RF and Health: A WHO Perspective
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RF and Health: A WHO Perspective

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Check out WHO's perspective on Radio Frequencies & human health. This deck provides answers to much asked questions like 'Do EMFs pose a heath risk?'

Check out WHO's perspective on Radio Frequencies & human health. This deck provides answers to much asked questions like 'Do EMFs pose a heath risk?'

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    RF and Health: A WHO Perspective RF and Health: A WHO Perspective Presentation Transcript

    • RF and Health:A WHO PerspectiveDr E. van DeventerTeam LeaderRadiation ProgrammeDepartment of Public Health and EnvironmentRF and Health:A WHO PerspectiveDr E. van DeventerTeam LeaderRadiation ProgrammeDepartment of Public Health and Environment
    • ITU Workshop on EMF | Turin| 9 May 20132 |OUTLINEOUTLINE Introduction Assessing the health risk Managing the potential risk Conclusions
    • ITU Workshop on EMF | Turin| 9 May 20133 |
    • ITU Workshop on EMF | Turin| 9 May 20134 |
    • ITU Workshop on EMF | Turin| 9 May 20135 |The Present EMF ContextThe Present EMF Context Increasing EMF human exposuredue to electricity demand, medicaltechnologies and wireless devices Increasing concern from the public
    • ITU Workshop on EMF | Turin| 9 May 20136 |Radio Frequency Fields(100 kHz – 300 GHz)Radio Frequency Fields(100 kHz – 300 GHz)SecurityscannersNavigation/RadarBroadcastingWi-FiTelecommunicationsCommercialResidential sourcesEmergingtechnologies
    • ITU Workshop on EMF | Turin| 9 May 20137 |
    • ITU Workshop on EMF | Turin| 9 May 20138 | Large and increasingly sophisticated database Known mechanisms Health effects not established belowinternational guidelines Scientific uncertaintyThe PresentScientific KnowledgeThe PresentScientific Knowledge
    • ITU Workshop on EMF | Turin| 9 May 20139 |WHO International EMF ProjectWHO International EMF Project Established in 1996 Coordinated by WHO HQ A multinational, multidisciplinary effortto create and disseminate informationon human health risk from EMF
    • ITU Workshop on EMF | Turin| 9 May 201310 |WHO Partners in RadiationWHO Partners in RadiationInternationalOrganizationsInternationalOrganizationsNGOsNGOsNationalAuthoritiesNationalAuthoritiesCollaboratingCentresCollaboratingCentres
    • ITU Workshop on EMF | Turin| 9 May 201311 |mHealthan ITU/WHO initiativemHealthan ITU/WHO initiative
    • ITU Workshop on EMF | Turin| 9 May 201312 |Do EMFs pose a heath risk?Do EMFs pose a heath risk?Risk AssessmentThe EvidenceRisk ManagementThe PoliciesRisk PerceptionThe Public Concern
    • ITU Workshop on EMF | Turin| 9 May 201313 |OUTLINEOUTLINE Introduction Assessing the health risk
    • ITU Workshop on EMF | Turin| 9 May 201314 |What do we know?What do we know?Frequency100 kHz 300 MHz 10 GHz
    • ITU Workshop on EMF | Turin| 9 May 201315 |What do we know?Mechanisms of interactionWhat do we know?Mechanisms of interactionFrequency100 kHz 300 MHz 10 GHzInduced currentsInduced currentsand heatingSurface heatingNon-thermal effects??
    • ITU Workshop on EMF | Turin| 9 May 201316 |What type of research isneeded?
    • ITU Workshop on EMF | Turin| 9 May 201317 |RF Research AgendaRF Research Agenda To promote research areas thathave relevance to public health, andcan– reduce scientific uncertainties:health effects research– respond to public concern throughbetter risk communication: socialscience research Useful to researchers and fundingagencies Uptake of the latest agenda inseveral countries
    • ITU Workshop on EMF | Turin| 9 May 201318 |ResearchBalance of studies neededResearchBalance of studies neededhttp://www.niehs.nih.gov/emfrapid/booklet/emf2002.pdf
    • ITU Workshop on EMF | Turin| 9 May 201319 |Laboratory StudiesLaboratory Studies Cellular studies– Genotoxicity– Gene expression Animal studies– Cancer– Behaviour– BBB– Skin Human studies– Sleep– EEG– Hormones– EHS
    • ITU Workshop on EMF | Turin| 9 May 201320 |Short-term effects(WHO fact sheet 193, June 2011)Short-term effects(WHO fact sheet 193, June 2011) To date, research does not suggest anyconsistent evidence of adverse health effectsfrom exposure to RF fields at levels below thosethat cause tissue heating. Research has not been able to provide support fora causal relationship between exposure to EMFand self-reported symptoms, or “electromagnetichypersensitivity”.
    • ITU Workshop on EMF | Turin| 9 May 201321 |Epidemiological studiesStudies on mobile phonesEpidemiological studiesStudies on mobile phones Tumours in head and neck– Glioma, meningioma, acoustic neuroma, parotid gland Over 15 studies on the use of mobile phones– Published: USA, Nordic countries, INTERPHONE,CEFALO– Ongoing: MOBI-Kids, COSMOS
    • ITU Workshop on EMF | Turin| 9 May 201322 |INTERPHONE study(published 18 May 2010)INTERPHONE study(published 18 May 2010) Cases:– 2,765 gliomas– 2,425 meningiomas– 1,121 acoustic neuroma– 109 malignant parotid gland Controls:– 7,658 Cases:– 2,765 gliomas– 2,425 meningiomas– 1,121 acoustic neuroma– 109 malignant parotid gland Controls:– 7,658
    • ITU Workshop on EMF | Turin| 9 May 201323 |Long-term effects(WHO fact sheet 193, June 2011)Long-term effects(WHO fact sheet 193, June 2011) No increased risk of glioma, meningioma or acousticneuroma with mobile phone use of more than 10 years Indications of increased risk of glioma for heavy users– Biases and errors prevent a causal interpretation– Basis for classification of RF fields as "possible carcinogenic" No available data for long-term use (15-20 years) Studies on children ongoing– No causal relationship seen in CEFALO study (July 2011)
    • ITU Workshop on EMF | Turin| 9 May 201324 |http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs193/en/index.html
    • ITU Workshop on EMF | Turin| 9 May 201325 |Epidemiological studiesBase stations and wireless networksEpidemiological studiesBase stations and wireless networks Some studies have been performed– Well-being and performance– Cancer Difficulty of personal exposure assessmentWi-FiGSM GSM 3G Wi-FiKenneth R. Foster, Radiofrequency exposure from wireless LANs utilizing WI-FI technology.Health Phys. 92(3):280 –289; 2007
    • ITU Workshop on EMF | Turin| 9 May 201326 |OMSOMSConclusions:“Considering the very low exposure levels and researchresults collected to date, there is no convincingscientific evidence that the weak RF signals frombase stations and wireless networks cause adversehealth effects”
    • ITU Workshop on EMF | Turin| 9 May 201327 |How do we evaluatethe health risk from EMF?
    • ITU Workshop on EMF | Turin| 9 May 201328 |CancerProblem FormulationEMF Health Risk AssessmentEMF Health Risk AssessmentExposure AssessmentDetermine the amount,duration and pattern ofexposure to the agentHazard IdentificationReview key research toidentify any potential healthproblems that an agent cancauseExposure-ResponseAssessmentEstimate how much of theagent it would take to causevarying degrees of healtheffects that could lead toillnessesRisk CharacterizationAssess the risk for theagent to cause cancer orother illnesses in thegeneral population
    • ITU Workshop on EMF | Turin| 9 May 201329 |From V. Cogliano, Workshop on "Characterizing evidence in EMF risk assessment",Berlin, May 2006, http://evidence.pureres.net
    • ITU Workshop on EMF | Turin| 9 May 201330 |IARC Monograph on RFIARC Monograph on RF Volume 102: Non-Ionizing Radiation, Part 2:Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields, 2013– Expert meeting, May 2011– The Lancet Oncology, 22 June 2011– Monograph publication, 24 April 2013
    • ITU Workshop on EMF | Turin| 9 May 201331 |
    • ITU Workshop on EMF | Turin| 9 May 201332 |All studiedoutcomesProblem FormulationHealth Risk AssessmentHealth Risk AssessmentExposure AssessmentDetermine the amount,duration and pattern ofexposure to the agentHazard IdentificationReview key research toidentify any potential healthproblems that an agent cancauseExposure-ResponseAssessmentEstimate how much of theagent it would take to causevarying degrees of healtheffects that could lead toillnessesRisk CharacterizationAssess the risk for theagent to cause cancer orother illnesses in thegeneral population
    • ITU Workshop on EMF | Turin| 9 May 201333 |Environmental Health CriteriaElectromagnetic FieldsEnvironmental Health CriteriaElectromagnetic Fields20062007 RF fields2014
    • ITU Workshop on EMF | Turin| 9 May 201334 |ScopeScope Frequency range:– 100 kHz - 300 GHz– Include UWB, pulses, mm-waves Sources:– RFID, EAS, mobile telephony, radar, smart meters, … Health benefits not included– Hyperthermia, MRI, medical treatments, diathermy, RF ablation surgery Systematic review of scientific evidence of health risks Update on research recommendations Review of national RF policies
    • ITU Workshop on EMF | Turin| 9 May 201335 |OUTLINEOUTLINE Introduction Assessing the health risk Managing the health risk– Developing standards and regulations– Communicating the scientific knowledge
    • ITU Workshop on EMF | Turin| 9 May 201336 |Norms, Standards and GuidelinesNorms, Standards and Guidelines Emission standardshave specifications thatlimit the EMF emissionsfrom devices Exposure standardshave specifications thatlimit EMF exposure topeople
    • ITU Workshop on EMF | Turin| 9 May 201337 |Relevant AuthoritiesNon-governmental and international organizationsRelevant AuthoritiesNon-governmental and international organizations Emission standards Measurementsstandards Exposure standards
    • ITU Workshop on EMF | Turin| 9 May 201338 |Policy documents ….Policy documents ….http://www.who.int/peh-emf/standards/
    • ITU Workshop on EMF | Turin| 9 May 201339 |
    • ITU Workshop on EMF | Turin| 9 May 201340 |Worldwide EMF standardsWorldwide EMF standards
    • ITU Workshop on EMF | Turin| 9 May 201341 |Survey on EMF StandardsMay 2013Survey on EMF StandardsMay 2013
    • ITU Workshop on EMF | Turin| 9 May 201342 |Legislative statusElectromagnetic fields (EMF)Location YearStandardsapplying to thepublic: StaticfieldsStandardsapplying to thepublic: LowfrequenciesStandardsapplying to thepublic: RadiofrequenciesStandardsapplying toworkers: StaticfieldsStandardsapplying toworkers: LowfrequenciesStandardsapplying toworkers: RadiofrequenciesAfghanistan 2013 No Yes Yes No No NoAlbania 2013 No data Yes Yes No No NoAlgeria 2013 No Yes Yes Yes Subnational SubnationalAndorra 2013 No data No data Subnational No No NoAngola No Yes Subnational No No NoAntigua andBarbudaNo No No No data No data NoArgentina Yes Subnational Subnational Yes No NoArmenia No Yes Yes No No NoAustralia No Yes Yes Yes Yes YesAustria Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes YesAzerbaijan No Yes Yes No No NoExposure standards for electromagnetic fields (EMF)i i i ii iExposure standardsLimits values
    • ITU Workshop on EMF | Turin| 9 May 201343 |National management approachesNational management approaches Relevant authorities– National level (different ministries)– Provincial level– Local level
    • ITU Workshop on EMF | Turin| 9 May 201344 |Management OptionsManagement OptionsReduce concernReduce uncertaintyReduce exposure No action Communication Research Planning measures Engineering measures Exposure limits ….
    • ITU Workshop on EMF | Turin| 9 May 201345 |Risk Perception and CommunicationWHO Risk HandbookRisk Perception and CommunicationWHO Risk Handbook• For programme managers whoneed basic information on EMFrisk perception, communicationand management• Available in English•Translated into Spanish, Italian,German, French, Russian,Bulgarian, Dutch, Polish,Portuguese, Hungarian andJapanese•Available on the webwww.who.int/emf
    • ITU Workshop on EMF | Turin| 9 May 201346 |by 30 June 2013emfproject@who.int
    • ITU Workshop on EMF | Turin| 9 May 201347 |OUTLINEOUTLINE Introduction Assessing the health risk Managing the potential risk Conclusions
    • ITU Workshop on EMF | Turin| 9 May 201348 |Challenges to governments….Challenges to governments…. Rapidly evolving RF technologies Launched on the market before health evaluation Disparities in risk management measures andregulations around the world Concern from the public
    • ITU Workshop on EMF | Turin| 9 May 201349 |ConclusionsConclusions Need for clear roles and responsibilities in governmenton this topic Need for adoption and compliance of health-basedstandards Need for a public information program and dialogue withstakeholders Need for promoting research to reduce uncertaintyWe are a "global village"
    • The International EMF ProjectRadiation and Environmental HealthPublic Health and EnvironmentWorld Health Organization21 Avenue AppiaCH-1211 Geneva 27Switzerland: emfproject@who.intemail: www.who.int/emfwebsite