Mrsa ppt


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Mrsa ppt

  1. 1. MRSA
  2. 2. <ul><li>Staphylococcus aureus or “staph” bacteria commonly live on the skin and in noses of healthy people </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually staph bacteria are harmless </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Staph bacteria may cause an infection </li></ul></ul><ul><li>if they enter the body through a break in the skin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These infections can usually be treated with </li></ul></ul><ul><li>antibiotics </li></ul>What is MRSA?
  3. 3. What is MRSA <ul><li>MRSA is a type of staph bacteria that has become resistant to methicillin and other antibiotics commonly used to treat staph infections </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MRSA stands for: M ethicillin R esistant S taphylococcus a ureus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MRSA infections can range from very minor to life-threatening </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>MRSA bacteria can live on surfaces for several days </li></ul>
  4. 4. Basic Characteristic of S. aureus <ul><li>Gram Positive </li></ul><ul><li>Non-motile </li></ul><ul><li>Spherical </li></ul><ul><li>Grows in chains </li></ul><ul><li>Resembles clumps of grapes </li></ul><ul><li>Golden color </li></ul><ul><li>Hemolytic pattern on blood agar </li></ul><ul><li>Produces coagulase and catalase enzymes </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Cell Wall </li></ul><ul><li>Cytoplasmic membrane- Osmotic barrier prevents disequilibrium of ionic content. Preventing cell osmotic instability and susceptibility to lysis. </li></ul><ul><li>Polysaccharide capsule-slime layer; adhesin, Inhibits phagocytosis </li></ul><ul><li>Peptidoglycan- Allows bacteria to attach to host’s cell membranes </li></ul><ul><li>Protein A-Immunological disguise. </li></ul>Virulence Factors: Avoiding Host Defenses
  6. 6. History of S. aureus resistance
  7. 7. How is MRSA diagnosed? How is MRSA diagnosed?
  8. 8. How is infection or indee colonization with MRSA diagnosed? <ul><li>To identify a MRSA infection, samples of skin, blood, urine, pus, other fluids are taken from the patient. Samples are determined on what area of the body the infection is emanating. </li></ul><ul><li>These are then sent to a microbiology laboratory, where any bacteria present in the sample is placed in a Petri dish  - a round shallow covered dish used for the culture of bacteria etc. </li></ul>How is infection or indeed colonization with MRSA diagnosed?
  9. 9. What does a MRSA infection look like? <ul><li>These organisms have been termed &quot;flesh-eating bacteria&quot; because of their occasional rapid spread and destruction of human skin </li></ul><ul><li>Most commonly, MRSA causes skin infections that may look like : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spider bites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large, red, painful lumps under the skin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A cut that is swollen, hot and filled with pus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In rare cases, MRSA can causes pneumonia and infections in the blood, bones and urine </li></ul>
  10. 10. How is MRSA Spread? <ul><li>MRSA spreads through direct contact with </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The skin of someone who has MRSA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal items of someone who has MRSA such as towels, clothing and razors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Objects that have MRSA bacteria on them such as desks, door knobs or phones </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Who is at risk for MRSA? <ul><li>ANYONE can get MRSA – those most at risk: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spend a lot of time in crowded places such as hospitals, schools or dorms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Share sports equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Share personal hygiene items </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Play contact sports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overuse or misuse antibiotics </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Can Healthy People Get MRSA? <ul><li>Yes. MRSA skin infections are showing up more frequently in healthy people, with none of the usual risks factors. This type of MRSA - called community-associated MRSA (CA MRSA) - has been reported among athletes, prisoners, and military recruits. Outbreaks have been seen at schools, gyms, day care centers and other places where people share close quarters. </li></ul>Can Healthy People Get MRSA?
  13. 13. MRSA in Dogs and Cats <ul><li>It looks like MRSA has jumped from humans to household pets, where it can linger without obvious symptoms - and possibly reinfect the pet owners. Only community-acquired strains have been found in cats and dogs so far. </li></ul>MRSA in Dogs and Cats