Syntax (II Bimestre)


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Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja
II Bimestre
Abril-Agosto 2007
Ponente: Dr. Rosario Burneo

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Syntax (II Bimestre)

  2. 2. MODIFICATION <ul><li>Modification is the use of words or structures to give more information about the person, thing, action or quality being modified. </li></ul><ul><li>Traditionally, modification relations are classified in two categories: adjectives and adverbs. </li></ul><ul><li>Adjectives modify nouns. While adverbs might modify verbs, adjectives and other adverbs </li></ul>
  3. 3. ADJECTIVES <ul><li>The category “adjective” is an open class. It means that there many adjectives in English. </li></ul><ul><li>Adjectives can be compared and intensified. </li></ul><ul><li>Adjectives are “content words” </li></ul>
  4. 4. Adjectives <ul><li>In this category, we can include: </li></ul><ul><li>Typical adjectives (tall), </li></ul><ul><li>Present participles forms (charming), describing an ongoing situation; and, </li></ul><ul><li>past participles forms (broken), which describe a resultant state. </li></ul>
  5. 5. TYPES OF ADJECTIVES <ul><li>Also nouns might function as adjectives. </li></ul><ul><li>They are called Denominal adjectives. </li></ul><ul><li>The history class is tomorrow </li></ul><ul><li>Prenominal adjectives go before the noun they modify. They can modify almost any noun in English. </li></ul><ul><li>I bought an old house </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Predicate adjectives follow copula verbs </li></ul><ul><li>Your career is important. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Adjectives <ul><li>Postnominal adjectives occur after the noun they modify. Typical adjectives and PPs fulfill this function. </li></ul><ul><li>-The people present were angry </li></ul><ul><li>- The girl in blue is my sister </li></ul>
  8. 8. COPULA VERBS <ul><li>A copula verb links a subject to a complement in a sentence. The verb BE is usually known as a copula, but some linking verbs (become, look, seem, feel) also perform this function. </li></ul><ul><li>My children are very young </li></ul><ul><li>They feel tired </li></ul>
  9. 9. ADJECTIVE COMPLEMENTS <ul><li>Adjective complements complete the meaning of some adjectives, such as fond, aware, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Mike is fond of his profession </li></ul><ul><li>Prepositional phrases function as adjective complements </li></ul>
  10. 10. ADVERBIALS <ul><li>Adverbs tell you where, when, how long, how, why, how often, to what extent, and under what condition something happens. </li></ul><ul><li>PPS, typical adverbs, adverb phrases and clauses might function as adverbials. </li></ul><ul><li>Locative adverbs: adverbs of place </li></ul><ul><li>adverbs of direction </li></ul><ul><li>My history book in on that desk (place) </li></ul><ul><li>They walked down this street (direction) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Temporal Adverbs <ul><li>Adverbs of point on time indicate when an event occurs. </li></ul><ul><li>They can indicate: </li></ul><ul><li>a. Specific time frame. </li></ul><ul><li>Our class is at 5 p.m. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Temporal Adverbs <ul><li>b. Time frame bound on one side </li></ul><ul><li>You must be back at noon </li></ul><ul><li>c. Time frame bound on both sides </li></ul><ul><li>The meeting is from 10 to 12 </li></ul>
  13. 13. Temporal Adverbs <ul><li>d. Vague time frame (not specific) </li></ul><ul><li>We plan to visit Brazil someday Adverbs of duration indicate how long an event lasts. </li></ul><ul><li>They will be here for two weeks </li></ul><ul><li>Adverbs of frequency specify how often an event occurs </li></ul><ul><li>Sam was sick twice last month </li></ul>
  14. 14. Temporal Adverbs <ul><li>Time relationship adverbs communicate a time in relation to some other time. </li></ul><ul><li>I lost my cell phone again </li></ul>
  15. 15. Adverbs of Manner and Means <ul><li>Adverbs of manner indicate how something is done </li></ul><ul><li>The President acted very coldly </li></ul><ul><li>Steven learns math easily </li></ul><ul><li>Adverbs of means indicate by what method something is done They usually indicate the instrument used to do something </li></ul><ul><li>I cut my finger with a knife </li></ul>
  16. 16. Adverbs of Reason/purpose and Result <ul><li>Adverbs of reason and purpose indicate why something happens. </li></ul><ul><li>Elizabeth killed herself for love (reason) </li></ul><ul><li>My students trained hard for the context (purpose) </li></ul>
  17. 17. CLAUSES <ul><li>A clause is a syntactic structure larger than a phrase. It must have two main constituents: a noun phrase that functions as the subject, and a verb phrase that functions as the predicate. </li></ul><ul><li>word: people </li></ul><ul><li>phrase: these people </li></ul><ul><li>clause: these people live in a small town </li></ul>
  18. 18. Constituents <ul><li>A constituent is a string of words grammatically structured and which expresses meaning. </li></ul><ul><li>Noun phrases verbs phrases, prepositional phrases, and others are regarded as constituents. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Constituents… <ul><li>A constituent has these characteristics: </li></ul><ul><li>- It behaves distributinally. For example, a noun phrase can appear in subject or object position. </li></ul><ul><li>The students are in class </li></ul><ul><li>(NP subject) </li></ul>
  20. 20. Constituents… <ul><li>- It can be coordinated with another similar structure. For example, two noun phrases can be joined by the conjunction AND. </li></ul><ul><li>I live here and my brother lives next door </li></ul>
  21. 21. Constituents… <ul><li>It can be replaced by a proform. </li></ul><ul><li>Martha said that she will cook dinner, and so she will </li></ul><ul><li>I like this car because it is fast </li></ul>
  22. 22. Constituents <ul><li>- It can be omitted under appropriate discourse conditions. A constituent can be omitted to avoid repetition. </li></ul><ul><li>Who took the money? </li></ul><ul><li>Bob did (took the money) </li></ul>
  23. 23. OPERATIONS TO JOIN CLAUSES <ul><li>Coordination joins two or more structures of the same type to form a conjoined structure. </li></ul><ul><li>- Conjunction (and) </li></ul><ul><li>- Disjunction (but) </li></ul><ul><li>- Alternation (or) </li></ul>
  24. 24. Correlative conjunctions <ul><li>Correlative Conjunctions (both…and, …) might express conjunction, disjunction and alternation. </li></ul><ul><li>Either Mike or Vincent will pay te bill </li></ul>
  25. 25. Conjunctive Adverbs <ul><li>Conjunctive Adverbs (therefore, however..) link clauses where one is the consequence of the other, or they occur at the same time </li></ul><ul><li>We are poor; therefore, we have to work harder </li></ul>
  26. 26. Subordination <ul><li>Subordination joins a dependent clause to an independent clause. </li></ul><ul><li>Mike looked up when he heard my voice </li></ul><ul><li>Independent clauses can stand alone as full sentences. </li></ul><ul><li>Dependent clauses cannot stand alone because they depend on another clause to have full meaning. </li></ul><ul><li>Some workers expected their boss to join them </li></ul>
  27. 27. RELATIVE CLAUSES <ul><li>Relative clauses are noun clauses that may refer to noun phrases in different positions: </li></ul><ul><li>WHO refers to people and replaces NPs in subject position. </li></ul><ul><li>The doctor who is in your office is very upset </li></ul><ul><li>WHICH refers back to noun phrases functioning as subjects, but naming things. </li></ul><ul><li>The car which caused the accident broke down </li></ul>
  28. 28. Continues… <ul><li>THAT refers to people and things, and it refers back to the subject. </li></ul><ul><li>The house that is on sale is old </li></ul><ul><li>The girl that lives next door is very nice </li></ul>
  29. 29. Finite and Non-finite Clauses <ul><li>Also we can distinguish finite and non-finite clauses. </li></ul><ul><li>Finite clauses contain tensed verbs or modals. </li></ul><ul><li>Non-finite clauses have verbs not marked for tense </li></ul>
  30. 30. ESTRICTIVE AND NONRESTRICTIVE RELATIVE CLAUSES <ul><li>Restrictive relative clauses are noun clauses functioning as adjectives. </li></ul><ul><li>The bus which caused the accident broke down </li></ul><ul><li>Non restrictive relative clauses are set off by commas. </li></ul><ul><li>Doctor Bush, who is an old man, is in the hospital </li></ul>
  31. 31. THAT CLAUSES & RELATIVE CLAUSES <ul><li>That clauses fill noun phrase slots. They function as nouns. </li></ul><ul><li>Architects claim that adobe houses are better for health </li></ul><ul><li>Relative clauses function as adjectives and they are embedded into noun phrases. </li></ul><ul><li>Architects build adobe houses which are better for health </li></ul>
  32. 32. OTHER TYPES OF CLAUSES <ul><li>Infinitival Clauses </li></ul><ul><li>He wants to be happy </li></ul><ul><li>I would prefer for the boys to finish their studies </li></ul><ul><li>Indirect Questions </li></ul><ul><li>The librarian asked which books Sam took </li></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>Adverbial clauses are introduced by words like: after, before, because, if, unless… </li></ul><ul><li>Marie went to Quito after she finished classes </li></ul>
  34. 34. THE EXTERNAL SYNTAX OF CLAUSES <ul><li>Clauses as complements of verbs: </li></ul><ul><li>I asked which car he bought </li></ul><ul><li>Clauses as complements of adjectives </li></ul><ul><li>Michael is eager to come home </li></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>Clauses as complements of prepositions. </li></ul><ul><li>Results depend on how data is processed </li></ul>
  36. 36. Continues……….. <ul><li>Clauses as complements of nouns </li></ul><ul><li>Robert’s eagerness to win the game is amazing </li></ul><ul><li>Clauses as subjects </li></ul><ul><li>That Sam bought a new house surprised me </li></ul>
  37. 37. TRANSFORMATIONS <ul><li>Syntactic Rules: </li></ul><ul><li>- Phrase Structure Rules </li></ul><ul><li>- The Lexicon </li></ul><ul><li>- Lexical Insertion Rule </li></ul>
  38. 38. Operations <ul><li>* movement </li></ul><ul><li>* insertion </li></ul><ul><li>* deletion </li></ul><ul><li>* copying </li></ul>
  39. 39. STRUCTURAL DESCRIPTION AND STRUCTURAL CHANGE <ul><li>Structural description refers to any string of words that can be analyzed (NP + VP + NP) </li></ul><ul><li>Structural Change to the transformations that can be applied to a basic structure. Deletion, insertion and movement are the types of structural change. </li></ul>
  40. 40. TRANSFORMATION RULES <ul><li>NP-Aux. Inversion Rule </li></ul><ul><li>WH-Movement </li></ul><ul><li>Negative Insertion Rule </li></ul><ul><li>Passive Transformation Rule </li></ul>