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Syntax (II Bimestre)
 

Syntax (II Bimestre)

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Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja

Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja
Inglés
Syntax
II Bimestre
Abril-Agosto 2007
Ponente: Dr. Rosario Burneo

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    Syntax (II Bimestre) Syntax (II Bimestre) Presentation Transcript

    • ESCUELA : PONENTE : BIMESTRE : SYNTAX CICLO : INGLÉS II BIMESTRE Dra. Rosario Burneo ABRIL – AGOSTO 2007
    • MODIFICATION
      • Modification is the use of words or structures to give more information about the person, thing, action or quality being modified.
      • Traditionally, modification relations are classified in two categories: adjectives and adverbs.
      • Adjectives modify nouns. While adverbs might modify verbs, adjectives and other adverbs
    • ADJECTIVES
      • The category “adjective” is an open class. It means that there many adjectives in English.
      • Adjectives can be compared and intensified.
      • Adjectives are “content words”
    • Adjectives
      • In this category, we can include:
      • Typical adjectives (tall),
      • Present participles forms (charming), describing an ongoing situation; and,
      • past participles forms (broken), which describe a resultant state.
    • TYPES OF ADJECTIVES
      • Also nouns might function as adjectives.
      • They are called Denominal adjectives.
      • The history class is tomorrow
      • Prenominal adjectives go before the noun they modify. They can modify almost any noun in English.
      • I bought an old house
      • Predicate adjectives follow copula verbs
      • Your career is important.
    • Adjectives
      • Postnominal adjectives occur after the noun they modify. Typical adjectives and PPs fulfill this function.
      • -The people present were angry
      • - The girl in blue is my sister
    • COPULA VERBS
      • A copula verb links a subject to a complement in a sentence. The verb BE is usually known as a copula, but some linking verbs (become, look, seem, feel) also perform this function.
      • My children are very young
      • They feel tired
    • ADJECTIVE COMPLEMENTS
      • Adjective complements complete the meaning of some adjectives, such as fond, aware, etc.
      • Mike is fond of his profession
      • Prepositional phrases function as adjective complements
    • ADVERBIALS
      • Adverbs tell you where, when, how long, how, why, how often, to what extent, and under what condition something happens.
      • PPS, typical adverbs, adverb phrases and clauses might function as adverbials.
      • Locative adverbs: adverbs of place
      • adverbs of direction
      • My history book in on that desk (place)
      • They walked down this street (direction)
    • Temporal Adverbs
      • Adverbs of point on time indicate when an event occurs.
      • They can indicate:
      • a. Specific time frame.
      • Our class is at 5 p.m.
    • Temporal Adverbs
      • b. Time frame bound on one side
      • You must be back at noon
      • c. Time frame bound on both sides
      • The meeting is from 10 to 12
    • Temporal Adverbs
      • d. Vague time frame (not specific)
      • We plan to visit Brazil someday Adverbs of duration indicate how long an event lasts.
      • They will be here for two weeks
      • Adverbs of frequency specify how often an event occurs
      • Sam was sick twice last month
    • Temporal Adverbs
      • Time relationship adverbs communicate a time in relation to some other time.
      • I lost my cell phone again
    • Adverbs of Manner and Means
      • Adverbs of manner indicate how something is done
      • The President acted very coldly
      • Steven learns math easily
      • Adverbs of means indicate by what method something is done They usually indicate the instrument used to do something
      • I cut my finger with a knife
    • Adverbs of Reason/purpose and Result
      • Adverbs of reason and purpose indicate why something happens.
      • Elizabeth killed herself for love (reason)
      • My students trained hard for the context (purpose)
    • CLAUSES
      • A clause is a syntactic structure larger than a phrase. It must have two main constituents: a noun phrase that functions as the subject, and a verb phrase that functions as the predicate.
      • word: people
      • phrase: these people
      • clause: these people live in a small town
    • Constituents
      • A constituent is a string of words grammatically structured and which expresses meaning.
      • Noun phrases verbs phrases, prepositional phrases, and others are regarded as constituents.
    • Constituents…
      • A constituent has these characteristics:
      • - It behaves distributinally. For example, a noun phrase can appear in subject or object position.
      • The students are in class
      • (NP subject)
    • Constituents…
      • - It can be coordinated with another similar structure. For example, two noun phrases can be joined by the conjunction AND.
      • I live here and my brother lives next door
    • Constituents…
      • It can be replaced by a proform.
      • Martha said that she will cook dinner, and so she will
      • I like this car because it is fast
    • Constituents
      • - It can be omitted under appropriate discourse conditions. A constituent can be omitted to avoid repetition.
      • Who took the money?
      • Bob did (took the money)
    • OPERATIONS TO JOIN CLAUSES
      • Coordination joins two or more structures of the same type to form a conjoined structure.
      • - Conjunction (and)
      • - Disjunction (but)
      • - Alternation (or)
    • Correlative conjunctions
      • Correlative Conjunctions (both…and, …) might express conjunction, disjunction and alternation.
      • Either Mike or Vincent will pay te bill
    • Conjunctive Adverbs
      • Conjunctive Adverbs (therefore, however..) link clauses where one is the consequence of the other, or they occur at the same time
      • We are poor; therefore, we have to work harder
    • Subordination
      • Subordination joins a dependent clause to an independent clause.
      • Mike looked up when he heard my voice
      • Independent clauses can stand alone as full sentences.
      • Dependent clauses cannot stand alone because they depend on another clause to have full meaning.
      • Some workers expected their boss to join them
    • RELATIVE CLAUSES
      • Relative clauses are noun clauses that may refer to noun phrases in different positions:
      • WHO refers to people and replaces NPs in subject position.
      • The doctor who is in your office is very upset
      • WHICH refers back to noun phrases functioning as subjects, but naming things.
      • The car which caused the accident broke down
    • Continues…
      • THAT refers to people and things, and it refers back to the subject.
      • The house that is on sale is old
      • The girl that lives next door is very nice
    • Finite and Non-finite Clauses
      • Also we can distinguish finite and non-finite clauses.
      • Finite clauses contain tensed verbs or modals.
      • Non-finite clauses have verbs not marked for tense
    • ESTRICTIVE AND NONRESTRICTIVE RELATIVE CLAUSES
      • Restrictive relative clauses are noun clauses functioning as adjectives.
      • The bus which caused the accident broke down
      • Non restrictive relative clauses are set off by commas.
      • Doctor Bush, who is an old man, is in the hospital
    • THAT CLAUSES & RELATIVE CLAUSES
      • That clauses fill noun phrase slots. They function as nouns.
      • Architects claim that adobe houses are better for health
      • Relative clauses function as adjectives and they are embedded into noun phrases.
      • Architects build adobe houses which are better for health
    • OTHER TYPES OF CLAUSES
      • Infinitival Clauses
      • He wants to be happy
      • I would prefer for the boys to finish their studies
      • Indirect Questions
      • The librarian asked which books Sam took
      • Adverbial clauses are introduced by words like: after, before, because, if, unless…
      • Marie went to Quito after she finished classes
    • THE EXTERNAL SYNTAX OF CLAUSES
      • Clauses as complements of verbs:
      • I asked which car he bought
      • Clauses as complements of adjectives
      • Michael is eager to come home
      • Clauses as complements of prepositions.
      • Results depend on how data is processed
    • Continues………..
      • Clauses as complements of nouns
      • Robert’s eagerness to win the game is amazing
      • Clauses as subjects
      • That Sam bought a new house surprised me
    • TRANSFORMATIONS
      • Syntactic Rules:
      • - Phrase Structure Rules
      • - The Lexicon
      • - Lexical Insertion Rule
    • Operations
      • * movement
      • * insertion
      • * deletion
      • * copying
    • STRUCTURAL DESCRIPTION AND STRUCTURAL CHANGE
      • Structural description refers to any string of words that can be analyzed (NP + VP + NP)
      • Structural Change to the transformations that can be applied to a basic structure. Deletion, insertion and movement are the types of structural change.
    • TRANSFORMATION RULES
      • NP-Aux. Inversion Rule
      • WH-Movement
      • Negative Insertion Rule
      • Passive Transformation Rule
    •