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GROUP 14:
RIA MARDIATI
WIRA AFRIOZA
NIKE SUWIRTA
Sentences as arguments
An argument can also be a predication,a real or
potential fact,and such an argument is expressed as...
Full statement clauses
A clause that has these characteristics. Subject pronoun
as subject full possibility of verb modifi...
QUESTION, INFINITIVE, AND
GERUND CLAUSES
1. Question clauses
Question as well as statement are embedded in other
sentences...
Gerund clauses
A gerund clauses has a verb with the suffix –ing.
Note the following paired sentences in which the
same ver...
VERBAL NOUNS
The kind of constructions they appear in
the subject of the verbal noun is typically
possesive and the objec...
NON - FACTUAL CLAUSES
The non factual clause : the presence
or absence of the ending –s with
I,you,or a plural subject thi...
COMPARING TYPES OF
CLAUSES
Different kinds of clauses can present different kins of
meanings, but this is obvious only wh...
SYNTACTIC AMBIGUITY
 Syntactic ambiguity may be in the surface structure of the
sentence: words and cluster together in d...
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Semantic pragmatic

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Semantic pragmatic

  1. 1. GROUP 14: RIA MARDIATI WIRA AFRIOZA NIKE SUWIRTA
  2. 2. Sentences as arguments An argument can also be a predication,a real or potential fact,and such an argument is expressed as clause An sentence that is embedded in another sentence.in other words,we can make statement and questions about facts. for example:  They know (that) I opened the letter
  3. 3. Full statement clauses A clause that has these characteristics. Subject pronoun as subject full possibility of verb modifications, is a full clause. A combination of adjective and preposition may be followed by an abstract complement. The same adjective may have a clause as complement in which case the preposition disappears. Clauses can also occur in subject position.
  4. 4. QUESTION, INFINITIVE, AND GERUND CLAUSES 1. Question clauses Question as well as statement are embedded in other sentences. Example :  Robert doesn’t know what time is it 2. Infinitive clauses The sentence with expect contains one kind of reduced clause, an infinitive clause. Example : The Eagles expect to win the game
  5. 5. Gerund clauses A gerund clauses has a verb with the suffix –ing. Note the following paired sentences in which the same verb is followed by infinitive clause and gerund clause. Example :  Ruth heard a baby crying
  6. 6. VERBAL NOUNS The kind of constructions they appear in the subject of the verbal noun is typically possesive and the object of the verbal noun is preceded by of Example : We applauded Mark’s winning of the race
  7. 7. NON - FACTUAL CLAUSES The non factual clause : the presence or absence of the ending –s with I,you,or a plural subject this distinction is lost : I insist that they work very hard is ambiguous. Example : I insist that they should work hard
  8. 8. COMPARING TYPES OF CLAUSES Different kinds of clauses can present different kins of meanings, but this is obvious only when the same predicate can be accompanied by different kinds of clauses. The verb agree for instance,can be followed by an infinitive clause and full clause . Example : We agree to meet again the next day
  9. 9. SYNTACTIC AMBIGUITY  Syntactic ambiguity may be in the surface structure of the sentence: words and cluster together in different possible constructions.  Syntactic ambiguity may also be in the deep structure : one sequence of words may have more than one interpretation, generally because the rules of sentence construction allow ellipsis, the deletion of what is ‘understood’ a) Construction containing the coordinators and and or b) A coordinate head with one modifier c) A head with a coordinate modifier d) A head with an inner modifier and an outer modifier e) A complement and modifier or two complements f) Certain function words,including not .

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