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National Data Standardization: A Place for Topic Maps?
National Data Standardization: A Place for Topic Maps?
National Data Standardization: A Place for Topic Maps?
National Data Standardization: A Place for Topic Maps?
National Data Standardization: A Place for Topic Maps?
National Data Standardization: A Place for Topic Maps?
National Data Standardization: A Place for Topic Maps?
National Data Standardization: A Place for Topic Maps?
National Data Standardization: A Place for Topic Maps?
National Data Standardization: A Place for Topic Maps?
National Data Standardization: A Place for Topic Maps?
National Data Standardization: A Place for Topic Maps?
National Data Standardization: A Place for Topic Maps?
National Data Standardization: A Place for Topic Maps?
National Data Standardization: A Place for Topic Maps?
National Data Standardization: A Place for Topic Maps?
National Data Standardization: A Place for Topic Maps?
National Data Standardization: A Place for Topic Maps?
National Data Standardization: A Place for Topic Maps?
National Data Standardization: A Place for Topic Maps?
National Data Standardization: A Place for Topic Maps?
National Data Standardization: A Place for Topic Maps?
National Data Standardization: A Place for Topic Maps?
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National Data Standardization: A Place for Topic Maps?

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This paper deals with national data standardization efforts in Denmark and discusses the role Topic Maps – and topic maps – may play in a new standardization strategy currently being considered by the …

This paper deals with national data standardization efforts in Denmark and discusses the role Topic Maps – and topic maps – may play in a new standardization strategy currently being considered by the Danish National IT and Telecom Agency. The strategy entails a paradigm shift from syntactic data standards based on XML schema to a more semantically based approach involving, among other things, the development, publishing and sharing of so-called definitions. The paper accounts for the historical, political and technical context of the strategy pointing out some of the opportunities and constraints this context poses for the introduction and application of Topic Maps as a recognized “data standardization standard” in Denmark.

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  • 1. National Data Standardization: A Place for TopicMaps?
    Lars Johnsen
  • 2. ”There is something rotten in the state of Denmark”- Shakespeare (1601)
    2009: Challenges => modernization of the public sector => digitalization => interoperability
  • 3. To beor not to be – standardizing *
    2001: It standardizationeffortstakingoff
    2006: B103 – Parliament voting for open standards in Danish e-goverment
    2008: Seven sets of open standards made compulsoryincluding web standards, document standards and data standards
    Where is TopicMaps …?
    * … that’sone of the questions
  • 4. Data standardization in Denmark
    Background and status
    New strategybeingimplemented by ITST (the national agency for It and Telecom)
    Technologicalinfrastructure
    Paradigmshift from syntax to semanticsorevensubject-centricthinking …
    Why not TM?
    Agenda
  • 5. Data standards - OIOXML
    OIOXML schemas
    Domain schemas
    Corecomponents
  • 6. Problems with OIOXML schemas
    Content
    Little documentation
    Whatlegislation?
    Whatcontexts?
    Whatprojects, web services, etc.
    Findability and usability
    Uploading
    Organizing
    Viewing
    Concepts
    No real semantics:
    <MaritalStatusCode>
    married
    divorced
    widow
    registeredpartnership
    abolition of partnership
    longestliving partner
    deceased
    unmarried
    </MaritalStatusCode>
    What do youread, my lord?
    Words, words, words
  • 7. A new strategy in the pipeline
    Taxonomies
    Concept systems
    Semantic definitions
    Message definitions
    Data definitions
    OIOXML schemas
    WDSL files
  • 8. Concept systems: buildingonexistingmethodologies
  • 9. From concept systems to taxonomies and thesauri
    FORM – a reference model of public services in Denmark
    Social services
    Benefits
    Individualbenefits
    Action
    Allocation of housingbenefit
    Object
  • 10. In the future: semantic definitions as pivots
    <SemanticDefinitiondefinitionIdentifier = ”…” systemIdentifier = ”…” versionIdentifier = ”…”>
    <LocalizationlanguageCode =”DA”>
    <Term roleCode = ”preferred”>…</Term>
    <Term roleCode = ”admitted”>…</term>

    <DescriptionroleCode = ”definition”>…</Description>
    </Localization>

    </SemanticDefinition>
  • 11. Semantic
    definition
    From semantics to syntax
    Semantic
    definition
    client
    has
    client status
    is a
    Data definition
    Client
    Client_status: custody, …
    Semantic
    definition
    custody
    “Though this be madness, yet there is method in it”
    OIOXML
    <ClientStatusCode>
    <enumerationvalue =”custody” />

    </ClientStatusCode>
  • 12. Conceptuallayer
    Concept systems and taxonomies = TAO
    topics/subjects, properties, associations, roles
    Semantic definition = PSI
    names, descriptions, explanations, etc. of subjects (in oneor more languages)
    Contentorresourcelayer
    OIOXML schemas, data definitions, wsdl files = occurrences/addressablesubjects
    Embedded OIO schemas = part-whole associations betweenaddressablesubjects, etc.
    TM model, really
  • 13. So, why not simplyadopt TM as a unifying model or standardfor representing and organizing ”data standards data” in Denmark …?
    Instead an entirely new OIOXML language is beingdeveloped …
    Thisquestionbecomeseven more relevant …
  • 14. Web 2.0 platform (Digitaliser.dk)
    Information architecturecenteredongroups
    Functionality for news, debates, usernetworks, etc.
    Tagging as primaryorganizationvehicle
    REST API
    Resources, representations and structured URL’s
    Finding, publishing and sharing ..
    Prediction: a direneed for an organizational/navigationaloverlayintegratingdistributedconceptual information, resources and metadata onDigitaliser.dk
  • 15. Why not adopt TM as a unifyingtechnology for organizing and integrating data standards contentonDigitaliser.dk (and elsewhere)?
  • 16.
  • 17. TopicMaps as a technologyworking ”covertly” behind the scenes ortopicmaps as accessible information products in theirown right?
  • 18. Topicmaps as resourcesonDigitaliser.dk?
    OIO topicmaps – trulyopen information sets about the ”state of Denmark”
  • 19. The vision of OIO TopicMaps …
    Public institutions and authorities
    Public services (e.g. FORM)
    Integration
    Public web services
    Coreconcepts
    Laws and guidelines
    Workflows
  • 20. <topicMap version="2.0" xmlns="http://www.topicmaps.org/xtm/">
    <topic id="enke">
    <subjectIdentifierhref="http://digitaliser.dk/resource/123" />
    <subjectIdentifierhref="http://api.digitaliser.dk/rest/resources/123/artefacts/enke.xml/content" />
    <instanceOf>
    <topicRefhref="#OIOconcept" />
    </instanceOf>
    <name>
    <scope>
    <topicRefhref="#DA" />
    </scope>
    <value>enke</value>
    </name>
    <occurrence>
    <type>
    <topicRefhref="#OIOXML" />
    </type>
    <resourceDatadatatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#anyType">
    <MaritalStatusCode>widow</MaritalStatusCode>
    </resourceData>
    </occurrence>
    </topic>
    ...
    </topicMap>
    XTM 2.0 comes in handy …!
  • 21. General lack of knowledge
    ”TopicMaps is a metadata standard like Dublin Core”
    ”Conceptslikesubject, topic, identity and mergingaresimplytoohard to explain”
    ”Weare not havingthat RDF and OWL stuff, thereforewecannotadopt TM either”
    The TM vocabularydoes not translateveryeasilyinto Danish
    Why is TM not a national standard?
    And of coursewe do not have a Lars Marius or Steve P …
  • 22. Emne - subjekt (topic/subject)
    Identifikator - indikator (subjectidentifiervsindicator)
    Adresse (locator)
    Belæg – hændelse - forekomst (occurrence)
    Sammenslutning – sammenlægning - fusion (merging)
    Translating TM into Danish
  • 23. Play the standard card (”TM is an international ISO standard, youknow”)?
    Create solutions! (chicken and egg problem)
    RDF: friendorfoe?
    The ”versatility problem”: promoting TM as Semantic Web technology, metadata format, orwhat?
    So, whatshouldwe do?
    PerhapsDigitaliser.dkwillsolve the problem for us …
    ”The rest is silence!”

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