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Chapter 9:  Networking with Unix and Linux Network+ Guide to Networks
Objectives: <ul><li>Describe the origins and history of the UNIX operating system </li></ul><ul><li>Identify similarities ...
Objectives: (continued) <ul><li>Explain and execute basic UNIX and Linux commands </li></ul><ul><li>Install Linux on an In...
A Brief History of UNIX <ul><li>AT&T Source code </li></ul><ul><li>System V. </li></ul><ul><li>BSD (Berkeley Software Dist...
Varieties of UNIX <ul><li>UNIX features: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple, simultaneously logged on users </li></ul></ul><ul...
Varieties of UNIX (continued) <ul><li>UNIX features: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The ability to start a program without interfer...
Varieties of UNIX (continued) <ul><li>Proprietary UNIX </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Licensed copy from The SCO Group </li></ul></...
Varieties of UNIX (continued) <ul><li>Proprietary UNIX </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proprietary UNIX system advantages: </li></ul...
Open Source UNIX  <ul><li>Open Source UNIX </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open source software or Freely distributable software </l...
Open Source UNIX (continued) <ul><li>Open Source UNIX </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary advantage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><...
Why Choose Linux? <ul><li>What considerations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is it compatible with my existing infrastructure? </l...
Why Choose Linux? (continued) <ul><li>What considerations: (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does it support the additional se...
Linux Server Hardware Requirements <ul><li>Table 9-1 shows the minimum hardware requirements for the various components of...
Linux Server Hardware Requirements (continued)
Linux Server Hardware Requirements (continued) <ul><li>What additional hardware your server may require: </li></ul><ul><ul...
A Closer Look at Linux <ul><li>Linux Multiprocessing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In addition to processes, Linux also supports t...
A Closer Look at Linux (continued) <ul><li>The Linux Memory Model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use both physical and virtual memo...
A Closer Look at Linux (continued) <ul><li>The Linux Kernel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kernel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Co...
A Closer Look at Linux (continued) <ul><li>Linux File and Directory Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hierarchical file syst...
A Closer Look at Linux (continued)
A Closer Look at Linux (continued) <ul><li>Linux File Services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Native file system type, called ext3 ...
A Closer Look at Linux (continued) <ul><li>Linux Internet Services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>UNIX-based systems have deep root...
A Linux Command Sampler <ul><li>The command line is the primary method of interacting with a Linux system </li></ul><ul><u...
A Linux Command Sampler (continued) <ul><ul><li>Manual pages (Online documentation) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Section...
A Linux Command Sampler (continued) <ul><ul><li>Manual pages (Online documentation) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Section...
A Linux Command Sampler (continued)
A Linux Command Sampler (continued)
A Linux Command Sampler (continued) <ul><li>Command ls (with -l) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn everything about a file excep...
A Linux Command Sampler (continued) <ul><li>Command ls (with -l) (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The date and time that ...
A Linux Command Sampler (continued)
A Linux Command Sampler (continued) <ul><li>Command ls (with -l) (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Files with a type of “d” ar...
A Linux Command Sampler (continued)
Planning for Installation <ul><li>Answer the following questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the new server’s name? </l...
Installing and Configuring a Red Hat Linux Server <ul><li>Step by step </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Select the language the syste...
Installing and Configuring a Red Hat Linux Server (continued) <ul><li>Step by step (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Configure...
Configuring Linux for Network Administration <ul><li>The basics of adding users and groups </li></ul><ul><li>The basics of...
Configuring Linux for Network Administration (continued)
Configuring Linux for Network Administration  (continued) <ul><li>To add group IDs to your Linux system: </li></ul><ul><ul...
Configuring Linux for Network Administration (continued) <ul><li>To add a new user and assign the user a password: </li></...
Configuring Linux for Network Administration (continued) <ul><ul><li>Linux prompts you to type the new password.  </li></u...
Configuring Linux for Network Administration (continued) <ul><li>Changing File Access Permissions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To...
Configuring Linux for Network Administration (continued) <ul><ul><ul><li>Type the password you assigned for thomas and the...
Configuring Linux for Network Administration (continued) <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Type  ls -l  and then press  Enter . Notice t...
Configuring Linux for Network Administration (continued) <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Type  ls -l  and then press  Enter . Notice t...
Configuring Linux for Network Administration (continued) <ul><ul><li>To change the access permissions for the PROGRAMS dir...
Configuring Linux for Network Administration (continued) <ul><ul><ul><li>Type  ls   -l  and then press  Enter  to view the...
Internetworking with Other Network Operating Systems <ul><li>Samba </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicates with Windows servers...
Internetworking with Other Network Operating Systems (continued)
Internetworking with Other Network Operating Systems (continued)
Chapter summary <ul><li>Describe the origins and history of the UNIX operating system </li></ul><ul><li>Identify similarit...
Chapter summary (continued) <ul><li>Explain and execute basic UNIX and Linux commands </li></ul><ul><li>Install Linux on a...
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Chapter09 -- networking with unix and linux

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Transcript of "Chapter09 -- networking with unix and linux"

  1. 1. Chapter 9: Networking with Unix and Linux Network+ Guide to Networks
  2. 2. Objectives: <ul><li>Describe the origins and history of the UNIX operating system </li></ul><ul><li>Identify similarities and differences between popular implementations of UNIX </li></ul><ul><li>Understand why you might choose a UNIX or Linux server for a corporate network </li></ul>
  3. 3. Objectives: (continued) <ul><li>Explain and execute basic UNIX and Linux commands </li></ul><ul><li>Install Linux on an Intel-based PC </li></ul><ul><li>Use Linux to add groups and users and to change file access permissions </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how UNIX and Linux can be internetworked with other operating systems </li></ul>
  4. 4. A Brief History of UNIX <ul><li>AT&T Source code </li></ul><ul><li>System V. </li></ul><ul><li>BSD (Berkeley Software Distribution) </li></ul><ul><li>The SCO Group </li></ul><ul><li>The Open Group </li></ul>
  5. 5. Varieties of UNIX <ul><li>UNIX features: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple, simultaneously logged on users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple, simultaneously running tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mount disk partitions upon demand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Permissions for file and directory access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uniform method of issuing or receiving data from hardware devices, files, and running programs </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Varieties of UNIX (continued) <ul><li>UNIX features: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The ability to start a program without interfering with a currently running program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hundreds of subsystems, including dozens of programming languages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Source code portability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Window interfaces that the user can configure, the most popular of which is the X Window system </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Varieties of UNIX (continued) <ul><li>Proprietary UNIX </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Licensed copy from The SCO Group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Popular Vendors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sun Microsystems--Solaris </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IBM--AIX </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>HP--HP-UX, </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Varieties of UNIX (continued) <ul><li>Proprietary UNIX </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proprietary UNIX system advantages: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Accountability and support </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Optimization of hardware and software </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Predictability and compatibility </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One drawback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No access to the system’s source code </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Open Source UNIX <ul><li>Open Source UNIX </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open source software or Freely distributable software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>GNU </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>BSD </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Linux </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Open Source UNIX (continued) <ul><li>Open Source UNIX </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary advantage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Users can modify its code </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Freely distributable </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Run not only on Intel-based processors, but also on other processor brands </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Why Choose Linux? <ul><li>What considerations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is it compatible with my existing infrastructure? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Will it provide the security required by my resources? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can my technical staff manage it effectively? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Will my applications run smoothly on it? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Will it accommodate future growth (is it scalable)? </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Why Choose Linux? (continued) <ul><li>What considerations: (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does it support the additional services required by my users? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does it fit my budget? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What additional training will it require? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can I count on competent and consistent support from its manufacturer? </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Linux Server Hardware Requirements <ul><li>Table 9-1 shows the minimum hardware requirements for the various components of a Linux server. </li></ul><ul><li>Hardware compatibility list (HCL) at www.tldp.org/HOWTO/Hardware-HOWTO/. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Linux Server Hardware Requirements (continued)
  15. 15. Linux Server Hardware Requirements (continued) <ul><li>What additional hardware your server may require: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Which applications and services will run </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How many users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How much random access memory (RAM) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How much secondary storage (hard disk) </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. A Closer Look at Linux <ul><li>Linux Multiprocessing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In addition to processes, Linux also supports threads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allocates separate resources (such as memory space) to each process as it is created </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Symmetric multiprocessing (SMP) </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. A Closer Look at Linux (continued) <ul><li>The Linux Memory Model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use both physical and virtual memory efficiently </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allocates a memory area for each application </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attempts to decrease the inefficiency of this practice, however, by sharing memory between programs wherever it can </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. A Closer Look at Linux (continued) <ul><li>The Linux Kernel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kernel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Core of the Linux system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kernel module </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Instructions for performing a specific task </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. A Closer Look at Linux (continued) <ul><li>Linux File and Directory Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hierarchical file system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>UNIX system was one of the first to implement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Method of organizing files and directories on a disk in which directories may contain files and other directories </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most operating systems use hierarchical file systems </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. A Closer Look at Linux (continued)
  21. 21. A Closer Look at Linux (continued) <ul><li>Linux File Services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Native file system type, called ext3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows you to access DOS FAT as well as NTFS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can both attach shared file systems and share local partitions with other users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Windows or NetWare </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Network File System (NFS) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. A Closer Look at Linux (continued) <ul><li>Linux Internet Services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>UNIX-based systems have deep roots in Internet services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leading Internet Web server is an open source software application called Apache </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Original Web tools—including the first browsers and servers—were developed on UNIX-based systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Full range of Internet services as standard components </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. A Linux Command Sampler <ul><li>The command line is the primary method of interacting with a Linux system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Command interpreter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shell </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. A Linux Command Sampler (continued) <ul><ul><li>Manual pages (Online documentation) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Section 1 covers the commands that you most typically enter while typing in a command window. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sections 2 through 5 document the programmer’s interface to the Linux system. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Section 6 documents some of the amusements and games that are included in the Linux system. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. A Linux Command Sampler (continued) <ul><ul><li>Manual pages (Online documentation) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Section 7 describes the device drivers for the system. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Section 8 covers the commands used by administrators to manage the system. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Section 9 documents the Linux kernel functions programmers use when writing device drivers. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. A Linux Command Sampler (continued)
  27. 27. A Linux Command Sampler (continued)
  28. 28. A Linux Command Sampler (continued) <ul><li>Command ls (with -l) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn everything about a file except its contents: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The filename </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The file size (in bytes) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The date and time that the file was created </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The date and time that the file was last accessed (viewed or printed) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 29. A Linux Command Sampler (continued) <ul><li>Command ls (with -l) (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The date and time that the file contents were last modified </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The number of “aliases” or links to the file </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The numeric identifier of the user who owns the file </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The numeric identifier of the group to which the file belongs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The access rights for the owner, the group, and all others </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 30. A Linux Command Sampler (continued)
  31. 31. A Linux Command Sampler (continued) <ul><li>Command ls (with -l) (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Files with a type of “d” are directories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ -” are regular files such as word-processing files or spreadsheet files </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ l” for symbolic link files </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ b” for block device files </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ c” for character device files </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. A Linux Command Sampler (continued)
  33. 33. Planning for Installation <ul><li>Answer the following questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the new server’s name? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the server’s IP address? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What kind of video card is installed in the server? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What do you want the administrative user’s password to be? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How can I remember all of this information? </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Installing and Configuring a Red Hat Linux Server <ul><li>Step by step </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Select the language the system will use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confirm the keyboard layout </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confirm your mouse type </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Select disk drive partitioning options </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Choose booting options </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Installing and Configuring a Red Hat Linux Server (continued) <ul><li>Step by step (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Configure the network interface (or interfaces) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Configure the network firewall options </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Add support for additional languages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Set the time and time zone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enter (and confirm) the root (administrator) password </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Configuring Linux for Network Administration <ul><li>The basics of adding users and groups </li></ul><ul><li>The basics of modifying file access permissions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two commands: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>groupadd </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>useradd. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Configuring Linux for Network Administration (continued)
  38. 38. Configuring Linux for Network Administration (continued) <ul><li>To add group IDs to your Linux system: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Type groupadd instructors and then press Enter at the command prompt. The group instructors is added. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type groupadd students and then press Enter . The group students is added. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type groupadd administrators and then press Enter . The group administrators is added. </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Configuring Linux for Network Administration (continued) <ul><li>To add a new user and assign the user a password: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Type useradd –g users –G instructors thomas and then press Enter to add a new user account named thomas. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type passwd thomas and then press Enter. </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Configuring Linux for Network Administration (continued) <ul><ul><li>Linux prompts you to type the new password. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linux prompts you to retype your password. Enter the same password again; this confirmation helps ensure that you type your new password accurately. </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Configuring Linux for Network Administration (continued) <ul><li>Changing File Access Permissions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To create a directory and assign it to a group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If you are still logged on to your Linux system, log off by typing exit and then pressing Enter. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To log back on to your system as user thomas, type thomas at the login prompt and then press Enter . </li></ul></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Configuring Linux for Network Administration (continued) <ul><ul><ul><li>Type the password you assigned for thomas and then press Enter . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>You see a command window and a command prompt. To create the new directory, type mkdir PROGRAMS and then press Enter . </li></ul></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Configuring Linux for Network Administration (continued) <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Type ls -l and then press Enter . Notice that the directory belongs to the group users. That’s because the primary group to which the user thomas belongs is users. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Type chgrp instructors PROGRAMS and then press Enter to assign ownership of the PROGRAMS directory to the group instructors. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Configuring Linux for Network Administration (continued) <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Type ls -l and then press Enter . Notice that the directory is now assigned to the group instructors. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  45. 45. Configuring Linux for Network Administration (continued) <ul><ul><li>To change the access permissions for the PROGRAMS directory: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Log on as the user thomas (whose primary directory is instructors ). Type chmod g+w PROGRAMS and then press Enter . This command adds write access for the instructors group to the directory PROGRAMS. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Next, you will remove read and write access to the PROGRAMS directory for all others. To do so, type chmod o-rw PROGRAMS and then press Enter . </li></ul></ul></ul>
  46. 46. Configuring Linux for Network Administration (continued) <ul><ul><ul><li>Type ls -l and then press Enter to view the access permissions assigned to PROGRAMS.You should see a line for PROGRAMS that includes permissions of drwxrwx--x. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  47. 47. Internetworking with Other Network Operating Systems <ul><li>Samba </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicates with Windows servers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>WINE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enables Windows programs to run on Linux </li></ul></ul><ul><li>VMware </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emulates a complete Intel-based computer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Telnet </li></ul>
  48. 48. Internetworking with Other Network Operating Systems (continued)
  49. 49. Internetworking with Other Network Operating Systems (continued)
  50. 50. Chapter summary <ul><li>Describe the origins and history of the UNIX operating system </li></ul><ul><li>Identify similarities and differences between popular implementations of UNIX </li></ul><ul><li>Understand why you might choose a UNIX or Linux server for a corporate network </li></ul>
  51. 51. Chapter summary (continued) <ul><li>Explain and execute basic UNIX and Linux commands </li></ul><ul><li>Install Linux on an Intel-based PC </li></ul><ul><li>Use Linux to add groups and users and to change file access permissions </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how UNIX and Linux can be internetworked with other operating systems </li></ul>
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