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B737 NG Engines

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Overview of the B737 NG CFM 56 Engines.

Overview of the B737 NG CFM 56 Engines.

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  • 1. B 737 NG Ground School. •B 737 NG Ground School. See the aircraft study guide at www.theorycentre.comThe information contained here is for training purposes only. It is of a general nature it isunamended and does not relate to any individual aircraft. The FCOM must be consulted forup to date information on any particular aircraft.
  • 2. ENGINES
  • 3. IntroductionThe airplane is powered by two CFM56–7 engines. The engine is adual–rotor, axial–flow turbofan.The N1 rotor consists of a fan, a low–pressure compressor and a low–pressure turbine.The N2 rotor consists of a high–pressure compressor and a high–pressure turbine.The N1 and N2 rotors are mechanically independent.The N2 rotor drives the engine gearboxes. A bleed–air–powered startermotor is connected to the N2 rotor via the accessory gearbox.
  • 4. Introduction 737-800 is powered by dual rotor CFM56-7 turbofan engines: CFM is a joint company of GE Commercial fan and Snecma Moteurs of France
  • 5. •N1 rotor comprises of a FAN.• 3 stage booster section(low pressure compressor)• 4 stage low pressure turbine•The low pressure sectionproduces 80% of Thrust.•Produced by Snecma
  • 6. Engine General Data. Fan Diameter 155 cm. N1 Red line 104% 5,380 RPM•N1 rotor comprises of a FAN.• 3 stage booster section(low pressure compressor)• 4 stage low pressure turbine•The low pressure sectionproduces 80% of Thrust.•Produced by Snecma
  • 7. •N2 rotor comprises of a 9 stage highpressure compressor & a single stagehigh pressure turbine.•Based on the GE 101 engine designedfor the B1B bomber.
  • 8. ENGINE GENERAL DATA N2 RED Line 105% 15,183 RPM•N2 rotor comprises of a 9 stage highpressure compressor & a single stagehigh pressure turbine.•Based on the GE 101 engine designedfor the B1B bomber.
  • 9. •N2 rotor drives the engineaccessory gearbox
  • 10. ENGINE GENERAL DATA.EGT.RED line 950º CEngine start limit 725º C
  • 11. AFT OVERHEAD PANEL FWD OVERHEAD PANEL ENGINE PANEL
  • 12. Electronic Engine Control (EEC)Each engine has a full authority digital EEC. Each EEC has two independentcontrol channels, with automatic channel transfer if the operating channel fails.With each engine start the EEC alternates between control channels if on theprevious start N2 exceeded 76% RPM The EEC uses thrust lever inputs to automatically control forward and reversethrust. N1 is used by the EEC to set thrust in two control modes: normal andalternate.Manual selection of the control mode can be made with the EEC switches onengine panel.
  • 13. EEC Normal ModeIn the normal mode, the EEC uses sensed flight conditions and bleed air demand tocalculate N1 thrust ratings.The EEC compares commanded N1 to actual N1 and adjusts fuel flow through the hydromechanical unit (HMU) to achieve the commanded N1.
  • 14. EEC Normal ModeThe maximum rated thrust is available at the forward thrust lever stop.The full ratedtakeoff thrust for the installed engine is available at a thrust lever position less than theforward stop. Fixed or assumed temperature derated takeoff thrust ratings are set atthrust lever positions less than full rated takeoff.The EEC limits the maximum thrust according to the airplane model.
  • 15. EEC Alternate ModeThe EEC can operate in either of two alternate modes, soft or hard. If required signalsare not available to operate in the normal mode, the EEC automatically changes to thesoft alternate mode. When this occurs, the ALTN switch illuminates and the ONindication remains visible. In the soft alternate mode, the EEC uses the last valid flightconditions to define engine parameters which allows the mode change to occur with noimmediate change in engine thrust. Thrust rating shortfalls or exceedances may occuras flight conditions change. The soft alternate mode remains until the hard alternatemode is entered Engine 1 in SOFT ALTN Engine 2 Normal mode.
  • 16. The soft alternate mode remains until the hard alternate mode is entered by eitherretarding the thrust lever to idle or manually selecting ALTN with the EEC switch on theaft overhead panel.Note: Loss of either DEU results in a loss of signal to both EECs. The EEC ALTN lightsilluminate and each EEC reverts to the alternate mode to prevent the engines fromoperating on a single source of data.When the hard alternate mode is entered, the EEC reverts to the alternate mode thrustschedule. Hard alternate mode thrust is always equal to or greater than normal modethrust for the same lever position. i.e. at idle thrust there will be no difference, at settingsclose to maximum there will be approximately 10% thrust difference for any given thrustlever position. If the hard alternate mode is entered by reducing the thrust lever to idlewhile in the soft alternate mode, the ALTN switch remains illuminated and the ONindication remains visible. When ALTN is selected manually, the ON indication isblanked. Both engines in HARD ALTN mode. Putting both engines into alternate avoids thrust lever stager due to thrust differences between the two modes.
  • 17. EEC
  • 18. Structural Limit ProtectionThe EEC provides N1 and N2 redline over speed protection in both normaland alternate modes.The EGT limit must be observed by the crew because theEEC does not provide EGT redline exceedance protection.
  • 19. Idle OperationThe EEC automatically selects ground minimum idle, flight minimum idle, andapproach idle. Ground minimum idle is selected for ground operations and flightminimum idle is selected for most phases of flight.Approach idle is selected in flight if flaps are in landing configuration or engineanti–ice is ON for either engine.At the same airspeed and altitude, N1 and N2% RPM will be higher for approachidle than for flight minimum idle. This higher% RPM improves engine accelerationtime in the event of a go–around.Approach idle is maintained until after touchdown, when ground minimum idle isselected. In flight, if a fault prevents the EEC from receiving flap or anti–ice signals,approach idle schedule begins below 15,000 feet MSL.
  • 20. The EEC must receive electrical power to supply engine operating data to the flightdeck engine indications.The electronic engine control (EEC) alternator usually supplies electrical power to theEEC. The EEC alternator is the primary electrical power source for the EEC.When the N2 speed is more than 15 % and alternator power quality is in limits, theEEC gets power from the EEC alternator.The on side AC transfer bus supplies electrical power to the EECs when thealternator can not supply power.When the EEC is not powered N1 and N2 tachometer information is connecteddirectly to the DEU’s and will be displayed,oil quantity and engine vibration are also displayed directly from the engine sensors.During battery start with no power on the airplane, only N1, N2, and oil quantityare available. The EEC is not powered until the engine accelerates to a speedgreater than 15% N2. At 15% N2, the EEC becomes energized and pointers/digitsfor all engine parameters are displayed.
  • 21. •Engine Indications•Primary and secondary engine indications are provided. Engine indications aredisplayed on the upper display unit (DU),Primary indications can be moved automatically or manually to the lower DU ormanually to the Captain’s or First Officer’s inboard DU.
  • 22. Primary Engine IndicationsN1 and EGT are the primary engine indications. The primary engine indications are normallydisplayed on the upper DU. If that unit fails, the display automatically moves to the lower DU.The primary engine indications can also be manually selected to either the Captain’s or FirstOfficer’s inboard DU, or the lower DU, using the respective display select panel.
  • 23. N1 RPM ReadoutsReference N1 bugs. (digital)Show the active N1 limit Displayed (white) – normal operating range. Displayed (red) – • operating limit exceeded • on ground after engine shutdown, red box indicates an inflight exceedance has occurred.
  • 24. N1 Redlines Displayed (red) – N1% RPM operating limitN1 Command SectorsDisplayed (white) – momentarydifference between actual N1and value commanded by thrustlever position.
  • 25. Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT) Redlines Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT) Amber Bands Displayed (amber) – lower end of band displaysDisplayed (red) – maximum takeoff EGT limit . maximum continuous EGT limit .
  • 26. Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT) Start Limit LinesDisplayed (red) – until the engine achieves stabilizedidle (approximately 59% N2).
  • 27. SECONDARY ENGINE INDICATIONSN2, fuel flow, oil pressure, oil temperature, oil quantity, and engine vibration are the secondaryengine indications. The secondary engine indications, except for fuel flow, are manually selected toeither the Captain’s or First Officer’s inboard DU, or the lower DU, using the respective displayselect panel and the ENG switch on the engine display control panel. Fuel flow is displayed full timeon the upper display unit below the primary engine indications.The secondary engine indications are automatically displayed when:• the displays initially receive electrical power• in flight when an engine start lever is moved to CUTOFF• in flight when an engine N2 RPM is below idle(flight idle is 72% N2)• a secondary engine parameter is exceeded. ENG switch; first push displays second push blanksWhen the secondary engine indications are automatically displayed, they cannot be cleared untilthe condition is no longer present.
  • 28. SECONDARY ENGINE INDICATIONSNormally displayed onthe lower display unit butcan be selected to theinboard DU’s by the pilot The lower DU is normally kept black in flight. If any engine parameter is exceeded the entire display shows automatically!
  • 29. Normal Display FormatN1, EGT, and N2 are displayed as both digital readouts and round dial/movingpointer indications. The digital readouts display numerical values while themoving pointers indicate relative value.
  • 30. Oil pressure, oil temperature, and engine vibration indications are both digital readouts andvertical indication/moving pointers.Fuel flow and oil quantity are digital readouts only. All digital readouts are enclosed byboxes.The dials and vertical indications display the normal operating range, caution range, andoperating limits.Normal operating range is displayed on a dial or vertical indication in white.
  • 31. N1, EGT, and N2 have operating limits indicated by redlines. EGT also displaysan amber caution limit. If one of these indications exceeds the red or amber line,the digital readout, box, pointer, and indicator change colour to red or amber.
  • 32. The oil temperature and oil pressure vertical indications have a caution range and anoperating limit redline.
  • 33. Low Oil Pressure (OIL PRESS) Amber BandDisplayed (amber) – low oil pressure caution range beginning at red line.:• variable depending on N2% RPM above 65% N2• amber band not displayed below 65% N2.
  • 34. If the oil temperature or pressure reaches the caution range, the digital readout, digitalreadout box, and pointer all change colour to amber.If one of these indications reach the operating limit, the digital readout, digital readout box,and pointer all change colour to red.
  • 35. Oil quantity and vibrations do not have any limits. If Vibration isabove normal levels the digital box changes to revers videoshowing a white box with black digits .Similarly if oil quantity is low the indicator changes to revers video.
  • 36. An engine failure alert indication (ENG FAIL) is displayed in amber on theEGT indicator when the respective engine is operating at a condition belowsustainable idle (50% N2) and the engine start lever is in the IDLE position.The alert remains until the engine recovers, the engine start lever is movedto CUTOFF, or the engine fire warning switch is pulled
  • 37. Compact DisplayIn compact format, the primary and secondary engine indications are combined on thesame display. The N1 and EGT indications are displayed as they are normally.All other indications change to digital readouts only. N2, oil temperature, and oil pressuredigital readouts turn red or amber if an exceedance occurs.Primary and secondary engine indications are displayed in compact format on the upperDU when the secondary engine indications are selected for display (manually orautomatically) and the lower DU is unavailable. Alternatively, the compacted indicationsare displayed on the lower DU if the upper DU is unavailable.
  • 38. T12 sensor For Fan Inlet TATRAM AIR INLETFor EEC Cooling.
  • 39. Electronic Engine Control (EEC) Engine Panel Non Dispatchable Fault • Light remains illuminated ONLY WHILE ENGINE IS RUNNING. •When engine is shut down the fault is stored in BITE logic and the light will not illuminate at next start. •This light comes on for non dispatchable faults including the EEC is operating with a single working channel. Light is INHIBITED IN FLIGHT. From 80 Knots Until 30 sec after landing Illuminated on the ground, engine running – Do NOT dispatch due to system fault
  • 40. Engine Fuel SystemFuel is delivered under pressure from fuel pumps located in the fuel tanks. The fuel flows througha fuel spar shutoff valve located at the engine mounting wing stations. The fuel passes through thefirst stage engine fuel pump where pressure is increased. It then passes through two fuel/oil heatexchangers where IDG oil and main engine oil heat the fuel. A fuel filter then removescontaminants. Fuel automatically bypasses the filter if the filter becomes contaminated. Before the fuel bypassoccurs, the fuel FILTER BYPASS alert illuminates on the fuel control panel. The second stageengine fuel pump adds more pressure before the fuel reaches the hydro mechanical unit (HMU).To meet thrust requirements, the EEC meters fuel through the HMU.The spar fuel shutoff valve and engine fuel shutoff valve allow fuel flow to the engine when bothvalves are open. The valves are open when the engine fire warning switch is in and the start leveris in IDLE. Both valves close when either the start lever is in CUTOFF or the engine fire warningswitch is out. SPAR VALVE CLOSED and ENG VALVE CLOSED lights located on the overheadpanel indicate valve position.Fuel flow is measured after passing through the engine fuel shutoff valve and is displayed on thedisplay unit. Fuel flow information is also provided to the FMS.
  • 41. Fuel control levers. No1 cutoff No2 idle.Fire switches must be down to open spar and engine fuelshutoff valves.
  • 42. Engine Oil SystemOil from the individual engine tank is circulated under pressure, through the engineto lubricate the engine bearings and accessory gearbox. The oil quantity indicator,oil temperature indicator, oil pressure indicator and LOW OIL PRESSURE alert areall located on the display unit.The oil system is pressurized by the engine driven oil pump. Oil from the pump,goes to the engine bearings and gearbox. Sensors for the oil temperature indicator,oil pressure indicator and LOW OIL PRESSURE alert are located downstream ofthe oil pump prior to engine lubrication.Oil is returned to the oil tank by engine driven scavenge pumps. From thescavenge pumps oil passes through a scavenge filter. If the filter becomessaturated with contaminants, oil automatically bypasses the filter. Prior to the oilbypassing the scavenge filter, the OIL FILTER BYPASS alert illuminates on theupper display unit.Prior to returning to the oil tank, the oil passes through the main engine oil coolerwhere it is cooled by engine fuel to maintain proper oil temperature.
  • 43. After 10 secondsLOW OIL PRESSURE Alert Illuminated (amber) –• steady – oil pressure at or below red line• blinking – with a condition of low oil pressure. Alert is displayed and solid amber boxesare displayed in unannunciated positions for that engine.All three boxes blink for ten seconds, then alert remains on steady and solid amber boxesare removedNote: Blinking is inhibited:• during takeoff from 80 knots to 400 feet RA, or 30 seconds after reaching 80 knots,whichever occurs first• during landing below 200 feet RA until 30 seconds after touchdown• during periods when blinking is inhibited, alerts illuminate steady.
  • 44. OIL FILTER BYPASS Alert Illuminated (amber) –• steady – indicates an impending bypass of scavenge oil filter• blinking – with an impending bypass. Alert is displayed and solid amber boxes aredisplayed in unannunciated positions for that engine. All three boxes blink for tenseconds, then alert remains on steady and solid amber boxes are removed Note: Blinking is inhibited: • during takeoff from 80 knots to 400 feet RA, or 30 seconds after reaching 80 knots, whichever occurs first • during landing below 200 feet RA until 30 seconds after touchdown • during periods when blinking is inhibited, alerts illuminate steady.
  • 45. Engine Start SystemStarter operation requires pressurized air and electrical power. Air from the bleed airsystem powers the starter motor. The APU, an external ground cart, or the other operatingengine provides the bleed air source. The minimum duct pressure required for a crossbleed start is 30 PSI.In the GRD position, the engine start switch uses battery power to close the engine bleedair valve and open the start valve to allow pressure to rotate the starter. When the startvalve opens, an amber START VALVE OPEN alert is provided on the upper display unit.The starter rotates the N2 compressor through the accessory drive gear system. When theengine accelerates to the recommended value (25% N2 or max motoring), moving theengine start lever to the IDLE position opens the fuel valves on the wing spar and engine,and causes the EEC to supply fuel and ignition to the combustor where the fuel ignites.Initial fuel flow indications lag actual fuel flow by approximately two seconds, therefore,during engine start, an EGT rise may occur before fuel flow indication.At starter cutout speed (approximately 56% N2), the EEC removes power from the startswitch holding solenoid. The engine start switch returns to OFF, the engine bleed air valvereturns to the selected position, and the start valve closes.
  • 46. •STARTING PROCEDURE.The Captain calls the startsequence Normally Number 2 firston the 737. The F/O selects Ground
  • 47. GRD commands the startercontrol valve to open andarms the ignition.The starter turns the gearbox.The gearbox turns the HPcompressor N2.
  • 48. When The engines is at Maximum motoring the captain moves theFUEL CONTROL lever to IDLE
  • 49. The B737 Engine has 2 fuel valves. ENGINE FUEL SHUTOFF VALVE SPAR VALVE
  • 50. When the captain moves the Fuel ControlLever to Idle Both fuel valves OPEN. The ignition is turned on and fuel flows into the combustion chamber.
  • 51. Abnormal Start Protection (Ground Starts Only)During ground starts, the EEC monitors engine parameters to detect impending hot starts,engine stalls, EGT start limit exceedances, and wet starts. These protection features do notfunction during inflight starts.If an impending hot start is detected by a rapid rise in EGT or EGT approaching the startlimit, or a compressor stall occurs, the white box surrounding the EGT digital readoutflashes white. The flashing white box resets when the start lever is moved to CUTOFF orthe engine reaches idle N2. Current versions of EEC software (7.B.Q and later)automatically turn off the ignition and shuts off fuel to the engine for an impending hot startor stall.If the EGT exceeds the starting limit, the EGT display, both box and dial, turn red. The EECautomatically turns off the ignition and shuts off fuel to the engine. The alert terminates andthe display returns to white when EGT drops below the start limit. Following shutdown ofboth engines, the EGT box turns red to remind the crew of the exceedance.A wet start occurs if the EGT does not rise after the start lever is moved to IDLE. If a wetstart is detected, the EEC turns off the ignition and shuts off fuel to the engine 15 secondsafter the start lever is moved to IDLE.
  • 52. Engine Ignition SystemEach engine has two igniter plugs. The EEC arms the igniter plug(s) selected bythe ignition select switch. The left igniter plug receives power from the associatedAC transfer bus. The right igniter plug receives power from the AC standby bus.Auto-RelightAn auto-relight capability is provided for flameout protection. Whenever the EECdetects an engine flameout, both igniters are activated. A flameout is detectedwhen an uncommanded rapid decrease in N2 occurs, or N2 is below idle RPM.
  • 53. Ignition RIGHT IGNITER AC STANDBY BUS EECHigh Energy Ignition unit (HEIU) TRANSFER BUS LEFT IGNITER
  • 54. IgnitionGround start uses only the selected igniter. Right is normally used for the first start of each dayto check the standby system ignition.
  • 55. Ignition
  • 56. Ignition
  • 57. IgnitionSelecting FLT start uses both igniters regardless of the switch position.
  • 58. Inflight StartingTwo methods of starting an engine inflight are available, windmill and crossbleed.None of the ground start protection features are functional during inflight start.Note: At low N2 values, the oil scavenge pump may not provide enough pressure toreturn oil to the tank, causing a low oil quantity indication. Normal oil quantity should beindicated after start.If crossbleed starting is required, the X–BLD indication (XB for the compact enginedisplay) is displayed above the N2 dial. This indication is based on airplane altitude,airspeed and N2 RPM.
  • 59. START VALVE OPEN AlertIlluminated (amber) –• steady – respective engine start valve open and air is supplied to starter• blinking – uncommanded opening of start valve. Alert is displayed and solidamber boxes are displayed in unannunciated positions for that engine. All threeboxes blink for ten seconds, then alert remains on steady and solid amber boxesare removed Note: Blinking is inhibited: • during takeoff from 80 knots to 400 feet RA, or 30 seconds after reaching 80 knots, whichever occurs first • during landing below 200 feet RA until 30 seconds after touchdown • during periods when blinking is inhibited, alerts illuminate steady.
  • 60. Thrust ReverserEach engine is equipped with a hydraulically operated thrust reverser, consisting of leftand right translating sleeves. Aft movement of the reverser sleeves causes blockerdoors to deflect fan discharge air forward, through fixed cascade vanes, producingreverse thrust. The thrust reverser is for ground operations only and is used aftertouchdown to slow the airplane, reducing stopping distance and brake wear.
  • 61. Hydraulic pressure for the operation of engine No. 1 and engine No. 2 thrust reverserscomes from hydraulic systems A and B, respectively. If hydraulic system A and/or B fails,alternate operation for the affected thrust reverser is available through the standbyhydraulic system. When the standby system is used, the affected thrust reverser deploysand retracts at a slower rate and some thrust asymmetry can be anticipated. Thrust reverse Normal Stow position.
  • 62. When reverse thrust is selected, an electro–mechanical lock releases, the isolationvalve opens and the thrust reverser control valve moves to the deploy position,allowing hydraulic pressure to unlock and deploy the reverser system.An interlock mechanism restricts movement of the reverse thrust lever until thereverser sleeves have approached the deployed position. Thrust Reverse Deployed.
  • 63. When either reverser sleeve moves from the stowed position, the amber REVindication, located on the upper display unit, illuminates. As the thrust reverserreaches the deployed position, the REV indication illuminates green and the reversethrust lever can be raised to detent No. 2. This position provides adequate reversethrust for normal operations.When necessary, the reverse thrust lever can be pulled beyond detent No. 2,providing maximum reverse thrust.
  • 64. The thrust reverser can be deployed when either radio altimeter senses lessthan 10 feet altitude, or when the air/ground sensor is in the ground mode.Movement of the reverse thrust levers is mechanically restricted until theforward thrust levers are in the idle position.
  • 65. Downward motion of the reverse thrust lever past detent No. 1 (reverse idle thrust)initiates the command to stow the reverser. When the lever reaches the full downposition, the control valve moves to the stow position allowing hydraulic pressureto stow and lock the reverser sleeves. After the thrust reverser is stowed, theisolation valve closes and the electro–mechanical lock engages. Thrust reverse Stow or Auto Re-Stow command.
  • 66. When the reverser sleeves are in the stow position, an electro–mechanical lock anda hydraulically operated locking actuator inhibit motion to each reverser sleeve untilreverser extension is selected.Additionally, an auto–restow circuit compares the actual reverser sleeve positionand the commanded reverser position. In the event of incomplete stowage oruncommanded movement of the reverser sleeves toward the deployed position, theauto–restow circuit opens the isolation valve and commands the control valve to thestow position directing hydraulic pressure to stow the reverser sleeves. Once theauto–restow circuit is activated, the isolation valve remains open and the controlvalve is held in the stowed position until the thrust reverser is commanded to deployor until corrective maintenance action is taken.
  • 67. The REVERSER light, located on the aft overhead panel, illuminates when the thrustreverser is commanded to stow and extinguishes 10 seconds later when theisolation valve closes. Any time the REVERSER light illuminates for more thanapproximately 12 seconds, a malfunction has occurred and the MASTER CAUTIONand ENG system annunciator lights illuminate. Engine Panel
  • 68. REVERSER LightsIlluminated (amber) – one or more of following has occurred:• isolation valve or thrust reverser control valve is not in commanded Position• one or more thrust reverser sleeves are not in commanded state• auto–restow circuit has been activated• a failure has been detected in synchronization shaft lock circuitry. Engine Panel
  • 69. ENGINE LIMITATIONS AND RESTRICTIONS.Engine Limit Display MarkingsMaximum and minimum limits are red. Caution limits are amber.Engine IgnitionEngine ignition must be on for:• takeoff• landing• operation in heavy rain• anti-ice operation.Starter duty cycle:• Do not exceed 2 minutes during each start attempt• A minimum of 10 seconds is needed between start attempts(Oil is thrown out of the gears by centrifugal force during start. The 10seconds allows for re-oiling of the gears.)
  • 70. ENGINE LIMITATIONS AND RESTRICTIONS.Do the ABORTED ENGINE START checklist for one or more of the following abort startconditions:• the N1 or N2 does not increase or increases very slowly after the EGT increases• there is no oil pressure indication by the time that the engine is stable at idle• the EGT does not increase by 10 seconds after the engine start lever is moved to IDLE• the EGT quickly nears or exceeds the start limitDo not re–engage the ENGINE START switch until engine RPM is below 20% N2.Engine starter and or gearbox damage may be caused if RPM is above 20% whenthe starter is engaged.Engine High oil temperature.If the oil temperature is in the red band do the engine failure or shutdown checklist.If temperature is in the amber band for more than 45 minutes do the engine failure orshutdown checklist.
  • 71. What protection is supplied with EEC’s in soft or hard alternate mode ?
  • 72. What protection is supplied with EEC’s in soft or hard alternate mode ? •Structural Limit Protection The EEC provides N1 and N2 redline overspeed protection in both normal and alternate modes. The EGT limit must be observed by the crew because the EEC does not provide EGT redline exceedance protection.
  • 73. The amber REVERSER light will illuminate under what conditions?
  • 74. The Amber REVERSER light will illuminate under what conditions?Isolation valve or thrust reverser control valve not in commanded positionThrust reverser sleeve position sensors are in disagreementAuto-re-stow circuit has been activatedA failure has been detected in synchronisation shaft lock circuitry
  • 75. What is required before thrust reversers can be deployed?
  • 76. What is required before thrust reversers can be deployed?Forward thrust levers idle, (Mechanical lock)AND either RA<10 feet OR ground mode
  • 77. •ENGINESFor how long can an engine be operated with the oiltemperature indication coloured amber?
  • 78. •ENGINESFor how long can an engine be operated with the oiltemperature indication coloured amber?
  • 79. The maximum continuous EGT is indicated by:
  • 80. The maximum continuous EGT is indicated by:
  • 81. During Takeoff, How is the low oil pressure alert displayed?
  • 82. During Takeoff, How is the low oil pressure alert displayed? ALL BOXES FLASH FOR 10 SECONDS FLASHING IS INHIBITED DURING TAKEOFF.Note: Blinking is inhibited:• during takeoff from 80 knots to 400 feet RA, or 30 seconds afterreaching 80 knots, whichever occurs first• during landing below 200 feet RA until 30 seconds after touchdown• during periods when blinking is inhibited, alerts illuminate steady.
  • 83. The engine oil pressure amber band displays when?
  • 84. The engine oil pressure amber band displays when? Amber band is only displayed above 65% N2 and is variable depending on N2 RPM.
  • 85. The engine fuel system is heated by what?
  • 86. The engine fuel system is heated by what?The IDG fuel cooled oil cooler.The main engine fuel cooled oil cooler.
  • 87. The engine starter cut out should occur at:
  • 88. The engine starter cut out should occur at:At starter cutout speed (approximately 56% N2), the EEC removespower from the start switch holding solenoid. The engine start switchreturns to OFF, the engine bleed air valve returns to the selectedposition, and the start valve closes.
  • 89. The engine EEC is operating in the soft alternate mode, this isindicated by what?
  • 90. EEC Alternate ModeThe EEC can operate in either of two alternate modes, soft or hard. If required signalsare not available to operate in the normal mode, the EEC automatically changes to thesoft alternate mode. When this occurs, the ALTN switch illuminates and the ONindication remains visible. In the soft alternate mode, the EEC uses the last valid flightconditions to define engine parameters which allows the mode change to occur with noimmediate change in engine thrust. Thrust rating shortfalls or exceedances may occuras flight conditions change. The soft alternate mode remains until the hard alternatemode is entered Engine 1 in SOFT ALTN Engine 2 Normal mode.
  • 91. The EEC automatically selects approach idle in flight when?
  • 92. Idle OperationThe EEC automatically selects ground minimum idle, flight minimum idle, andapproach idle. Ground minimum idle is selected for ground operations and flightminimum idle is selected for most phases of flight.Approach idle is selected in flight if flaps are in landing configuration or engineanti–ice is ON for either engine.At the same airspeed and altitude, N1 and N2% RPM will be higher for approachidle than for flight minimum idle. This higher% RPM improves engine accelerationtime in the event of a go–around.Approach idle is maintained until after touchdown, when ground minimum idle isselected. In flight, if a fault prevents the EEC from receiving flap or anti–ice signals,approach idle schedule begins below 15,000 feet MSL.
  • 93. For a cross bleed start the minimum duct pressure required is?
  • 94. For a cross bleed start the minimum duct pressure required is? Supplementary Procedure. •Supplementary Procedure 7.5
  • 95. What is the maximum RPM for starter motor engagement?
  • 96. What is the maximum RPM for starter motor engagement?
  • 97. What is the maximum starter motor duty cycle?
  • 98. What is the maximum starter motor duty cycle?
  • 99. The right igniter is powered from which Bus ?
  • 100. The right igniter is powered from which Bus ?Engine Ignition SystemEach engine has two igniter plugs. The EEC arms the igniter plug(s) selected bythe ignition select switch. The left igniter plug receives power from the associatedAC transfer bus.The right igniter plug receives power from the AC standby bus.
  • 101. The END of ENGINES.•The END of AUTO FLIGHT Part 1Now take the test at www.theorycentre.com For more information info@theorycentre.com