“LITTLE BROWN BROTHERS” in the PHILIPPINES Explain why Filipinos were angry enough to wage a rebellion against the U.S. in 1899. Were the Filipinos justified? Who led the insurrection? How did this conflict differ for America from the recent victory over Spain? After the insurrection was defeated, what was McKinley’s strategy? Did it work?
HINGING the OPEN DOOR in CHINAFollowing China’s defeat to Japan, the imperialistic European powers began to tear awayvaluable leaseholds and economic spheres of influence from the Manchu govt. Why didthis alarm the U.S.?Secretary of State John Hay was given the responsibility of safeguarding Americaninterests in China. Britain offered assistance, but political complexities forced Hay torefuse open British assistance.
Economic interests aside, churches worried about their missionary strongholds.Missionaries felt a sentimental affection to the poor and exploited Chinese.In the summer of 1899, Hay responded with his Open Door note. Explain this assertiveAmerican policy. How effective was the Open Door policy?
To what policy does this cartoon refer?What is the main idea of the cartoon?How might the Chinese interpret thesituation?How might the Japanese view thesituation?
Responding to the foreign exploitation, asuper-patriotic group of Chinese, known asboxers, went on a rampage, targetingmissionaries and other ill-fated whites.
What was the American role in the international rescue force? And why was itsignificant? After the Chinese defeat, how were they treated? After the BoxerRebellion, what was Hay’s concern? Explain his next move and its significance.
IMPERIALISM or BRYANISM in 1900? In the presidential election of 1900, William Jennings Bryan (D) ran against incumbent President McKinley (R). Why was it McKinley’s election to lose? Explain how Teddy Roosevelt found himself as McKinley’s running mate. What was his role in the campaign?
What was Bryan’s main issue? Why wasn’tit galvanizing enough?Further alienating Bryan from the electoratewas his passionate opposition againstincreasing American imperialism.In the end McKinley won the election by alarge margin – was his victory a mandate?
TR: BRANDISHER of the BIG STICK President McKinley had scarcely served six months of his second term when, in Sept. 1901, he was assassinated by a deranged anarchist. TR became president at age 42, the youngest thus far in American history. Explain TR’s personal background and identify how TR was a living contradiction. Above all, TR was a direct-actionist. He believed that the president should lead; and although he made mistakes, he made progress.
COLOMBIA BLOCKS the CANAL The Spanish-American War had emphasized the need for the long-talked about canal across the Central American isthmus. TR, amongst others, saw this canal as vital to American national security. Initial obstacles in the path of the canal builders were legal rather than geographical. Explain how the Clayton- Bulwer Treaty (1850) could have been an obstacle for the U.S. Explain the significance of the Hay- Pauncefote Treaty (1901). Why did the British sign this concession? Why was Panama selected as the site for the canal? Which other site was hotly debated?
What does the cartoon depict? Comment on the man shoveling the dirt. How would youinterpret the cartoon if you were Colombian? Briefly summarize the purpose of thecartoon.
UNCLE SAM CREATES PUPPET PANAMAIn 1902 Colombia controlled Panama. A treaty highly favorable to the U.S. wasnegotiated between Washington and a Colombian govt. agent. Describe the mainprovisions of the treaty. Why did the Colombian govt. balk at the treaty?
What do you think is the mainpoint of the cartoon?How does the posture andposition of “Uncle Sam” in thecartoon influence your reaction?Why is the world globe on theside of Uncle Sam?Could this cartoon be usedtoday? Why or why not?
How did TR secure the canalzone?Did this enhance America’simage?Would this episode have thepotential to create problemsin the future between theU.S. and Panama?
COMPLETING the CANAL and APPEASING COLOMBIA The so-called rape of Panama marked an ugly downward lurch in U.S. relations with Latin America. TR was put on the defensive for his actions, but he remained unapologetic until the end. Politics most certainly played a role in TR’s actions. TR had his eyes set on the upcoming 1904 presidential election. In 1914 Americans finally succeeded where the French had failed. The canal was completed at a cost of $400 million.
The design and sheer size of the greatGatun Locks remain an engineeringmarvel to this day.
TR’s PERVERSION of MONROE’S DOCTRINELatin American debt defaults created the conditions for further Rooseveltian involvement in affairssouth of the border. Describe the “Roosevelt Corollary” and the circumstances that precipitatedit. How did TR attempt to legitimize this intervention in Latin America?
What is the significance of the title of the cartoon? To what U.S. policy does thiscartoon refer? How did that policy differ from the earlier Monroe Doctrine? Summarizethe main idea of the cartoon. How was the “Big Stick” policy extended by DollarDiplomacy? How might a Venezuelan cartoonist view Big Stick diplomacy differently?
Explain how Roosevelt’s rewriting of Monroe’s doctrine had its dark side. America’sperceived “Bad Neighbor” policy toward Latin America would endure until FDR won theWhite House.
What is the main point of thiscartoon?Do you see any similarities withPresident Reagan’s position in thiscartoon & President Roosevelt’s inCartoon A?
Politically sensitive to critics, TR consistently denied any intentions to annex anystruggling Latin American countries, but his policies spoke louder than words for many.
ROOSEVELT on the WORLD STAGE What event allowed TR to shine on the world stage? Explain his role and how the nation paid a price for it. For TR, what did he gain from the Portsmouth Conference?
JAPANESE LABORERS in CALIFORNIAThe population of America’s Pacific Coast population was directly affected by the Russo-Japanese War. Numerous Japanese laborers, with their families, began to pour into thespacious valleys of California. Explain the events culminating in a showdown withJapan in 1906. How did TR resolve the crisis? (the “Gentlemen’s Agreement”)
TR worried that his intervention between California and Japan might be interpreted inTokyo as prompted by fear of the Japanese. Accordingly, he sent “The Great WhiteFleet” on a worldwide journey to impress the Japanese with the heft of his big stick. Theby-product of the tour was the Root-Takahira Agreement (1905) – explain the primaryprovision.