Radiofrequency Fields ( RF )
( Mobile Phones )
Evaluation of IARC
( International Agency for Research on Cancer )
Dr. Vija...
ELF RadioFrequency Fields
Power-Lines Radio TV Microwaves Infrared UV X - rays γ -
rays
Frequency
Hertz
Visible
Light
Ener...
Mobile Phone Users
Country Mobile Phones Population % Users
World 6,800,000,000+ 7,012,000,000 97 %
( Dec 2013 )
India 924...
International Organizations
IEEE ( 2005 ) & ICNIRP ( 2009 )
Recommended Exposure Limits
Radiofrequency Fields ( 300 MHz - ...
Public Concern
ADVERSE HEALTH EFFECTS
Brain & Other Cancers
800 – 2000 MHz Radiofrequency Fields
Emitted from Mobile Phones
IARC
Evaluation
2011
May 2011
IARC Working Group
30 scientists from 14 countries
“ Evaluation of Carcinogenicity of RF ”
 Epidemiological Stud...
Genotoxicity
2003 Heynick et al. Bioelectromagnetics
2003 Meltz Bioelectromagnetics
2004 Vijayalaxmi & Obe Radiation Resea...
Other Relevant Data
Apoptosis No Evidence
Auditory System No Evidence
Behavior Inadequate Evidence
Blood-Brain Barrier, et...
Mechanism(s)
Several were Proposed
NO CONFIRMED EVIDENCE
Carcinogenicity in Animals
( Total 47 Investigations )
# Year Author Animal RF exposure Target Organ # Year Author Animal ...
Carcinogenicity in Animals
SUMMARY
Number of
Studies
Excess
Tumors
Tumor
Type
Two-Year Bioassays 5 0 -
Tumor - Prone Anima...
Carcinogenicity in Humans
Epidemiological Studies
Cancers in Brain
Other Cancers
Other Cancers in Humans
Childhood Cancers
Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma
Parotid Gland Tumor
Pituitary Tumors
Salivary Gland Tumors
...
Brain Cancer in Humans
Epidemiological Studies
including
INTERPHONE
Cancers in Brain
INTERPHONE
Largest International Collaboration Study
( Glioma, Meningioma & Acoustic Neuroma )
13 Countri...
Conclusions
INTERPHONE
NO INCREASED RISK
Glioma or Meningioma
in mobile phone users.
Suggestions of an increased risk
Glio...
Carcinogenicity in Humans
SUMMARY
Epidemiological Studies
including
INTERPHONE
LIMITED EVIDENCE
IARC
Scientific Weight of Evidence
Radiofrequency Frequency Fields
POSSIBLY
Carcinogenic to Humans
Group 2-B
Details were published in 2013
IARC Monograph, v...
IARC CLASSIFICATION
Other Agents
Class Agent
Group 1
(Carcinogenic)
Asbestos
Ionizing Radiation
Tobacco
Group 2-A
( Probab...
International / National Experts
Evaluations
( since 2012 )
Precautionary Approach
Limit the Number of calls
Reduce the Du...
2013
World Health Organization
Environmental Health Criteria
THANK YOU !
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Dr. Vijayalaxmi, Department of Radiation Oncology, speaks on Exposure guidelines for EMF.

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Dr. Vijayalaxmi, Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Health Science Center elaborate's on Exposure guidelines of Radio frequency.

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Dr. Vijayalaxmi, Department of Radiation Oncology, speaks on Exposure guidelines for EMF.

  1. 1. Radiofrequency Fields ( RF ) ( Mobile Phones ) Evaluation of IARC ( International Agency for Research on Cancer ) Dr. Vijayalaxmi Department of Radiology University of Texas Health Science Center San Antonio, Texas, USA. vijay@uthscsa.edu
  2. 2. ELF RadioFrequency Fields Power-Lines Radio TV Microwaves Infrared UV X - rays γ - rays Frequency Hertz Visible Light Energy eV 1 Hertz ( Hz ) = One Cycle per Second Electromagnetic Fields ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM Cell Phones
  3. 3. Mobile Phone Users Country Mobile Phones Population % Users World 6,800,000,000+ 7,012,000,000 97 % ( Dec 2013 ) India 924,318,927 1,262,090,000[ 74 % ( Nov 2014 ) China 1,227,360,000 1,349,585,838 91 % ( Dec 2013 ) USA 317,874,628 317,874,628 103 % ( April 2014 )
  4. 4. International Organizations IEEE ( 2005 ) & ICNIRP ( 2009 ) Recommended Exposure Limits Radiofrequency Fields ( 300 MHz - 300 GHz ) Based on the Threshold for Heating & Behavior Disruption at 4 W / kg whole body averaged Specific Absorption Rate (SAR ) General Public Occupational 0.08 W / kg ( 50x safety factor ) 0.4 W / kg ( 10x safety factor ) 2.0 W / kg / 10 gm Av. SAR Localized Tissue Exposure for brain in mobile phone users 10 W / kg averaged over 10 gm tissue for professional two-way radio users
  5. 5. Public Concern ADVERSE HEALTH EFFECTS Brain & Other Cancers 800 – 2000 MHz Radiofrequency Fields Emitted from Mobile Phones
  6. 6. IARC Evaluation 2011
  7. 7. May 2011 IARC Working Group 30 scientists from 14 countries “ Evaluation of Carcinogenicity of RF ”  Epidemiological Studies in Humans Case - Control & Cohort Investigations  Long-term Bio-assays in Animals Carcinogenecity in One or More Species  Other Relevant Data Genotoxicity, Other Relevant Data, Mechanism(s), etc.
  8. 8. Genotoxicity 2003 Heynick et al. Bioelectromagnetics 2003 Meltz Bioelectromagnetics 2004 Vijayalaxmi & Obe Radiation Research 2005 Moulder et al. Int J Radiation Biology 2005 Verschaeve Toxicol Appl Pharmacology 2007 Lai Bioinitiative Working Group 2008 Vijayalaxmi & Prihoda Radiation Research 2009 ICNIRP Review 2009 Phillips et al. Pathophysiology 2009 Ruediger Pathophysiology 2009 Verschaeve et al. Mutation Research 2010 Verschaeve et al. Mutation Research WEAK EVIDENCE
  9. 9. Other Relevant Data Apoptosis No Evidence Auditory System No Evidence Behavior Inadequate Evidence Blood-Brain Barrier, etc. No Evidence Cell Transformation No Evidence Gene and Protein Expression Limited Evidence Immune Function Inadequate Evidence Inter- / Intra-Cellular Signals No Evidence Neurodegenerative Diseases Inadequate Evidence Oxidative Stress No Evidence Reproduction, Development, Teratology No Evidence Stress Response Limited Evidence WEAK EVIDENCE
  10. 10. Mechanism(s) Several were Proposed NO CONFIRMED EVIDENCE
  11. 11. Carcinogenicity in Animals ( Total 47 Investigations ) # Year Author Animal RF exposure Target Organ # Year Author Animal RF exposure Target Organ Two Year Bioassays 1 1992 Chou Rat 2450 PW Whole Body 17 1998a Imaida Rat TDMA-929 Liver Focus 2 2003 La Regina Rat CDMA-847 Whole Body 18 1998b Imaida Rat TDMA-14939 Liver Focus 3 2004 Anderson Rat Iridium-1620 Whole Body Tumor - Prone Animals 4 2007 Smith Rat GSM-902 Whole Body 1 1982 Szmigielski Mouse 2450 Breast 5 2007 Tillman Mouse GSM-902 Whole Body 2 1997 Repacholi Mouse GSM-900 Hematopoietic Initiation - Promotion Model 3 1997 Toler Mouse 435 PW Breast 1 1999 Chagnaud Rat GSM-900 Skin 4 2001 Jauchem Mouse UWB Breast 2 1999 Adey Rat NADC-836 Brain 5 2002 Utteridge Mouse GSM-898 Hematopoietic 3 2000 Adey Rat NADC-836 Brain 6 2004 Sommer Mouse UMTS-1966 Hematopoietic 4 2001 Imaida Mouse TDMA-1490 Skin 7 2007 Oberto Mouse GSM-902 Hematopoietic 5 2001 Heikkinen Mouse GSM-902 Skin 8 2007 Saran Mouse GSM-900 Brain 6 2001 Zook Rat TDMA-860 Brain 9 2007 Sommer Mouse UMTS-1966 Hematopoietic 7 2002 Bartsch Rat GSM-900 Mammary 10 2011 Lee Mouse 1950 PW Hematopoietic 8 2003 Anane Rat GSM-900 Mammary 11 1998a Frei Mouse 2450 Breast 9 2003 Yu Rat GSM-900 Mammary 12 1998b Frei Mouse 2450 Breast 10 2005 Huang Mouse CDMA-849 Skin Co - Carcinogenesis Model 11 2005 Shirai Rat TDMA-1439 Brain 1 1982 Szmigielski Mouse 2450 Skin 12 2006 Zook Rat TDMA-860 Brain 2 1982 Szudzinski Mouse 2450 Skin 13 2007 Shirai Rat UMTS-1950 Brain 3 1998 Wu Mouse 2450 Colon 14 2008 Hruby Rat GSM-900 Mammary 4 2003 Heikkinen Mouse GSM-902 Skin 15 2011 Paulraj Mouse 2450 Skin 5 2006 Heikkinen Rat 900 Vascular 16 2011 Mason Mouse 94000 CW Skin 6 2010 Tillmann Mouse UMTS Lung, Liver
  12. 12. Carcinogenicity in Animals SUMMARY Number of Studies Excess Tumors Tumor Type Two-Year Bioassays 5 0 - Tumor - Prone Animals 12 1 Breast 1 Hematopoietic Initiation - Promotion Model 18 1 Mammary Co - Carcinogenesis Model 6 1 Liver 1 Lung 1 Skin 1 Vascular Total 47 7 LIMITED EVIDENCE
  13. 13. Carcinogenicity in Humans Epidemiological Studies Cancers in Brain Other Cancers
  14. 14. Other Cancers in Humans Childhood Cancers Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Parotid Gland Tumor Pituitary Tumors Salivary Gland Tumors Uveal Melanoma NO SIGNIFICANT ASSOCIATION with Mobile Phone Use
  15. 15. Brain Cancer in Humans Epidemiological Studies including INTERPHONE
  16. 16. Cancers in Brain INTERPHONE Largest International Collaboration Study ( Glioma, Meningioma & Acoustic Neuroma ) 13 Countries Australia, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Israel, Italy, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, Sweden, UK. 16 Centers Interview – Based, Case – Control Investigation 2409 cases MENINGIOMA - 2662 controls 2709 cases GLIOMA - 2972 controls matched for Age, Gender & Area of Residence International Journal of Epidemiology, 39, 675 – 694, 2010
  17. 17. Conclusions INTERPHONE NO INCREASED RISK Glioma or Meningioma in mobile phone users. Suggestions of an increased risk Glioma at the highest exposure levels. Bias and Error prevented causal interpretation. International Journal of Epidemiology, 39, 675 – 694, 2010
  18. 18. Carcinogenicity in Humans SUMMARY Epidemiological Studies including INTERPHONE LIMITED EVIDENCE
  19. 19. IARC Scientific Weight of Evidence
  20. 20. Radiofrequency Frequency Fields POSSIBLY Carcinogenic to Humans Group 2-B Details were published in 2013 IARC Monograph, volume 102 “ Non-ionizing Radiation, Part II, Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields International Agency for Research on Cancer CCC
  21. 21. IARC CLASSIFICATION Other Agents Class Agent Group 1 (Carcinogenic) Asbestos Ionizing Radiation Tobacco Group 2-A ( Probable, >50% risk ) Acrylamide Styrene UV Radiation Group 2-B ( Possible, <50% risk ) Chloroform Coffee ELF/ RF Group 3 Lack of Evidence Polystyrene Tea Surgical Implants Group 4 Not Carcinogen Caprolactum ( Precursor to Nylon )
  22. 22. International / National Experts Evaluations ( since 2012 ) Precautionary Approach Limit the Number of calls Reduce the Duration of Calls Use Hands-Free Devices Use Land-Line More Further Long-Term Exposure Studies Further Research in Children ADVANGES OF MOBILE PHONES
  23. 23. 2013 World Health Organization Environmental Health Criteria
  24. 24. THANK YOU !

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