w PROGRAMS and then press Enter . This command adds write access for the instructors group to the directory PROGRAMS.
          • Next, you will remove read and write access to the PROGRAMS directory for all others. To do so, type chmod o-rw PROGRAMS and then press Enter .
    • Configuring Linux for Network Administration (continued)
          • Type ls -l and then press Enter to view the access permissions assigned to PROGRAMS.You should see a line for PROGRAMS that includes permissions of drwxrwx--x.
    • Internetworking with Other Network Operating Systems
      • Samba
        • Communicates with Windows servers
      • WINE
        • Enables Windows programs to run on Linux
      • VMware
        • Emulates a complete Intel-based computer
      • Telnet
    • Internetworking with Other Network Operating Systems (continued)
    • Internetworking with Other Network Operating Systems (continued)
    • Chapter summary
      • Describe the origins and history of the UNIX operating system
      • Identify similarities and differences between popular implementations of UNIX
      • Understand why you might choose a UNIX or Linux server for a corporate network
    • Chapter summary (continued)
      • Explain and execute basic UNIX and Linux commands
      • Install Linux on an Intel-based PC
      • Use Linux to add groups and users and to change file access permissions
      • Explain how UNIX and Linux can be internetworked with other operating systems