Mrsa 2009


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Mrsa 2009

  1. 1. MRSA<br />methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus<br />By Karen S. Rawlins, BA, CDPT<br />
  2. 2. Definition<br />Caused by Staphylococcus aureus bacteria – “staph”<br />Resistant to the antibiotics commonly used for staph<br />Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) can be fatal<br />Healthcare-associated (HA-MRSA)<br />Community-associated (CA-MRSA)<br />
  3. 3. MRSA<br />Staph infections (including MRSA) generally start as small red bumps that resemble pimples, boils or spider bites.<br />
  4. 4. MRSA<br />These can quickly turn into deep, painful abscesses that may require surgical draining or other care from your doctor.<br />
  5. 5. MRSA<br />Sometimes the bacteria stays just in the skin.<br />But sometimes it penetrates into the bones, joints, surgical wounds, blood, heart valves and lungs.<br />
  6. 6. WHO HAS IT?<br />Staph is normally found on skin or in the nose in about 1/3 of population.<br />Those who carry staph in this way are said to be “colonized” but not infected.<br />Colonized people can be healthy, but pass the germ on to others.<br />Staph are generally harmless unless they enter body through cut or wound.<br />For older adults or those with weakened immune systems it can be very serious.<br />Recently it has even spread to normally healthy people such as athletes who share equipment or personal items.<br />
  7. 7. ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE<br />Humans bear most of the responsibility for antibiotic resistance.<br />Unnecessary antibiotic use.<br />Antibiotics in food and water.<br />Germ mutation.<br />
  8. 8. RISK FACTORS<br />CA-MRSA<br />Young age.<br />Participating in contact sports.<br />Sharing towels or athletic equipment.<br />Living in crowded or unsanitary conditions.<br />Association with health care workers.<br />HA-MRSA<br />A current or recent hospitalization.<br />Living in a long-term care facility.<br />Invasive devices.<br />Recent antibiotic use.<br />
  9. 9. When to seek medical advice<br />
  10. 10. SIGNS & SYMPTOMS<br />Redness, warmth and tenderness<br />Pus – a yellowish-white fluid that may have a foul smell<br />Fever<br />
  11. 11. TESTS & DIAGNOSIS<br />Doctors diagnose MRSA with a tissue sample or by testing nasal secretions.<br />The lab cultures the tissue or secretion sample (about 2 days).<br />Newer tests can check for DNA (a few hours) .<br />
  12. 12. TREATMENT& DRUGS<br />Both HA-MRSA and CA-MRSA still respond to certain medications. <br />Vancomycin is frequently used in the hospital.<br />
  13. 13. PREVENTION<br />Hospitals are tracking outbreaks<br />Investigating alternative surfaces and materials<br />BEST WAY TO PREVENT SPREAD: <br />Washing hands and disinfecting surfaces<br />Wear PPE when working with people infected with resistant bacteria<br />
  14. 14. What you can do in your community<br />Wash your hands<br />Keep personal items personal<br />Keep wounds covered<br />Shower after athletic games or practices or other contact-type activities<br />Sit out of contact activities if you have a concerning infection<br />Sanitize linens<br />Get tested<br />Use antibiotics appropriately<br />
  15. 15. If your infection isn’t improving after a few days of taking an antibiotic,contact your doctor.<br />
  16. 16. Material adapted from Downloaded March 10, 2009<br />