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Crucial ppt preview new antibiotics
 

Crucial ppt preview new antibiotics

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How to fight antibiotic resistant bacteria? Students learn new content from the 2011 specification, and develop the skill of deciding whether the evidence justifies a conclusion.

How to fight antibiotic resistant bacteria? Students learn new content from the 2011 specification, and develop the skill of deciding whether the evidence justifies a conclusion.

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  • MRSA, or methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteria, live on your skin and in your nose.
  • This sore throat was caused by Streptococcus pyogenes bacteria. An antibiotic – penicillin – destroys the bacteria. Different antibiotics target different bacteria.
  • Mutations happen naturally. Only a tiny proportion of bacteria mutate, in just a very few people. Antibiotics may no longer be effective against these changed bacteria. Developing new antibiotics is a very difficult and time-consuming process.
  • Bacteria reproduce incredibly quickly. So large numbers of antibiotic-resistant bacteria are quickly formed.
  • MRSA is resistant to most antibiotics, even the powerful methicillin. Further resistance can be prevented by taking antibiotics only when necessary finishing all the tablets, even when you feel better doctors prescribing the correct antibiotic for each type of bacteria
  • This information is required for higher tier only.

Crucial ppt preview new antibiotics Crucial ppt preview new antibiotics Presentation Transcript

  • New antibiotics presents DRAFT AQA Application© CSE and ASE 2011 This page may have been changed from the original
  • objectives Objectives ● Find out how harmful bacteria form antibiotic-resistant strains. ● Discover why resistant strains spread rapidly. ● Draw conclusions from evidence about new ways of treating infections. Preview note: This activity teaches new content from AQA Science GCSE (B1.1.2 - infectious diseases), and applies the assessed skill: ‘drawing justified conclusions fromSTARTER ELICIT 2 22 evidence’. © Association for Science Education and Centre for Science Education 2011
  • what the preview file contains ● full version of the Presentation (slides 4-10) ● ‘more science’ –material from the student activity sheets which you may want to present (slides 14-20) ● preview of the two main student activities (slides 12-13) BUT NOT the student activity sheets, or the teachers guide technical note ● we ‘embedded’ two fonts to make the design work (it’s why the file is big) Titles should look like this Body text should look like this ● if they don’t appear correctly, you can download and install the fonts in 2 minutes: Download title font (dirt2stickler) from www.dafont.com/dirt2-stickler.font Download text font (Am. typewriter) from www.jabroo.com/index/search/q/american+typewriter Note: Click ‘Register’ at top, complete the form and you’ll be taken to the download pageSTARTER ELICIT 3 33 © Association for Science Education and Centre for Science Education 2011
  • ’’ Parliament, Health Questions Last Monday, Jim Beggs had a routine knee operation. In hospital, MRSAinfected his wound. Ten days later, the 46-year-old dad ’’ was dead. 4 4 © Association for Science Education and Centre for Science Education 2011
  • Parliament, Health QuestionsSuperbug MRSA killed62 more hospitalpatients last week.We are running out ofantibiotics that work.What does theHealth Ministerplan to do? 5 5 © Association for Science Education and Centre for Science Education 2011
  • The minister is in trouble SS1 – 2 Prepare a briefing to help me answer the MP . ● what are drug-resistant bacteria? ● how do they develop? ● why do they spread so fast? more science 6 6 © Association for Science Education and Centre for Science Education 2011
  • In theministerial limousineLet’s hear your briefing. 7 7 © Association for Science Education and Centre for Science Education 2011
  • antibiotic labs Scientists are testing new SS3 – 6 weapons against superbugs. cockroach brains honey silver nanoparticlesAre any worth funding? Is there enough evidenceSTARTER to conclude that they work? ELICIT 8 8 © Association for Science Education and Centre for Science Education 2011
  • reasoner lifELINE To make conclusions from data Start here More than one set of data? A single set of data?1 Examine evidence Does every source of data support the claim No Is there any evidence No supporting the claim or or hypothesis? hypothesis?2 Draw Yes Yes conclusions STRONG support WEAK support NO support Explain HOW WELL each piece of Explain why the3 Justify them evidence supports the hypothesis. evidence opposes the hypothesis or is unclear. Suggest further tests, and explain what results you expect if Yes Would further tests No The hypothesis the claim or make the conclusion could be wrong. hypothesis is correct. stronger? Suggest a different hypothesis that fits the evidence better. 9 © Association for Science Education and Centre for Science Education 2011
  • Locust Hypothesis Locust brain juice could cutexample MRSA in humans because it contains substances that kill bacteria.Bacteria Type Percentage of bacteria killed after incubating for 24 hours at 37 ºCResistant Escherichia coli 99.6Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa 99.7Resistant Staphylococcus aureus 97.6 How confident are you that the hypothesis is correct? Use the lifeline to decide. 10 © Association for Science Education and Centre for Science Education 2011
  • The end The following slides give detailedinformation linked from the main tasks. 11 © Association for Science Education and Centre for Science Education 2011
  • Student activity 1 preview: 2 How do drug-resistant bacteria develop?read pieces of text and Sometimes, the genes in bacteria change, or mutate. This happens naturally. Mosttranslate the information mutations are not useful to bacteria, butinto image captions, to occasionally they make bacteria resist antibiotics.provide the minister’s Sam has a throat infection. He takes antibioticbriefing. tablets. The antibiotic kills nearly all the bacteria. But a few bacteria – the resistant ones – survive. These bacteria reproduce rapidly. This is natural selection.2 How do drug-resistant bacteria develop? genes Sam takes an bacteria antibiotic in Sam
  • Student activity 2 preview: Research Cockroach lab 1‘visit’ the labs, examine two Scientist Simon Lee, UKpieces of evidence, anddraw a justified Hypothesiisfections in humansjuibecause could cut MRSA n Cockroach brain ceconclusion, using the it contains substances that kill bacteria.Lifeline Investigation ● grow two types of bacteria on agar plates ● add cockroach brain juice and leave for two hours at 37 ºC. Data Type of bacteria Percentage of bacteria killed MRSA More than 90 Escherichia coli More than 90 If an antibiotic kills 90% of the bacteria, your body’s immune system can kill the rest.
  • MRSA bacteria areharmless on your skin. More science 1 14 14 © Association for Science Education and Centre for Science Education 2011
  • But MRSA bacteria can cause fatal infections if they get in through a cut.More science 2 15 15 © Association for Science Education and Centre for Science Education 2011
  • We can fightmost bacteria with antibiotics. More science 3 16 16 © Association for Science Education and Centre for Science Education 2011
  • Bacteria canchange becausetheir genesmutate. genetic material Most mutations aren’t useful to bacteria, but occasionally mutations make bacteria resist antibiotics. More science 4 17 © Association for Science Education and Centre for Science Education 2011
  • The mutated bacteria are not destroyed by antibiotics. They survive and reproduce quickly.This is natural selection . More science 5 18 © Association for Science Education and Centre for Science Education 2011
  • Antibiotics don’t affect MRSA. It’s resistant.Whenever we use new antibiotics,resistant strains develop. More science 6 We’re running out of ideas! 19 © Association for Science Education and Centre for Science Education 2011
  • Hari has an ear infection.An antibiotic kills almost allthe bacteria. Hari stops takingthe antibiotic. A tiny fraction of the bacteria have a natural resistance to the antibiotic. They do not die.These bacteria reproduce.So the population of theresistant strain of bacteriaincreases. More science 7 20 © Association for Science Education and Centre for Science Education 2011
  • Credits Gary Talbot, Writer Philippa Hulme, Editor Tony Sherborne, Executive editor Picture Slide Credit Infected wound 3 Wikimedia Commons Bacteria in mouth 13 Wikimedia Commons© Centre for Science Education & Association for Science Education 2011. The license for this material includesdownloading and using it within the institution. For any other usage, permission must be obtained from upd8. Contactupd8@ase.org.uk upd8 is not responsible for any revision that may be made to the material after it has been downloaded. 21 21