How the Social Web Came to Be
                                       part 2




Trebor Scholz
Department of Media Study
tr...
Is the history of the Social Web, the
    history of mainstream culture?
Which role did sub- and countercultures
         ...
Vienna RSS Reader




The first version of RSS was created by Netscape in 1999.
RSS is based on XML. It is a format for sy...
http://tinyurl.com/23t8pr
(The site started in 1999 but it was first time archived   http://www.rtmark.com/
on Waybackmach...
Playahead is a large Internet community mainly aimed at
Swedish teenagers. The site was founded in Helsingborg in
1998 and...
The network was acquired by Hearst Media on December
31, 2006.         The original eCRUSH site was launched in
1999 pre-d...
2000




       7
1990s dotcom awe
too much
too fast: “dotbomb”




            http://tinyurl.com/26ppkw
            http://tinyurl.com/yrk...
The Californian Ideology




                           http://tinyurl.com/232ze7
                                        ...
5,900,000 (07)
British teens and 20-somethings, 16 years and older
Although serving users internationally, Faceparty marke...
Sept 5, 2007
Jun 11, 2000


  2,600,000 users (07), American Latinos
  4000 on the site at any given time


              ...
2001




       12
September 11, 2001




                     13
http://www.flong.com/telesymphony/

                              14
Bram Cohen (born 1975), SUNY at Buffalo
                    BitTorrent is a peer-to-peer file sharing
                    ...
2000



15,000,000 users (07)
                               http://tinyurl.com/2mbjtr
                                   ...
2000/2001: Former editor-in-chief of Nupedia and
Citizendium founder Larry Sanger (born 1968) and the
American Internet en...
2002




       18
2002




                            2007

  What went wrong with Friendster?



                                     http...
Jan 22, 2002


2002. 28,000,000 users (07)
Users, locating friends and family, keeping in touch
“Reunion.com members use r...
Folksonomy
(also known as collaborative tagging , social classification, social indexing,
social tagging, and other names)...
July 2007
October 2002

2002. 15,000,000 users (07), Last.fm
Exploring/Sharing Music Tracks/Files

“We have a pretty simpl...
2000

2002. Meetup 2,000,000 users (07)
2003: prominence through Howard Dean
2005: requires organizers to pay for local gr...
quot;The primary inspiration was the book Bowling Alone...”
Heiferman said (co-founder of Meetup). quot;We are
providing a...
Feb 05, 2005                                July 20, 2007


2002, US-based, 10, 000,000 users (07)
Mainly South America (C...
26
Clay Shirky's           Social Software Summit

November 2002 popularized the term “social software”

                    ...
The American economist
and urban studies theorist Richard Florida
published the controversial The Rise of the Creative Cla...
“I noticed one member of the group sitting slouched over on the grass,
dressed in a tank top. This young man had spiked mu...
The Precariat
                  Frassanito Network (2002)

“Precarious work refers to all possible shapes of unsure, not
g...
http://tinyurl.com/2smoa8

                            31
32
2003




       33
It was significant that in a well-organized effort, 8-30 million
people in 800 ci t ies worldwide simul t aneously showed ...
Salam Pax

Anonymous Iraqi Blogger
gains international visibility
with posts about the war
March 2003




                ...
Podcasting




Podcasters' web sites can be syndicated, subscribed
to, and downloaded automatically, using an
aggregator o...
2003. Kazaa founders Swedish Niklas Zennström (b. 1966) and the
Danish Janus Friis (b. 1976) released the peer-to-peer Int...
photo credit as quot;Scott Beale / Laughing Squidquot;




 Joshua Schachter
  2003 , Social Bookmarking


               ...
Aug 06, 2003                   Sept. 10 2007
http://tinyurl.com/393brp       http://tinyurl.com/25nvz




Sept. 2003. Grea...
June 2003 Google starts AdSense




                                  40
2000
200,000,000 users (07)
most culturally influential
social networking platform
in the history of the Internet
to date
...
“MySpace was actually created by executives whose
backgrounds are anchored in spam and mass
marketing, and who are tied to...
Also essential to the creation of MySpace is current
        CEO Chris DeWolfe, who from October 1999
        through Marc...
On June 15th, 2006 Myspace states
                            in their Terms and Conditions
                            th...
first archived: Jun 04, 2006
13,000,000 users (07)
“As of October 2006, there is no automated way to remove
yourself from ...
Jul 18, 2006




                  Sept 5, 2007

2003, Germany, re-named in 2006, European Business networking
mainly used...
The Strength of Weak Ties
In 1973 Granovetter argued that within a social
network, weak ties are more powerful than strong...
Continuous Partial
   Friendship
(David Weinberger)

 Ambient Intimacy
  (Leisa Reichelt)




                     http://...
PeanutButterWiki (PbWiki), a free ad-supported wiki was founded
by three graduates of Stanford University: David Weekly, R...
2004




       50
2004
Weblog is Word of the Year
        (Webster)

    • Weblog si Word of the Year



                                   51
May 2004
Sept 2007

2004, Ecological concern and social activism, 7,744,297 users
            “Care2 does not claim owners...
• Weblog si Word of the Year
Albert-László Barabási published Linked: How Everything Is
Connected to Everything Else and W...
2004



150,000 users in 2007 (invite-only)
                                      http://tinyurl.com/k2jhx

              ...
“A 2004 glitch in Amazon.ca's review system revealed that
many well-established authors were anonymously giving
themselves...
quot;[U]sing a wireless internet enabled bicycle outfitted with a
custom-designed printing device, the bikes against bush
...
December 09, 2004
http://tinyurl.com/38pbt2

                            September 10, 2007




                          ...
Some feel that users have too much control over content,
allowing sensationalism and misinformation to thrive,
blowing uns...
“Digital Boston Tea Party”

On May 1, 2007 an article appeared on Digg’s
homepage that contained the encryption key
for th...
In 2004 the peer-to-peer file sharing
client LimeWire was released.


It is still possible to
download LimeWire and share
...
2004
 Archived: Apr 29, 2004


    Flickr. Canada. 2004
    It has a repository that is quickly approaching 1 billion imag...
10,000,000 users (07), invite-only
1 million communities as of July 2007
largest social networking site in Japan




     ...
2004

The Network's stated mission is to quot;enable individual
self-empowerment on a global scalequot; and employ
quot;bu...
Mar 22, 2004

2004. Owned by Google. Popular in Brazil, India, Greenland.
67,962,551 users (07). Open (Google login)
     ...
Mar 31, 2004


2004, Canada. Photo sharing, teens               10,000,000 users (07)
Piczo was the fastest-growing online...
Sept 5, 2007                                   Jan 23, 2004


               MEMBERS CONSENT TO RECEIVE COMMERCIAL E-MAIL ...
2005




       67
Tim O’Reilly -- quot;What Is Web 2.0?quot;
The power of naming




                                     Photo: James Dunca...
http://tinyurl.com/2569dr

                            69
The Social Web and Law Enforcement

In March 2005, the United States Secret Service met
with a University of Oklahoma fres...
Facebook privacy agreement (07) states:


quot;We may share your information with third parties,
including responsible com...
Jan 22, 2005   http://tinyurl.com/yukk25




      1995, UK. 34,000,000 users (07), media sharing and social networking


...
Archival screenshot, Mar 16, 2005

 4,700,000 users (07)
  Open to people 18 and older, (Yahoo! login)
            “Yahoo!...
74
2004

Dreams and Goals; Tagging 

1,007,433 users (07)


                                http://tinyurl.com/2nczov

      ...
Launched March 2005. The site has an audience which is 96%
UK derived. The typical demographic profile is 16-22 year olds
...
2005. 1,000,000 registered contributors (07)
                   http://mosh.nokia.com/restricted


                       ...
May 27, 2005                Sept 10, 2007
http://tinyurl.com/yuoebu


2005. Video sharing site. An average of 9000 video u...
September 10, 2007
June 03, 2005
 http://tinyurl.com/2wkls7


Meetro is an application that overlays the physical world on...
2006




       80
Everybody and their mom has a profile up on MySpace




                                                      81
Deleting Online Predator Act legislation

The Deleting Online Predators Act of 2006 (DOPA) is a bill, which was
brought be...
Yahoo! Messenger
                              22 million users by December 2006
                               http://tin...
Fandom
Cingular Wireless announced today it has shattered its own record
for wireless text messaging during the fifth seas...
Micro-blogging
is a form of blogging that allows users to write brief text
updates (usually less than 200 characters) and ...
2004
Twitter is a free social networking and micro-blogging service
that allows users to send quot;updatesquot; (text-base...
as tool for human rights advocacy




               http://ethanzuckerman.com/blog/?p=1430

                             ...
In 2006 Jay Rosen posted
quot;PressThink: The People Formerly Known as the Audiencequot;




                             ...
89
(media sharing, video)
                                                                                      (The MySpace ...
(social networking site of the National Hockey League)
    (social networking for pet aficionados)




                    ...
Netporn

                                       Bulletin Board Systems
                                       such as Rust...
89% of porn is created in the U.S.

                     $2.84 billion in revenue was generated
                     from ...
2006 (Finland). Jaiku.com is a social networking and
micro-blogging service similar to Twitter.
                          ...
2006. Singapore-based internet radio and music community
website. Over 1 million users (07)

                             ...
2004
domain first switched on
Aug 06, 2005




  Facebook is a social networking website which was launched on
  February 4...
“User Revolts” ?




                   97
In September Facebook launched a
quot;news feedquot; feature causing protest and
responses by 741,000 users who joined the...
http://daywithoutfacebook.blogspot.com/




                                          99
http://www.petitiononline.com/faceb00k/petition.html




                                                       100
http://tinyurl.com/etj7m




                      741.000 members of FB group in September 2006

                        ...
flow
                 ion
              mat
         nfor
     of i
   e
eas




          741.000 members of FB group in ...
“Even though I wish I hadn't made so many of you
                   angry, I am glad we got to hear you,” he wrote. “And
 ...
“Every MySpace user I know is absolutely sick of the
advertising onslaught and would leave if they could. But
they feel tr...
Writely and Spreadsheets were merged into a single product
on October 10, 2006
        “… you grant Google a worldwide, no...
(         August 2005

“We assure you that the contents of your Account
will not be disclosed to anyone and will not be
ac...
2007




       107
1.114 billion people use the Internet

                                        108
The Daily We
   Social objects and topical foci around which communities
  are shaped on the Social Web cater more and mor...
(mobile social networking and media sharing)


                                                         (social networking...
(North-American) English content
is not dominating the Internet anymore.




                                          111
Social network hopping?
Most people are on no more than 2 networks




                                             112
Consolidation




                113
By 2007 Wikipedia reports more than 2,000,000
articles in its English version and Technorati
indexed more than 80 million ...
Facebook reports about 34 million users, growing by
about 4 million each month (2007). It has stronger
membership outside ...
In 2007 hi5 hi5 hi5 is the leading social networking
site in Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic,
Ecuador, El Salvado...
The Participatory Culture Foundation (PCF) is a non-profit
organization whose mission is to quot;enable and support
indepe...
Bebo, Friendster, Orkut, and hi5 have also strong international presence.

Orkut dominates India and Brazil also because e...
2007. Hyperlocal social news.
The term quot;hyperlocalquot; is used to refer to news coverage of
community-level events us...
Women aged 25-34 spend more time online than men
             in the same age group.


                   http://tinyurl.c...
conclusion




             121
The web is a platform for
  other things to come.
   What this will be is
     anyone’s guess.
   To find out we need
to g...
- end -

             direct comments, additions, etc
                      to Trebor Scholz
                     trebor@t...
124
125
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How the Social Web Came to Be (part 2)

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A history of computer-facilitated networked sociality (part2)

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  • 2nd part of interesting account.
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  • This is very very good. At first I wanted to be critical because it seemed sprawling and overreaching, but the conclusion (Net Neutrality) ties it all together perfectly - the origins of the social web ARE sprawling and multifarious, and it is precisely by not dictating and controlling but instead allowing the freedom at the endpoints that the social web in all its forms that we have now exists. Bravo.
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How the Social Web Came to Be (part 2)

  1. How the Social Web Came to Be part 2 Trebor Scholz Department of Media Study trebor@thing.net Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 1
  2. Is the history of the Social Web, the history of mainstream culture? Which role did sub- and countercultures play? 2
  3. Vienna RSS Reader The first version of RSS was created by Netscape in 1999. RSS is based on XML. It is a format for syndicating content. http://tinyurl.com/2ghwxb 3
  4. http://tinyurl.com/23t8pr (The site started in 1999 but it was first time archived http://www.rtmark.com/ on Waybackmachine on May 23, 2003.) “RTMark is itself a registered corporation which brings together activists who plan projects with donors who fund them. It thus operates outside the laws governing human individuals, and benefits from the much looser laws governing corporations.” http://tinyurl.com/youtse 4
  5. Playahead is a large Internet community mainly aimed at Swedish teenagers. The site was founded in Helsingborg in 1998 and claims to have 1 million members, making an average of around 10 million logins per month. 5
  6. The network was acquired by Hearst Media on December 31, 2006. The original eCRUSH site was launched in 1999 pre-dating the social networking sites like Friendster, MySpace and Facebook. eCRUSH is the 10th largest dating site in the US. http://tinyurl.com/22lprh http://tinyurl.com/2yt8oe 6
  7. 2000 7
  8. 1990s dotcom awe too much too fast: “dotbomb” http://tinyurl.com/26ppkw http://tinyurl.com/yrkjya http://tinyurl.com/38zy97 8
  9. The Californian Ideology http://tinyurl.com/232ze7 9
  10. 5,900,000 (07) British teens and 20-somethings, 16 years and older Although serving users internationally, Faceparty markets mainly in the UK and has run many major events since its launch in 2000 (mostly in London). http://tinyurl.com/32f8vj 10
  11. Sept 5, 2007 Jun 11, 2000 2,600,000 users (07), American Latinos 4000 on the site at any given time http://tinyurl.com/3cvjgt http://tinyurl.com/7yerg 11
  12. 2001 12
  13. September 11, 2001 13
  14. http://www.flong.com/telesymphony/ 14
  15. Bram Cohen (born 1975), SUNY at Buffalo BitTorrent is a peer-to-peer file sharing (P2P) communications protocol, first implementation on 2 July 2001. BitTorrent has 135 million installs and accounts 55% of all Internet traffic (07, Bram Cohen) http://tinyurl.com/292zfg http://tinyurl.com/yp6egx 15
  16. 2000 15,000,000 users (07) http://tinyurl.com/2mbjtr 16
  17. 2000/2001: Former editor-in-chief of Nupedia and Citizendium founder Larry Sanger (born 1968) and the American Internet entrepreneur Jimmy Wales (born 1966) create Wikipedia. http://tinyurl.com/3y2uz8 http://tinyurl.com/2jcrmc 17
  18. 2002 18
  19. 2002 2007 What went wrong with Friendster? http://tinyurl.com/249uls 19
  20. Jan 22, 2002 2002. 28,000,000 users (07) Users, locating friends and family, keeping in touch “Reunion.com members use real names, not screen names. Member privacy is protected through a blind relay e-mail system, so e-mail addresses and contact information are never revealed unless self-disclosed by members one-on-one.” http://tinyurl.com/2uets7 http://tinyurl.com/2knv5t http://tinyurl.com/ybjr86 20
  21. Folksonomy (also known as collaborative tagging , social classification, social indexing, social tagging, and other names) is the practice and method of collaboratively creating and managing tags to annotate and categorize folksonomy Content. In contrast to traditional subject indexing metadata is not only generated by experts but also by creators and consumers of the content. Usually freely chosen keywords are used instead of a controlled vocabulary. http://tinyurl.com/d6kby 21
  22. July 2007 October 2002 2002. 15,000,000 users (07), Last.fm Exploring/Sharing Music Tracks/Files “We have a pretty simple privacy policy. We are reasonably sure this won't piss anyone off. We won't pass your email address on to anyone, not even Lars Ulrich at gunpoint.” “Your pseudonymous listening habit data will be available to other Last.fm users for non-commercial use under a Creative Commons license.” ... “We reserve the right to sell or license pseudonymous listening data for commercial use ...” http://tinyurl.com/32s96u http://tinyurl.com/349mtb 22
  23. 2000 2002. Meetup 2,000,000 users (07) 2003: prominence through Howard Dean 2005: requires organizers to pay for local groups leading to a drastic drop in local groups 23
  24. quot;The primary inspiration was the book Bowling Alone...” Heiferman said (co-founder of Meetup). quot;We are providing a service that revitalizes the Internet for local communities.quot; http://tinyurl.com/275bot http://tinyurl.com/yqwdrb 24
  25. Feb 05, 2005 July 20, 2007 2002, US-based, 10, 000,000 users (07) Mainly South America (Chile, Argentina, Brazil) 2005: “It is Fotolog's policy to respect the privacy of Members. Therefore, Fotolog will not disclose to any third party Member's name or contact information. Fotolog will also not monitor, edit, or disclose the contents of a Member's information ...” 2007: “All content posted by a member is the property of the member that posted such content.” http://tinyurl.com/2ud2m9 http://tinyurl.com/3b5khm http://tinyurl.com/2oj4o5 25
  26. 26
  27. Clay Shirky's Social Software Summit November 2002 popularized the term “social software” http://tinyurl.com/yt4k9v http://tinyurl.com/37hrzm 27
  28. The American economist and urban studies theorist Richard Florida published the controversial The Rise of the Creative Class. 28
  29. “I noticed one member of the group sitting slouched over on the grass, dressed in a tank top. This young man had spiked multi-colored hair, full-body tattoos, and multiple piercings in his ears. An obvious slacker, I thought, probably in a band. quot;So what is your story?quot; I asked. quot;Hey man, I just signed on with these guys.quot; ... This young man and his lifestyle proclivities represent a profound new force in the economy and life of America. He is a member of what I call the creative class: a fast-growing, highly educated, and well-paid segment of the workforce on whose efforts corporate profits and economic growth increasingly depend. Members of the creative class do a wide variety of work in a wide variety of industries--from technology to entertainment, journalism to finance, high-end manufacturing to the arts. They do not consciously think of themselves as a class. Yet they share a common ethos that values creativity, individuality, difference, and merit.” -- Richard Florida in The Rise of the Creative Class http://tinyurl.com/27rqbl 29
  30. The Precariat Frassanito Network (2002) “Precarious work refers to all possible shapes of unsure, not guaranteed, flexible exploitation: from illegalized, seasonal and temporary employment to homework, flex- and temp- work to subcontractors, freelancers or so called self employed persons.” http://thistuesday.org/node/93 30
  31. http://tinyurl.com/2smoa8 31
  32. 32
  33. 2003 33
  34. It was significant that in a well-organized effort, 8-30 million people in 800 ci t ies worldwide simul t aneously showed t heir defiance of the war in Iraq on February 15, 2003. The Internet served as organizational tool. March 19 - The first American bombs drop on Baghdad, Iraq. March 20- the invasion starts. http://tinyurl.com/322lyy 34
  35. Salam Pax Anonymous Iraqi Blogger gains international visibility with posts about the war March 2003 35
  36. Podcasting Podcasters' web sites can be syndicated, subscribed to, and downloaded automatically, using an aggregator or feed reader capable of reading feed formats such as RSS or Atom. http://tinyurl.com/3dbcqt 36
  37. 2003. Kazaa founders Swedish Niklas Zennström (b. 1966) and the Danish Janus Friis (b. 1976) released the peer-to-peer Internet telephony network Skype. 37
  38. photo credit as quot;Scott Beale / Laughing Squidquot; Joshua Schachter 2003 , Social Bookmarking Sept 10, 2007 acquired by Yahoo in 2005 3 million users, 10 million bookmarks (07) 38
  39. Aug 06, 2003 Sept. 10 2007 http://tinyurl.com/393brp http://tinyurl.com/25nvz Sept. 2003. GreatestJournal operates on LiveJournal's open source server software (mainly Pearl) 1,871,618 users (07) 39
  40. June 2003 Google starts AdSense 40
  41. 2000 200,000,000 users (07) most culturally influential social networking platform in the history of the Internet to date http://tinyurl.com/2mbjtr 41
  42. “MySpace was actually created by executives whose backgrounds are anchored in spam and mass marketing, and who are tied to investment scandals. Almost alternateen good looks, Tom Anderson has served as an exceptionally convincing distraction.” source: http://tinyurl.com/nvsvm 42
  43. Also essential to the creation of MySpace is current CEO Chris DeWolfe, who from October 1999 through March 2001 acted as the VP of Sales and Marketing at Xdrive Technologies. As a source close to DeWolfe at Xdrive put it, quot;DeWolfe learned that people will sign up for almost anything that they find useful, and they could care less about the fine print.quot; Marketing Tom Anderson as founder and alternateen: quot;I am as anti-social as they come, and I've already got 20 people to sign up.quot; http://tinyurl.com/37f79l http://tinyurl.com/34ny9m http://tinyurl.com/nvsvm 43
  44. On June 15th, 2006 Myspace states in their Terms and Conditions that the company has quot;a non- exclusive, fully-paid and royalty- free, worldwide license .... to use, copy, modify, adapt, translate, publicly perform, publicly display, store, reproduce, transmit, and distributequot; all content uploaded to their site.” 44
  45. first archived: Jun 04, 2006 13,000,000 users (07) “As of October 2006, there is no automated way to remove yourself from LinkedIn. The official method is to file a customer support ticket.” http://tinyurl.com/yey25h http://tinyurl.com/2j43c6 http://tinyurl.com/2uqbct 45
  46. Jul 18, 2006 Sept 5, 2007 2003, Germany, re-named in 2006, European Business networking mainly used in Europe and far East, competitor to LinkedIn http://tinyurl.com/2rd6ak http://tinyurl.com/2uvqun http://tinyurl.com/2l7s8c 46
  47. The Strength of Weak Ties In 1973 Granovetter argued that within a social network, weak ties are more powerful than strong ties. He showed that most people got jobs because of their weak ties instead of their strong ones. LinkedIn and Xing are build on this idea. 47
  48. Continuous Partial Friendship (David Weinberger) Ambient Intimacy (Leisa Reichelt) http://tinyurl.com/28x4s4 48
  49. PeanutButterWiki (PbWiki), a free ad-supported wiki was founded by three graduates of Stanford University: David Weekly, Ramit Sethi, and Nathan Schmidt in 2003. PbWiki's slogan is quot;Make a free wiki as easily as a peanut butter sandwich!quot; 49
  50. 2004 50
  51. 2004 Weblog is Word of the Year (Webster) • Weblog si Word of the Year 51
  52. May 2004 Sept 2007 2004, Ecological concern and social activism, 7,744,297 users “Care2 does not claim ownership of Content you submit or make available for inclusion on the Service ... “ http://tinyurl.com/29yhyg 52
  53. • Weblog si Word of the Year Albert-László Barabási published Linked: How Everything Is Connected to Everything Else and What It Means for Business, Science, and Everyday Life. 53
  54. 2004 150,000 users in 2007 (invite-only) http://tinyurl.com/k2jhx 54
  55. “A 2004 glitch in Amazon.ca's review system revealed that many well-established authors were anonymously giving themselves glowing reviews, with some revealed to be anonymously giving ‘rival’ authors terrible reviews. The glitch in the system was fixed and those reviews have since been removed or made anonymous.” 55
  56. quot;[U]sing a wireless internet enabled bicycle outfitted with a custom-designed printing device, the bikes against bush bicycle can print text messages sent from web users directly onto the streets of manhattan in water-soluble chalk.quot; Joshua Kinberg, 2004 http://tinyurl.com/33pqs9 56
  57. December 09, 2004 http://tinyurl.com/38pbt2 September 10, 2007 57
  58. Some feel that users have too much control over content, allowing sensationalism and misinformation to thrive, blowing unsupported claims out of proportion while quickly exposing very many people to these opinion pieces. It has been reported that the top 100 Digg users control 56% of Digg's front page content and that a niche group of just twenty individuals had submitted 25% of the front page content. Digg.com co-founder Kevin Rose http://tinyurl.com/ynla34 http://tinyurl.com/2v9ppz http://tinyurl.com/2v9ppz http://tinyurl.com/2v9ppz http://tinyurl.com/37vx5w http://tinyurl.com/39g279 http://tinyurl.com/2u3zts 58
  59. “Digital Boston Tea Party” On May 1, 2007 an article appeared on Digg’s homepage that contained the encryption key for the AACS digital rights management protection of HD DVD and Blu-ray Disc. Digg, removed the submissions and banned contributors. The removals were seen by many users as a capitulation to corporate interests and an assault on free speech. The Digg community staged a wide-spread revolt. One of the Digg users referred to it as a quot;Digital Boston Tea Party.quot; Digg’s response: “[A]fter seeing hundreds of stories and reading thousands of comments, you’ve made it clear. You’d rather see Digg go down fighting than bow down to a bigger company. We hear you, and effective immediately we won’t delete stories or comments containing the code and will deal with whatever the consequences might be.” —Kevin Rose http://tinyurl.com/2cg9hm http://tinyurl.com/37vx5w http://tinyurl.com/39g279 http://tinyurl.com/2v9ppz http://tinyurl.com/2u3zts http://tinyurl.com/2v9ppz http://tinyurl.com/2v9ppz http://tinyurl.com/2rszvk 59
  60. In 2004 the peer-to-peer file sharing client LimeWire was released. It is still possible to download LimeWire and share copyrighted files peer-to-peer. http://tinyurl.com/3y5o5o 60
  61. 2004 Archived: Apr 29, 2004 Flickr. Canada. 2004 It has a repository that is quickly approaching 1 billion images (08/2007). domain first switched on 2007, Flickr announced that the quot;Old Skoolquot; members, those that In January Aug 06, 2005 pre-date the Yahoo acquisition in 2005, will be required to associate their account with a Yahoo ID. This move was criticized. (http://tinyurl.com/2uh8to) 61
  62. 10,000,000 users (07), invite-only 1 million communities as of July 2007 largest social networking site in Japan http://tinyurl.com/yayp6t 62
  63. 2004 The Network's stated mission is to quot;enable individual self-empowerment on a global scalequot; and employ quot;business as a tool for social good.quot; Pierre Omidyar (b. 1967) http://tinyurl.com/qmech http://tinyurl.com/qmech 63
  64. Mar 22, 2004 2004. Owned by Google. Popular in Brazil, India, Greenland. 67,962,551 users (07). Open (Google login) http://tinyurl.com/29pcm8 http://tinyurl.com/2l2qbg 64
  65. Mar 31, 2004 2004, Canada. Photo sharing, teens 10,000,000 users (07) Piczo was the fastest-growing online brand in the UK in 2006 with girls under 18 accounting for almost half its audience. http://tinyurl.com/3akk8h http://tinyurl.com/2zgpf2 http://tinyurl.com/k2jhx 65
  66. Sept 5, 2007 Jan 23, 2004 MEMBERS CONSENT TO RECEIVE COMMERCIAL E-MAIL MESSAGES FROM TAGGED, AND ACKNOWLEDGE AND AGREE THAT THEIR EMAIL ADDRESSES AND OTHER PERSONAL INFORMATION MAY BE USED BY TAGGED FOR THE PURPOSE OF INITIATING COMMERCIAL E- MAIL MESSAGES. very invasive, questionable ethics http://tinyurl.com/3c4fby http://tinyurl.com/3yt5v9 http://tinyurl.com/2odjrp 66
  67. 2005 67
  68. Tim O’Reilly -- quot;What Is Web 2.0?quot; The power of naming Photo: James Duncan Davidson http://tinyurl.com/2vw6cb 68
  69. http://tinyurl.com/2569dr 69
  70. The Social Web and Law Enforcement In March 2005, the United States Secret Service met with a University of Oklahoma freshman after he posted to the Facebook: “We could all donate a dollar and raise millions of dollars to hire an assassin to kill the president and replace him with a monkey.” On December 14th, 2005 MIT students used data from an automated script that allowed them to download over 70,000 Facebook profiles. 70
  71. Facebook privacy agreement (07) states: quot;We may share your information with third parties, including responsible companies with which we have a relationship.quot; 71
  72. Jan 22, 2005 http://tinyurl.com/yukk25 1995, UK. 34,000,000 users (07), media sharing and social networking 2005: “Bebo does not claim any ownership rights in any Materials that you submit, post, or display on or through the Bebo Services or on the Bebo.com Web site.” 2007: “By submitting, posting or displaying any Materials on or through the Bebo Service, you automatically grant to Bebo a worldwide, non-exclusive, ... right to copy, distribute, create derivative works of, publicly perform and display such Materials.“ http://tinyurl.com/34rax2 http://tinyurl.com/2k8583 http://tinyurl.com/2mbjtr 72
  73. Archival screenshot, Mar 16, 2005 4,700,000 users (07) Open to people 18 and older, (Yahoo! login) “Yahoo! does not claim ownership of Content you submit or make available for inclusion on the Service.” http://tinyurl.com/k2jhx http://tinyurl.com/3c5o5t http://tinyurl.com/38j6fr 73
  74. 74
  75. 2004 Dreams and Goals; Tagging 1,007,433 users (07) http://tinyurl.com/2nczov 75
  76. Launched March 2005. The site has an audience which is 96% UK derived. The typical demographic profile is 16-22 year olds with a 60% lean towards females. 250,000 members (06) http://tinyurl.com/y9rfg4 76
  77. 2005. 1,000,000 registered contributors (07) http://mosh.nokia.com/restricted http://tinyurl.com/ysorp5 77
  78. May 27, 2005 Sept 10, 2007 http://tinyurl.com/yuoebu 2005. Video sharing site. An average of 9000 video uploads a day (Nov 2006). Video limit 20 mins, 150 MB. 78
  79. September 10, 2007 June 03, 2005 http://tinyurl.com/2wkls7 Meetro is an application that overlays the physical world on top of the online world. It combines SMS features, social networking and links it to location. http://mosh.nokia.com/restricted 79
  80. 2006 80
  81. Everybody and their mom has a profile up on MySpace 81
  82. Deleting Online Predator Act legislation The Deleting Online Predators Act of 2006 (DOPA) is a bill, which was brought before the United States House of Representatives on May 9, 2006. The bill, if enacted, will require schools and libraries that receive E- rate funding to prohibit access to social networking websites. The bill would thereby limit access to a wide range of educational material on these websites (especially for minority and rural youth). http://tinyurl.com/yb2vj8 82
  83. Yahoo! Messenger 22 million users by December 2006 http://tinyurl.com/2rhdh2 AIM December 2006 100 million “total users” http://tinyurl.com/35xue between 40 and 50 million, Jan 2007 http://tinyurl.com/2m5hyv http://tinyurl.com/3ey5ym http://tinyurl.com/2wnrec http://tinyurl.com/2phpy8 83
  84. Fandom Cingular Wireless announced today it has shattered its own record for wireless text messaging during the fifth season of quot;American Idolquot; (2006) -- 64.5 million text messages throughout the show's season. http://tinyurl.com/2m4luf http://tinyurl.com/35omx8 http://tinyurl.com/2umdo3 84
  85. Micro-blogging is a form of blogging that allows users to write brief text updates (usually less than 200 characters) and publish them, either to be viewed by anyone or by a restricted group which can be chosen by the user. These messages can be submitted by a variety of means, including text messaging, and the web. France/ Finland Germany status updates on FB http://tinyurl.com/2yhpa3 85
  86. 2004 Twitter is a free social networking and micro-blogging service that allows users to send quot;updatesquot; (text-based posts, up to 140 characters long) via SMS, instant messaging, email, to the Twitter website, or an application such as Twitterrific. Twitter was founded in March 2006 by San Francisco start-up company Obvious Corp. (Ruby on Rails.) 86
  87. as tool for human rights advocacy http://ethanzuckerman.com/blog/?p=1430 87
  88. In 2006 Jay Rosen posted quot;PressThink: The People Formerly Known as the Audiencequot; http://tinyurl.com/2t67v3 88
  89. 89
  90. (media sharing, video) (The MySpace for Christians) (Latino social networking site) (referral and social networking around music) (free social networking, cars) (social networking, online education, e-commerce) (online identity) (social networking for professional women, feminist) (Christian social networking site) (social networking for soccer players) (referral site about travel) (social networking, media sharing, family-focused) (sharing of all kinds of lists with friends) (blogging, media sharing) (mobile social networking) 2006 90
  91. (social networking site of the National Hockey League) (social networking for pet aficionados) (social search) (social networking and referral grouped around fashion) (social networking site about mental health and wellness) (feminist social networking site celebrating friendships among women) (social networking focused on weddings) (social networking and referral for the entire family) 2006 (activist, youth social networking) 91
  92. Netporn Bulletin Board Systems such as Rusty n Edie's charged users for access, leading to the first commercial networked pornography since BBSes were not accessed via the Internet. While pornography had seen limited distribution over the Internet in the 1980s, it was not until the Internet became more accessible to the general public throughout the 90s that netporn became widely distributed. http://tinyurl.com/ywqk3c 92
  93. 89% of porn is created in the U.S. $2.84 billion in revenue was generated from U.S. porn sites in 2006 25% of all search engine requests are pornographic $89/second is spent on porn 72% of porn viewers are men (2 8% are women) 260 new porn sites go online daily “Sex” is the most-frequently searched term on the Internet 70% of all porn traffic occurs during the 9-5 workday There are about 372 million porn web pages. http://tinyurl.com/2qr6fz http://tinyurl.com/2z6fe5 http://www.techcrunch.com/2007/05/12/internet-pornography-stats/ 93
  94. 2006 (Finland). Jaiku.com is a social networking and micro-blogging service similar to Twitter. http://tinyurl.com/2lw7yf http://tinyurl.com/35zay9 94
  95. 2006. Singapore-based internet radio and music community website. Over 1 million users (07) http://tinyurl.com/2xajxf 95
  96. 2004 domain first switched on Aug 06, 2005 Facebook is a social networking website which was launched on February 4, 2004. Started for colleges, then high schools, and now everyone. 34,000,000 users (07) quot;We may use information about you that we collect from other sources, including but not limited to newspapers and Internet sources such as blogs, instant messaging services and other users of Facebook, to supplement your profile.quot; http://tinyurl.com/22myzy 96
  97. “User Revolts” ? 97
  98. In September Facebook launched a quot;news feedquot; feature causing protest and responses by 741,000 users who joined the Students Against Facebook News Feed group. http://tinyurl.com/22h7cm 98
  99. http://daywithoutfacebook.blogspot.com/ 99
  100. http://www.petitiononline.com/faceb00k/petition.html 100
  101. http://tinyurl.com/etj7m 741.000 members of FB group in September 2006 http://www.facebook.com/group.php?gid=2208288769 101
  102. flow ion mat nfor of i e eas 741.000 members of FB group in September 2006 http://www.facebook.com/group.php?gid=2208288769 102
  103. “Even though I wish I hadn't made so many of you angry, I am glad we got to hear you,” he wrote. “And I am also glad that News Feed highlighted all these groups so people could find them and share their opinions with each other as well.” http://tinyurl.com/2n9mhl http://tinyurl.com/y3fedz 103
  104. “Every MySpace user I know is absolutely sick of the advertising onslaught and would leave if they could. But they feel trapped because they have so much content invested there, not to mention all their friends.” http://tinyurl.com/ywps4k 104
  105. Writely and Spreadsheets were merged into a single product on October 10, 2006 “… you grant Google a worldwide, non-exclusive, royalty- free license to reproduce, adapt, modify, publish and distribute such Content on Google services for the purpose of displaying, distributing and promoting Google services…” http://tinyurl.com/2pmbsm http://tinyurl.com/3e4rq4 105
  106. ( August 2005 “We assure you that the contents of your Account will not be disclosed to anyone and will not be accessible to employees of AdventNet. Neither do we process the contents of your Account for serving targeted advertisements.” http://tinyurl.com/2cv36o 106
  107. 2007 107
  108. 1.114 billion people use the Internet 108
  109. The Daily We Social objects and topical foci around which communities are shaped on the Social Web cater more and more to niche interests. The Internet gets incorporated into existing practices. 109
  110. (mobile social networking and media sharing) (social networking around baking) (social networking about books) (mobile media sharing) (mobile social networking, IM) (social maps) (micro-blogging) (social news site) (Game platform) 2007 110
  111. (North-American) English content is not dominating the Internet anymore. 111
  112. Social network hopping? Most people are on no more than 2 networks 112
  113. Consolidation 113
  114. By 2007 Wikipedia reports more than 2,000,000 articles in its English version and Technorati indexed more than 80 million blogs. http://tinyurl.com/24h9xu http://tinyurl.com/347sqq 114
  115. Facebook reports about 34 million users, growing by about 4 million each month (2007). It has stronger membership outside the United States than MySpace. http://tinyurl.com/2bxadq http://tinyurl.com/2rq8zd http://tinyurl.com/2de3hd 115
  116. In 2007 hi5 hi5 hi5 is the leading social networking site in Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Kuwait, Mauritius, Mongolia, Nicaragua, Peru, Portugal, Romania, Thailand, and Tunisia. 116
  117. The Participatory Culture Foundation (PCF) is a non-profit organization whose mission is to quot;enable and support independent, non-corporate creativity and political engagement.quot; Videobomb is a PCF project. It was founded in 2005. http://mosh.nokia.com/restricted http://tinyurl.com/3ymdu9 117
  118. Bebo, Friendster, Orkut, and hi5 have also strong international presence. Orkut dominates India and Brazil also because exit costs are high, making it hard for people to migrate. Fotolog dominates Argentina and Chile. http://tinyurl.com/2xrtpn 118
  119. 2007. Hyperlocal social news. The term quot;hyperlocalquot; is used to refer to news coverage of community-level events usually overlooked by mainstream http://mosh.nokia.com/restricted media outlets. http://tinyurl.com/2ofykg 119
  120. Women aged 25-34 spend more time online than men in the same age group. http://tinyurl.com/3dn6b6 http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk_news/story/0,,2154293,00.html?gusrc=rss&feed=technology 120
  121. conclusion 121
  122. The web is a platform for other things to come. What this will be is anyone’s guess. To find out we need to get going and start by protecting net neutrality. 122
  123. - end - direct comments, additions, etc to Trebor Scholz trebor@thing.net Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 123
  124. 124
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