Defense mechanisms


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Defense mechanisms

  1. 1. Defense Mechanisms <ul><li>Coping styles </li></ul><ul><li>Automatic psychological processes that protect the individual against anxiety and from the awareness of internal or external dangers or stressors. </li></ul>
  2. 2. Defense Mechanisms <ul><li>Can be adaptive and help people to lower anxiety to achieve goals in an acceptable way </li></ul><ul><li>Can be maladaptive and lead to distortions in reality and self-deception </li></ul>
  3. 3. Freud: Properties of Defense Mechanisms <ul><li>Major means of managing conflict and affect </li></ul><ul><li>Relatively unconscious </li></ul><ul><li>Discrete from one another </li></ul><ul><li>Often the hallmarks of major psychiatric syndromes </li></ul><ul><li>Reversible </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptive as well as pathological. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Understanding Anxiety
  5. 5. Category Defense <ul><li>Mature defenses </li></ul><ul><li>Suppression </li></ul><ul><li>Altruism </li></ul><ul><li>Humor </li></ul><ul><li>Sublimation </li></ul>
  6. 6. Suppression <ul><li>Definition: The conscious denial of a disturbing situation or feeling. (Only conscious defense mechanism) </li></ul><ul><li>Example: _______________________ </li></ul>
  7. 7. Altruism <ul><li>Definition: Receiving gratification either vicariously or from the response to others. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: _______________________ </li></ul>
  8. 8. Humor <ul><li>Definition: Emphasizing the amusing or ironic aspects of a conflict or stressor through laughter or jokes. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: ______________________ </li></ul>
  9. 9. Sublimation <ul><li>Definition: Substituting constructive and socially acceptable activity for strong impulses that are not acceptable in their original form. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Jane was a very aggressive person until she began to vent her hostility on the volleyball court. Now she is more relaxed. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Category Defense <ul><li>Neurotic (intermediate defenses) </li></ul><ul><li>Intellectualization, isolation </li></ul><ul><li>Repression </li></ul><ul><li>Reaction-formation </li></ul><ul><li>Displacement </li></ul><ul><li>Somatization </li></ul><ul><li>Undoing </li></ul><ul><li>Rationalization </li></ul>
  11. 11. Repression <ul><li>Definition: The exclusion of unpleasant or unwanted experiences, emotions, or ideas from conscious awareness. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Chris was the only witness to a terrible fire in which several people were seriously injured. Several days later, however, Chris is unable to remember much when questioned by a reporter. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Reaction-Formation <ul><li>Definition: Keeping unacceptable feelings or behaviors are out of awareness by developing the opposite behavior or emotion. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Jim is attracted to other men, but tells himself that he hates all homosexuals. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Displacement <ul><li>Definition: The transfer of emotions associated with a particular person, object, or situation to another person, object, or situation that is nonthreatening. </li></ul><ul><li>Definition: ______________________ </li></ul>
  14. 14. Somatization <ul><li>Definition: Transforming anxiety on the unconscious level to a physical symptom that has no organic cause. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: _______________________ </li></ul>
  15. 15. Undoing <ul><li>Definition: Making up for an act or communication </li></ul><ul><li>Example: _______________________ </li></ul>
  16. 16. Rationalization <ul><li>Definition: Justifying illogical or unreasonable ideas, actions or feelings by developing acceptable explanations that satisfy the teller as well as the listener. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: ______________________ </li></ul>
  17. 17. Category Defense <ul><li>Immature defenses </li></ul><ul><li>Passive aggression </li></ul><ul><li>Acting out </li></ul><ul><li>Dissociation </li></ul><ul><li>Projection </li></ul>
  18. 18. Passive Aggression <ul><li>Definition: Indirectly expressing aggression towards others by giving the appearance of compliance and making resistance, resentment, and hostility. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: ____________________________ </li></ul>
  19. 19. Acting Out <ul><li>Definition: An individual deals with emotional conflicts or stressors by actions rather than reflections or feelings. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: _______________________ </li></ul>
  20. 20. Confabultation <ul><li>Definition: Filling in missing memory with information the believed to be factual </li></ul><ul><li>Example:_______________ </li></ul>
  21. 21. Dissociation <ul><li>Definition: A disruption in the usually integrated functions of consciousness, memory, identity or perceptions of the environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: _______________________ </li></ul>
  22. 22. Projection <ul><li>Definition: Rejects emotionally unacceptable personal features and attributes of the self to other people, objects or situations. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: _______________________ </li></ul>
  23. 24. Category Defense <ul><li>Psychotic defenses </li></ul><ul><li>Denial (of external reality) </li></ul>
  24. 25. Denial <ul><li>Definition: Escaping unpleasant realities by ignoring their existence. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: _______________________ </li></ul>