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  1. 1. THE VERB <ul><li>The Category of Order </li></ul><ul><li>The Category of Voice </li></ul>
  2. 2. The Category of Order <ul><li>The opposition of the category </li></ul><ul><li>The problem of the Perfect </li></ul><ul><li>The Function of the Category of Order </li></ul><ul><li>The Perfective Form and the Pefective Aspect </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Category of Order <ul><li>represents temporal correlation </li></ul><ul><li>Non-perfect - Perfect </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Continuous - Continuous </li></ul><ul><li>verb form verb form </li></ul><ul><li>works - has worked </li></ul><ul><li> - has been working </li></ul><ul><li>- has/have V -ed </li></ul><ul><li>unmarked - marked </li></ul>
  4. 4. The problem of the Perfect <ul><li>The English perfect has been the subject of a lengthy discussion. </li></ul><ul><li>There are three views on the problem: </li></ul><ul><li>1) the tense-view; </li></ul><ul><li>2) the aspect-view, </li></ul><ul><li>3) the specific category-view. </li></ul>
  5. 5. The problem of the Perfect <ul><li>Henry Sweet (1892), G. O. Curme (1931), Otto Jespersen (1931) and other traditional grammarians treat the perfect as tense. </li></ul><ul><li>It should be classified in the same way as the categories of past, present </li></ul>
  6. 6. The problem of the Perfect <ul><li>John Lyons (1968) , G. Vorontsova (1960). </li></ul><ul><li>They argue that English has two main aspects “which combine fairly freely with tense and mood: the ’perfect’ (e.g. I have/had read the book, I will/would have read the book) and the ‘progressive’ (I am/was reading the book, I will/would be reading the book). They also combine freely with one another (I have/had been reading the book)”. </li></ul><ul><li>The scholar s also speak of other aspectual distinctions, e.g. the ‘habitual’ (I used to read), the ‘mutative’ (e.g. I got killed). </li></ul>
  7. 7. The problem of the Perfect <ul><li>A.I. Smirnitsky (1959) </li></ul><ul><li>The perfect is neither tense nor aspect, but a specific category different from both. </li></ul><ul><li>He call s it “ the category of time relation”. “the category of correlation”( 1955) . </li></ul><ul><li>B. Ilyish (1971) - “the category of correlation” </li></ul><ul><li>B. S. Khaimovich and B. I. Rogovskaya - “the category of order” </li></ul><ul><li>M. Blokh - “the category of retrospective coordination” or “the category of retrospect”. </li></ul><ul><li>N. Slonimskaya (1975) - “the category of taxis”. </li></ul><ul><li>There is one more term – “ the category of relevant retrospect or the category of relevant precedence ” . </li></ul>
  8. 8. The category of order <ul><li>The perfect form builds up its own category, different from both the &quot;tense&quot; (present — past — future) and the &quot;aspect&quot; (continuous — indefinite), and not reducible to either of them. </li></ul><ul><li>The functional content of the category of &quot;time correlation&quot; (« временная отнесенность ») was defined as priority expressed by the perfect forms in the present, past or future contrasted against the non-expression of priority by the non-perfect forms. </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Function of the C ategory of Order <ul><li>to actualize a process that is anterior to another process, or another moment of time </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>A </li></ul><ul><li>I have worked in London for three years. </li></ul><ul><li>I have finished already. </li></ul><ul><li>B. </li></ul><ul><li>I had worked in London for three years. </li></ul><ul><li>I had finished already. </li></ul><ul><li>C. </li></ul><ul><li>I will have worked in London for three years. </li></ul><ul><li>I will have finished . </li></ul>
  11. 11. The semantic structure of the perfect
  12. 12. <ul><li>Theoretically, the use of the perfect is not necessary when the connection to the deictic centre or centres is expressed by the context or by the co-text. </li></ul><ul><li>According to Marcella Frank (1972:81) </li></ul><ul><li>“ except for since and for , most of the other past-to-present time expressions may be used informally with the past tense” </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>We finished five chapters so far. </li></ul><ul><li>He just (now) came in. </li></ul><ul><li>He recently published his memoirs. </li></ul><ul><li>Compare </li></ul><ul><li>He will not go to the party until he has written the essay. </li></ul><ul><li>BUT </li></ul><ul><li>He won’t go to the party until he completes (finishes) his essay. </li></ul><ul><li>The difference between the perfect and the non-perfect form is that of emphasis </li></ul>
  14. 14. Meaning of The Perfect Form <ul><li>priority of an action to the moment in the past, present and future </li></ul><ul><li>resultative meaning or the meaning of completeness </li></ul><ul><li>length of an action in time till now </li></ul><ul><li>meaning of a repeated action </li></ul>
  15. 15. The Perfective Form and the Perfective Aspect <ul><li>I have already written the letter. </li></ul><ul><li>Я уже написал письмо. </li></ul><ul><li>After the teacher had gone, the students dispersed. </li></ul><ul><li>После того как учитель ушёл, студенты разошлись. </li></ul><ul><li>Only fancy, I have not read anything of his yet! </li></ul><ul><li>Представьте, я ещё не читала его книги! </li></ul>
  16. 16. The Perfective Form and the Perfective Aspect <ul><li>All this goes to say that the English perfect is indifferent to aspect. </li></ul><ul><li>It is as indifferent as the past simple. </li></ul><ul><li>I wrote the letter. vs. I skated yesterday. </li></ul>
  17. 17. The Perfective Form and the Perfective Aspect <ul><li>If the verb denotes a bounded perfective process only, the perfect form, irrespective of the co-text, denotes the end of the process. </li></ul><ul><li>The child broke the vase. vs. The child has broken the vase. </li></ul><ul><li>John sold his car to Mary. vs. John has sold his car to Mary. </li></ul><ul><li>You look worried. What happened? vs. You look worried. What’s happened? </li></ul>
  18. 18. The Perfective Form and the Perfective Aspect <ul><li>If the verb denotes a bounded perfective and an imperfective aspect, the actual meaning of the perfect form is determined by the co-text. </li></ul><ul><li>We sat on the couch and she played records. We drank and watched TV. vs. </li></ul><ul><li>We have played records. We have drunk and watched TV. </li></ul><ul><li>How did he earn his living? He made films. vs. He has made films. </li></ul>
  19. 19. The Category of Voice <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><li>The problem of homonymous forms </li></ul><ul><li>The ways of translating Passive constructions </li></ul>
  20. 20. Voice is the grammatical category of the verb <ul><li>that shows the direction of the process in regard to the subject: </li></ul><ul><li>in the active-voice construction, the process issues from the Subject; </li></ul><ul><li>in the passive-voice construction, the process issues from the Agentive Adjunct. </li></ul>
  21. 22. Voice <ul><li>Expresses the relations between </li></ul><ul><li>the Subject and the Object of the action </li></ul><ul><li>the Subject and the action </li></ul>
  22. 23. <ul><li>writes - is written </li></ul><ul><li>- be V 3 /ed </li></ul><ul><li>The action comes The action is </li></ul><ul><li>directly from the S directed to the S </li></ul><ul><li>meaning of Passivity </li></ul>
  23. 24. What motivates the process of passivization? <ul><li>The motives are informational-pragmatic: </li></ul><ul><li>1) the speaker’s wish to use the Agent as the Theme (the active construction) or the Affected as the Theme (the passive construction). </li></ul><ul><li>Who made this chair? My father did./This chair was made by my father. </li></ul>
  24. 25. <ul><li>2) the speaker’s reluctance or inability to use the Agent. The speaker may not want to mention the Agent for the sake of tact, or he/she may want to avoid making explicit reference to the Agent and thus give the writing a more objective flavour, or he/she simply may not know who carried out the process. </li></ul><ul><li>A man was killed yesterday. </li></ul><ul><li>The room has not been cleaned. </li></ul>
  25. 26. <ul><li>3) the speaker’s wish to avoid semantic redundancy, i.e. to avoid non - informative constituents. </li></ul><ul><li>English is spoken in many countries ( instead of People speak English in many countries) . </li></ul>
  26. 27. The category of voice <ul><li>is based on transitive verbs, i.e. verbs associated with at least two nouns whose semantic roles are characteristically those of an Agent and an Affected (Patient). </li></ul><ul><li>The passive voice is an analytical form: it is built up by means of the corresponding tense of the auxiliary verb be and the past participle of the given verb. </li></ul>
  27. 28. The category of voice <ul><li>Transformationally, it derives from the deep structure of the corresponding active sentence: </li></ul><ul><li>Mary + past + give + apple + to John </li></ul><ul><li>John was given the apple by Mary. </li></ul><ul><li>The rules that are applied to the deep structure include: 1) Agent postposing; 2) Recipient preposing; 3) verb passivizing. </li></ul>
  28. 29. Passive constructions present two types: <ul><li>full (non-elliptical) and elliptical. </li></ul><ul><li>More common are elliptical passives, i.e. passives without the Agentive Adjunct. </li></ul><ul><li>1) The letter was posted by Mary. vs. *The letter was posted. </li></ul><ul><li>2) The plane was driven by a propeller. vs. *The plane was driven. </li></ul>
  29. 30. <ul><li>First of all, the Agentive Adjunct cannot be removed if it conveys novel information, i.e. if it is the answer to the question Who by? (sentence 1). </li></ul><ul><li>Second, it cannot be removed if it is semantically inherent and functions as a Complement (sentence 2). </li></ul><ul><li>Third, the Agentive Adjunct cannot be removed if the verb be is used in the present tense simple and the participle derives from a dual-aspect verb, </li></ul><ul><li>* Many houses are built. vs. The work is finished. But: </li></ul><ul><li>Many houses are built in the town. </li></ul>
  30. 31. The problem of homonymous forms <ul><li>Passive-voice sentences and active-voice sentences are syntactic synonyms: </li></ul><ul><li>they have the same cognitive meaning. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a tendency to turn Past Participle into Adjective </li></ul><ul><li>tired, depressed, devoted, wounded </li></ul>
  31. 32. Two types of passives: verbal and adjectival <ul><li>The combination of the verb be with the past participle does not always form the passive voice; </li></ul><ul><li>it may also be a compound nominal predicate. </li></ul><ul><li>When the verb be with the past participle expresses a process, it is the passive voice. </li></ul><ul><li>When the construction expresses a state resulting from a process, the verb be is a link-verb and the participle is a predicative. </li></ul><ul><li>The door was closed by the janitor. vs. The door was closed. </li></ul>
  32. 33. <ul><li>I am very interested. </li></ul><ul><li>His duty is fulfilled. - He has fulfilled his duty - He fulfills his duty. </li></ul><ul><li>You are mistaken. vs. I was often mistaken for my friend. </li></ul><ul><li>A </li></ul><ul><li>The door was closed by the janitor. </li></ul><ul><li>The door is often closed. </li></ul><ul><li>B. </li></ul><ul><li>The door on the left was closed, and the door on the right was open. </li></ul>
  33. 34. The number of voices in Modern English <ul><li>two voices – active and passive. </li></ul><ul><li>the reflexive voice which shows that the process passes on to the subject, e.g. John is shaving himself . </li></ul><ul><li>reciprocal voice. The reciprocal voice is expressed with the help of reciprocal pronouns added to a verb, </li></ul><ul><li>They kissed each other. </li></ul><ul><li>middle voice </li></ul><ul><li>The wind opened the door._ The door opened. </li></ul>
  34. 35. The ways of translating Passive constructions <ul><li>English Passive constructions are rendered into Russian by analytical passive construction </li></ul><ul><li>The letter was mailed on Saturday. </li></ul><ul><li>Письмо отправлено в субботу. </li></ul><ul><li>2) We can use a synthetic Passive Form in Russian </li></ul><ul><li>A new house is being built here. </li></ul><ul><li>Здесь строится новый дом. </li></ul>
  35. 36. The ways of translating Passive constructions <ul><li>3) In Russian we can use an indefinite personal sentence </li></ul><ul><li>He was given the necessar y sum . </li></ul><ul><li>Ему дали необходимую сумму. </li></ul><ul><li>4) We can use impersonal sentences in Russian. </li></ul><ul><li>The roof was blown off by the wind. </li></ul><ul><li>Крышу снесло ветром. </li></ul>
  36. 37. The ways of translating Passive constructions <ul><li>Even sentences with the active meaning can be used in translating into Russian </li></ul><ul><li>The package was brought b y a shabby -looking old man. </li></ul><ul><li>Убогий старик принес сверток. </li></ul>