Sentences as arguments
An argument can also be a predication,a real or
potential fact,and such an argument is expressed as
An sentence that is embedded in another sentence.in
other words,we can make statement and questions
They know (that) I opened the letter
Full statement clauses
A clause that has these characteristics. Subject pronoun
as subject full possibility of verb modifications, is a
A combination of adjective and preposition may be
followed by an abstract complement. The same
adjective may have a clause as complement in which
case the preposition disappears.
Clauses can also occur in subject position.
QUESTION, INFINITIVE, AND
1. Question clauses
Question as well as statement are embedded in other
Robert doesn’t know what time is it
2. Infinitive clauses
The sentence with expect contains one kind of reduced
clause, an infinitive clause.
The Eagles expect to win the game
A gerund clauses has a verb with the suffix –ing.
Note the following paired sentences in which the
same verb is followed by infinitive clause and
Ruth heard a baby crying
The kind of constructions they appear in
the subject of the verbal noun is typically
possesive and the object of the verbal
noun is preceded by of
We applauded Mark’s winning of the race
NON - FACTUAL CLAUSES
The non factual clause : the presence
or absence of the ending –s with
I,you,or a plural subject this
distinction is lost : I insist that they
work very hard is ambiguous.
I insist that they should work hard
COMPARING TYPES OF
Different kinds of clauses can present different kins of
meanings, but this is obvious only when the same
predicate can be accompanied by different kinds of
clauses. The verb agree for instance,can be followed by
an infinitive clause and full clause .
We agree to meet again the next day
Syntactic ambiguity may be in the surface structure of the
sentence: words and cluster together in different possible
Syntactic ambiguity may also be in the deep structure : one
sequence of words may have more than one interpretation,
generally because the rules of sentence construction allow
ellipsis, the deletion of what is ‘understood’
a) Construction containing the coordinators and and or
b) A coordinate head with one modifier
c) A head with a coordinate modifier
d) A head with an inner modifier and an outer modifier
e) A complement and modifier or two complements
f) Certain function words,including not .