B737NG FMC

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B737NG FMCS Overview.

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B737NG FMC

  1. 1. B 737 NG Ground School.See the aircraft study guide at www.theorycentre.comThe information contained here is for training purposes only. It is of a general nature it isunamended and does not relate to any individual aircraft. The FCOM must be consulted forup to date information on any particular aircraft.
  2. 2. B737-800FLIGHT MANAGEMENT COMPUTERSYSTEM
  3. 3. Flight Management System Introduction.The flight management system (FMS) is comprised of the followingcomponents:• flight management computer system (FMCS)• autopilot/flight director system (AFDS)• autothrottle (A/T)• inertial reference systems (IRS)• global positioning system (GPS).
  4. 4. Flight Management System Introduction.The flight management system (FMS) is comprised of the followingcomponents:• flight management computer system (FMCS)• autopilot/flight director system (AFDS)• autothrottle (A/T)• inertial reference systems (IRS)• global positioning system (GPS).Each of these components is an independent system, and each can beused independently or in various combinations. The term FMS refersto the concept of joining these independent components together intoone integrated system which provides continuous automaticnavigation, guidance, and performance management.
  5. 5. Flight Management System Introduction.The flight management system (FMS) is comprised of the followingcomponents:• flight management computer system (FMCS)• autopilot/flight director system (AFDS)• autothrottle (A/T)• inertial reference systems (IRS)• global positioning system (GPS).Each of these components is an independent system, and each can beused independently or in various combinations. The term FMS refersto the concept of joining these independent components together intoone integrated system which provides continuous automaticnavigation, guidance, and performance management.The basis of the flight management system is the flight managementcomputer. (FMC)
  6. 6. The integrated FMS provides centralized flight deck control of theairplane’s flight path and performance parameters. The flightmanagement computer, The FMC, is the heart of the system, performingnavigational and performance computations and providing control andguidance commands.
  7. 7. The integrated FMS provides centralized flight deck control of theairplane’s flight path and performance parameters. The flightmanagement computer, The FMC, is the heart of the system, performingnavigational and performance computations and providing control andguidance commands.The primary flight deck controls are the Auto Pilot Flight Director System(AFDS) Mode Control Panel (MCP),
  8. 8. Two control display units (CDU’s),
  9. 9. Two electronic flight instrument system (EFIS) control panels.
  10. 10. The primary displays are theCDUs,
  11. 11. The primary displays are theCDUs,outboard display units,inboard display units, and
  12. 12. The primary displays are theCDUs,outboard display units,inboard display units, andupper display unit.
  13. 13. The FMC uses crew entered flight plan information, airplane systemsdata, and data from the FMC navigation database and performancedatabase to calculate airplane present position, and pitch, roll, andthrust commands required to fly an optimum flight profile. The FMCsends these commands to the autothrottle, autopilot, and flightdirector. Map and route information are sent to the respectivepilot’s navigation displays. The EFIS control panels are used to select thedesired information for navigation display. The mode control panel isused to select the autothrottle, autopilot, and flight director operatingmodes.
  14. 14. The FMC uses crew entered flight plan information, airplane systemsdata, and data from the FMC navigation database and performancedatabase to calculate airplane present position, and pitch, roll, andthrust commands required to fly an optimum flight profile. The FMCsends these commands to the autothrottle, autopilot, and flightdirector. Map and route information are sent to the respectivepilot’s navigation displays. The EFIS control panels are used to select thedesired information for navigation display. The mode control panel isused to select the autothrottle, autopilot, and flight director operatingmodes.The flight management system (FMS) aids the flight crew in managingautomatic navigation, in–flight performance optimization, fuelmonitoring, and flight deck displays. Automatic flight functions managethe airplane lateral flight path (LNAV) and vertical flight path (VNAV).The displays include a map for airplane orientation and commandmarkers (bugs) on the airspeed and N1 indicators to assist in flyingefficient profiles.
  15. 15. The flight crew enters the desired route and flight data into the CDUs. TheFMS then uses its navigation database, airplane position and supportingsystem data to calculate commands for manual or automatic flight pathcontrol.
  16. 16. The flight crew enters the desired route and flight data into the CDUs. TheFMS then uses its navigation database, airplane position and supportingsystem data to calculate commands for manual or automatic flight pathcontrol.The FMS can automatically tune the navigation radios for positionupdating and determine LNAV courses. The FMS navigation databaseprovides the necessary data to fly routes, SIDs, STARs, holding patterns,and procedure turns. Lateral offsets from the programmed route can becalculated and commanded.
  17. 17. The flight crew enters the desired route and flight data into the CDUs. TheFMS then uses its navigation database, airplane position and supportingsystem data to calculate commands for manual or automatic flight pathcontrol.The FMS can automatically tune the navigation radios for positionupdating and determine LNAV courses. The FMS navigation databaseprovides the necessary data to fly routes, SIDs, STARs, holding patterns,and procedure turns. Lateral offsets from the programmed route can becalculated and commanded.For vertical navigation, computations include items such as fuel burndata, optimum speeds, and recommended altitudes. Cruise altitudes andcrossing altitude restrictions are used to compute VNAV commands.When operating in the Required Time of Arrival (RTA) mode, thecomputations include required speeds, takeoff times, and enrouteprogress information.
  18. 18. The FMC and CDU are used for enroute and terminal area navigation,RNAV approaches and to supplement primary navigation means whenconducting all types of instrument approaches.The dual FMC installation is certified as a “sole source” navigationsystem. Airplanes equipped with two FMCs are certified to operateoutside radio navaid coverage.
  19. 19. The FMC and CDU are used for enroute and terminal area navigation,RNAV approaches and to supplement primary navigation means whenconducting all types of instrument approaches.The dual FMC installation is certified as a “sole source” navigationsystem. Airplanes equipped with two FMCs are certified to operateoutside radio navaid coverage.The second FMC serves as a backup, providing complete navigationalfunctions if the other FMC fails.
  20. 20. The FMC and CDU are used for enroute and terminal areanavigation, RNAV approaches and to supplement primary navigationmeans when conducting all types of instrument approaches.The dual FMC installation is certified as a “sole source” navigationsystem. Airplanes equipped with two FMCs are certified to operateoutside radio navaid coverage.The second FMC serves as a backup, providing complete navigationalfunctions if the other FMC fails.With a dual FMC installation, one FMC is always designated as primary.This is controlled by the position of the FMC Source Select switch.
  21. 21. The primary FMC:• allocates navaid tuning and updating functions between FMCs• insures synchronization between FMCs• controls CDU displays• provides input to the autopilot• provides input to the autothrottle system
  22. 22. The primary FMC:• allocates navaid tuning and updating functions between FMCs• insures synchronization between FMCs• controls CDU displays• provides input to the autopilot• provides input to the autothrottle systemPositioning the FMC Source Select Switch to BOTH ON L or BOTH ON Risolates FMC operation to use only the left or right FMC respectively. Inthe NORMAL position, the left FMC is primary by default. Although theaircrew can enter information into either CDU, the primary FMC isresponsible for synchronizing this information with the secondary FMCand updating both CDU displays.
  23. 23. Left FMC shown as Primary
  24. 24. When external position updating is not available, the FMC uses theIRS position as reference. When the IRS is the only positionreference, the FMC applies an automatic correction to the IRSposition to determine the most probable FMC position. Thiscorrection factor is developed by the FMC’s monitoring IRSperformance during periods of normal position updating todetermine the typical IRS error value. It is important to note that,when external position updating is not available, navigationaccuracy may be less than required. Flight crews should closelymonitor FMC navigation, especially when approaching thedestination.
  25. 25. When external position updating is not available, the FMC uses theIRS position as reference. When the IRS is the only positionreference, the FMC applies an automatic correction to the IRSposition to determine the most probable FMC position. Thiscorrection factor is developed by the FMC’s monitoring IRSperformance during periods of normal position updating todetermine the typical IRS error value. It is important to note that,when external position updating is not available, navigationaccuracy may be less than required. Flight crews should closelymonitor FMC navigation, especially when approaching thedestination.The accuracy of the FMC navigation should be determined duringdescent phase by using radio navaids and radar information ifavailable.
  26. 26. Control Display Units (CDUs)Two identical, independent CDUs providethe means for the flight crew tocommunicate with the FMC. The crew mayenter data into the FMC using eitherCDU, although simultaneous entriesshould be avoided. The same FMC dataand computations are available on bothCDUs; however, each pilot has control overwhat is displayed on an individual CDU.
  27. 27. There are a number of different CDU’s in use.This is the Future Air navigation System(FANS) CDU it is quickly identified by theATC Function key.The CDU and Multi Function CDU (MCDU)Are similar to each other and do not have theATC key.All 3 CDU’s provide a basic interface tooperate the FMCS. The MCDU and FANSMCDU provide a broader range of interfacewith more sub menus.
  28. 28. Line Select Keys (LSK)1 to 6 Left and 1 to 6 Right. LSK1LPush –• moves data from scratchpad to selected line• moves data from selected line to scratchpad• selects page, procedure, or performancemode as applicable• deletes data from selected line when DELETEis shown in scratchpad.
  29. 29. CDU Function KeysPush –
  30. 30. CDU Function KeysPush –• INIT REF – shows page for datainitialization or for reference dataOn the Ground shows the next incompletePre flight page.In flight shows the next logical page.i.e. in cruising flight selecting INIT REF takesyou directly to the Approach reference page.
  31. 31. INIT REFHas anINDEXThe index page is different on theground and in flight.This is the Ground Index and hasthe MAINT prompt at LSK 6 R
  32. 32. CDU Function KeysPush –• RTE – shows page to input or changeorigin, destination, or routeA route can be manually entered on Page 2.As the route gets longer more pages areadded.Selecting route in flight will always showthe active waypoint at the top of thedisplayed page.The origin and Destination are always onPage 1. Destination can be changed for adiversion.
  33. 33. CDU Function KeysPush –• CLB – shows page to view or change climbdata. Including cruise altitude.
  34. 34. CDU Function KeysPush –• CLB – shows page to view or change climbdata. Including cruise altitude.SPD/REST line defaults to 250 knots belowFL 100. Can be changed or deleted asrequired.
  35. 35. CDU Function KeysPush –• CLB – shows page to view or change climbdata. Including cruise altitude.MAX RATE climb (Vy) This is the airspeed thatproduces maximum altitude gain per unit oftime. (Minimum time to altitude)
  36. 36. CDU Function KeysPush –• CLB – shows page to view or change climbdata. Including cruise altitude.MAX ANGLE climb (Vx) This is the airspeed thatproduces the greatest altitude gain for ahorizontal distance. (Minimum track distanceto altitude)
  37. 37. CDU Function KeysPush –• CRZ – shows page to view or changecruise data
  38. 38. CDU Function KeysPush –• CRZ – shows page to view or changecruise dataLong Range cruise (LRC)Fixed Mach and optimum altitude based onmaximum miles per kilo of fuel .
  39. 39. CDU Function KeysPush –• CRZ – shows page to view or changecruise dataOn engine out page select either Left orRight engine.Will show maximum altitude.Engine out speed based on Best Lift/Dragat present weight and altitude.Maximum continuous N1. Includes currentbleed air requirements on the selectedengine.
  40. 40. CDU Function KeysPush –• DES – shows page to view or changedescent data
  41. 41. CDU Function KeysPush –• DES – shows page to view or changedescent dataSPD/REST. Defaults to 240/FL100 in descent.Can be changed or deleted as required.
  42. 42. CDU Function KeysPush –• DES – shows page to view or changedescent dataRequired Time of Arrival (RTA)Assists in complying with RTA at a waypoint.Required waypoint and time must be enteredThe FMC automatically adjust in flight forwind and route changes.If under current conditions RTA isunobtainable the FMC will advise.
  43. 43. Execute (EXEC) KeyPush –• makes data modification(s) active• extinguishes execute light.Execute LightIlluminated (white) – active data ismodified but not executed.When the EXEC light is illuminatedthere is always an ERASE prompt atLSK6L. Selecting this will undo anychanges since the last EXEC press.Removed with EXEC selection.
  44. 44. Boxes indicateMUST ENTER---- IndicatesCAN ENTERMore informationentered results inbetter predictions
  45. 45. Boxes indicateMUST ENTERDuring Pre flight youmust enter Positioninformation .This allows theADIRU’s to completealignment by crosschecking Manuallyentered positionagainst IRS Position.
  46. 46. During Pre flight youmust enter Positioninformation .This allows theADIRU’s to completealignment by crosschecking Manuallyentered positionagainst IRS Position.You must enter themost accurateinformation availableto you!Normally GPS or theGATE position.
  47. 47. In flight, the FMC position is continually updated from theGPS, navigation radios, and IRS. Updating priority is based on theavailability of valid data from the supporting systems.FMC position updates from navigation sensor positions are used inthe following priority order:• GPS• two or more DME stations (DME-DME)• one VOR with a collocated DME (VOR-DME)• one localizer and collocated DME (LOC-DME)• one localizer. (LOC)• IRS
  48. 48. The FMC uses its calculated present position to generate lateralsteering commands along the active leg to the active waypoint.When the FMC Source Select Switch is positioned to NORMAL, theleft FMC becomes primary, however, data from both FMCs iscombined to determine a composite position and velocity forguidance and map displays.In flight, the FMC position is continually updated from the GPS,navigation radios, and IRS. Updating priority is based on theavailability of valid data from the supporting systems.FMC position updates from navigation sensor positions are used inthe following priority order:• GPS• two or more DME stations (DME-DME)• one VOR with a collocated DME (VOR-DME)• one localizer and collocated DME (LOC-DME)• one localizer. (LOC)• IRS
  49. 49. The station identifiers and frequencies of the selected radionavigation aids are displayed on the NAV STATUS page 1/2.
  50. 50. The station identifiers and frequencies of the selected radionavigation aids are displayed on the NAV STATUS page 1/2.There are different ways to get to thispage.In flight select INIT REF, INDEX,NAV STATUS at LSK 6R
  51. 51. The station identifiers and frequencies of the selected radionavigation aids are displayed on the NAV STATUS page 1/2.Top line shows the manuallytuned stations. (Small mbetween ident and frequency.)
  52. 52. The station identifiers and frequencies of the selected radionavigation aids are displayed on the NAV STATUS page 1/2.The revers video on the nextlines show the 2 DME stationsthat the FMC is using forposition update.
  53. 53. On the NAV options page 2 youcan inhibit stations from beingused for position updating.Also you can turn On and OFFDME, GPS and VOR updating.Shown GPS updates OFF. Thiswill make DME-DME updatingthe primary means for the FMCto update position.
  54. 54. FMC logic selects the GPS position as the primary update to theFMC position. If all GPS data becomes unavailable, the FMC revertsto radio or IRS updating.
  55. 55. FMC logic selects the GPS position as the primary update to theFMC position. If all GPS data becomes unavailable, the FMC revertsto radio or IRS updating.The dual frequency–scanning DME radios are automatically tunedby the FMC for position updating. The FMC chooses the best 2 froma list of 10 if available.The stations to be tuned are selected based upon the best availablesignals (in terms of geometry and strength) for updating the FMCposition, unless a specific station is required by the flight plan. Radioposition is determined by the intersection of two DME arcs.
  56. 56. FMC logic selects the GPS position as the primary update to theFMC position. If all GPS data becomes unavailable, the FMC revertsto radio or IRS updating.The dual frequency–scanning DME radios are automatically tunedby the FMC for position updating. The FMC chooses the best 2 froma list of 10 if available.The stations to be tuned are selected based upon the best availablesignals (in terms of geometry and strength) for updating the FMCposition, unless a specific station is required by the flight plan. Radioposition is determined by the intersection of two DME arcs.If the DME radios fail, or if suitable DME stations are not available,FMC navigation is based on IRS position information only. The twoVHF Nav radios are used by the FMC for localizer updating during anILS approach and by the crew for navigation monitoring.
  57. 57. FMC DatabasesThe FMC contains two databases:• performance database• navigation database.The performance database eliminates the need for the flight crew to referto a performance manual during flight, and provides the FMC with theinformation required to calculate pitch and thrust commands. Allinformation normally required can be displayed on the CDU. The databaseincludes:• airplane drag and engine characteristics• maximum and optimum altitudes• maximum and minimum speeds.Maintenance personnel can refine the database by entering correctionfactors for drag and fuel flow.
  58. 58. The navigation database includes most information normallydetermined by referring to navigation charts. This information can bedisplayed on the CDU or navigation display. The database contains:• the location of VHF navigation aids• waypoints• airports• runways• other airline selected information, such as SIDs, STARs, approaches,and company routes.If the permanent database does not contain all of the required flightplan data, additional airports, navaids, and waypoints can be definedby the crew and stored in either a supplemental or a temporarynavigation database. Use of these additional databases provides world–wide navigational capability, with the crew manually entering desireddata into the FMC via various CDU pages. Information in thesupplemental navigation database is stored indefinitely, requiringspecific crew action for erasure; the temporary navigation database isautomatically erased at flight completion.
  59. 59. The supplemental and temporary databases share storage capacity forforty navaids and six airports, the entries being stored in eitherdatabase on a first come, first served basis. For the waypoint category,exclusive storage is reserved in the temporary database for twentyentries (including those created on the RTE or RTE LEGS pages). Anadditional twenty waypoints (up to a maximum of forty) can bestored in either the temporary or supplemental database on a firstcome, first served basis.When any storage capacity is full, entries which are no longer requiredshould be deleted by the crew to make space for additional newentries. Created waypoints cannot be stored in the database runwaycategory.The FMC contains two sets of navigation data, each valid for 28 days.Each set corresponds to the normal navigation chart revision cycle. TheFMC uses the active set for navigation calculations. The contents of thenavigation database are periodically updated and are loaded into theFMC before the expiration date of the current database. The new database will show on the inactive line until changed to the active line.
  60. 60. FMC CDU PRE-FLIGHT
  61. 61. When Power is Initially applied the CDU’s will show the menu page.FMC and ACARS arealways on the menu.Depending on softwarethe menu will have otherselectable items
  62. 62. The MENU page can beselected at any timeusing the MENU Key
  63. 63. Selecting FMC will takeyou to the IDENT page.
  64. 64. Verify ModelEngine rating. In Pounds of thrust x 1,000Navigation Data Base in date.Each data base is valid for 28 days.The current date must be covered on theACTIVE line.If the Navigation data base is out ofdata a CDU scratch pad messageNAVDATA OUT OF DATE messagewill show.
  65. 65. ACTIVE Date RangeDisplays the effective date range for the active navigation database.Database activation is accomplished by pushing the proper daterange prompt to copy that date into the scratchpad. The scratchpaddate may then be transferred to the ACTIVE database line.The previous active date moves down to the inactive date line.The ACTIVE label appears above the active navigation databasedate.No label appears above the inactive navigation database date. Thenavigation database date can be changed only on the ground.Changing the navigation database removes all previously enteredroute data.When an active database expires in flight, the expired databasecontinues to be used until the active date is changed after landing.
  66. 66. LSK 6R is the Prompt Key.During the Pre-flight phasethis is the next logical page
  67. 67. The SET IRS POS line must becompleted to allow the IRS to enterthe NAV mode after reasonablenesstest.Select Next page
  68. 68. If GPS is available it is the primarysource for FMC position updating.The Left GPS is used mostly.Use LSK 4 R to select the GPSposition to the scratch pad
  69. 69. If GPS is available it is the primarysource for FMC position updating.The Left GPS is used mostly.Use LSK 4 R to select the GPSposition to the scratch padSelect Previous page
  70. 70. Select the position to LSK4R
  71. 71. Enter the reference airport ICAO 4 letteridentifier.If GPS is not used enter the gate numbermaximum 5 characters.If in the NAV data base the LAT and LONGwill show. This is selectable from LSK3R aspresent position. It is not as accurate asGPS but is the next best.
  72. 72. Displays GPS time and date. Or time and datefrom the captains clock depending on theaircraft fit. If the GPS or clock time is notvalid, GMT starts at 0000.0Z when the FMC isfirst powered. MON/DY is blank.Manually enter the correct GMT.
  73. 73. Airport and Gate EnteredIf GPS position is not availableGate position can be used forset IRS position.
  74. 74. When the IRS enters NAVmode the SET IRS LineBlanks.
  75. 75. Follow the PromptNOTE; The scratch pad isclear!
  76. 76. If an Airport isentered in theprevious step itcomes to thescratch pad of RTE
  77. 77. LSK 1L transfers Originfrom the scratch pad
  78. 78. Enter Destinationusing the 4 letterICAO identifier.Enter Flight NumberThis is used by theACARS managementunit.
  79. 79. Enter a company routeif you have one.
  80. 80. When the route isentered ACTIVATEOnce selected the lineblanks.
  81. 81. Then EXECUTE
  82. 82. Departure and Arrivals
  83. 83. Select the Departures
  84. 84. Select the runway firstAll SIDS not related to theselected runway will beremoved from the list
  85. 85. Return to Route.
  86. 86. ActivateExecute
  87. 87. Legs Page.
  88. 88. PLAN MODE.On the EFIS control panelselect PLN
  89. 89. PLAN MODE.Plan mode is a North up map picture. Theaircraft symbol shows aircraft position and trackif displayed within the map range.
  90. 90. PLAN MODE.With PLN mode selected LSK 6 R shows a STEPprompt.
  91. 91. PLAN MODE.On the CDU the waypoint which is at the centre ofthe display has CTR against it.Each press moves the nextwaypoint to the centre ofthe ND.
  92. 92. PLAN MODE.Using LSK6R step one waypoint at a time throughthe flight plan checking the route and for anydiscontinuity in the route. Each press moves the nextwaypoint to the centre ofthe ND.
  93. 93. When finished select MAP orMAP CENTRE as required.Never use PLN for navigation.
  94. 94. Select INIT REFShould go to PERF INIT which isthe next incomplete Pre-Flightpage.If not select INDEX and thenPERF from the list.
  95. 95. INIT REFShould go toPERF INITIf not selectINDEX andthen PERFfrom the list.
  96. 96. Fuel MonitoringThe FMC receives fuel datafrom the fuel quantityindicating system.Fuel quantity values showon the PERF INIT page and onPROGRESS page 1/3.
  97. 97. The scratchpad message VERIFY GW AND FUEL shows if total fuelquantity data is invalid. The PERF INIT page FUEL line changes todashes. The FMC uses the last valid fuel quantity for performancepredictions and VNAV operation. The flight crew should manually enterestimated fuel weight. Periodic fuel weight update is required for theremainder of the flight to keep gross weight current. The FMC does notupdate the manual fuel weight entry. The scratchpad messageVERIFY GW AND FUEL shows again each 30 minutes if subsequententries are not performed. The scratchpad message does not showduring descent with Vref selected.The scratchpad message CHECK FMC FUEL QUANTITY shows if the FMChas detected an unexpected drop in fuel quantity.The FMC continually estimates the amount of fuel that will remainwhen the destination airport is reached if the active route is flown. TheCDU message USING RSV FUEL is displayed if the estimate is less thanthe fuel reserve value entered on the PERF INIT page. The CDUmessage INSUFFICIENT FUEL is displayed if predicted fuel at destinationwill be 2000 lb. (900 kg) or less.
  98. 98. Enter ZFW from load sheet.
  99. 99. ZFW EnteredFMC now calculates Gross weightBy adding the weight of fuel onboard from the fuel quantityindicating system.
  100. 100. Enter reserve fuel.Represents fuel reservesrequired at destination aftercompletion of a normal flight.If FMC calculates that youwill use any of this reserve itwill give a scratch padmessageUSING RESERVE FUEL
  101. 101. Enter the cost index.This comes on the loadsheet.This is the ratio ofmaintenance cost againstfuel cost. A low number isused when fuel cost ishigh. A high number isused when maintenancecost is high.0 will give maximum rangecruise in zero wind.A high number will reduceflight time and burn morefuel.
  102. 102. FMC now calculates mosteconomical cruise level.This is not based on anyrules!This is simply the mosteconomical levelBased on a Minimum of 1minute cruise for a shortflight.For longer flight itrepresents OPT ALTEnter cruise level in thescratchpad.Enter at LSK 1RA four digit entry isrecognised as analtitude.It is not necessary toenter FLEnter a 3 digit number280 is seen as FL 280
  103. 103. Enter a cruise levelwind150/30This will illuminate theEXEC light.Optimises ECON CLBby adjusting climbspeed. Slower for atail wind faster for aheadwind.No entry FMCassumes no wind onthe ground andutilises actual wind inflight.Copies to CRZWaypoints if enteredafter a route.
  104. 104. Enter ISA temperaturedeviation. FMC willuse ISA standard lapserate of 1.983ᵒC per1,000 feet to atropopause at 36,089feet. To calculate Topof Climb T/C OAT.This affects Max ALTcalculations.Enter 5 will enter as+5ᵒC for ISA DEVCan also Enter 52 onT/C OAT from flightplan. This will read as-52ᵒC
  105. 105. Thrust ManagementThe autothrottle operates in response toflight crew mode control panel inputs orto automatic FMC commands. Referencethrust can be selected on the N1 LIMITpage. Automatic FMC autothrottlecommands are made while VNAV isengaged.The autothrottle system:• uses reference thrust limits calculatedby the FMC• commands the thrust levers• commands thrust equalization throughthe electronic engine controls.
  106. 106. Thrust limits are expressed as N1 limits. Thrust equalization references N1.The FMC calculates a reference thrust for the following modes:Takeoff, derated takeoff, assumed temperature takeoffClimb, reduced climb,CruiseContinuousGo–around.The thrust reference mode automatically transitions for the respective phaseof flight. These modes can be selected on the N1 LIMIT page. The selectedthrust reference mode is displayed on the thrust mode display above N1indications.
  107. 107. The flight crew can specify the thrust reduction height where thetransition from takeoff to climb thrust takes place by making an entry onTAKEOFF REF page 2. Allowable entries are 800 feet to 9,999 feet.The default value is determined by the airline and is stored in themodel/engine database. This is typically 1,500 feet AGL
  108. 108. Reduced Thrust TakeoffReduced thrust takeoffs lower EGT and extend engine life. They areused whenever performance limits and noise abatement procedurespermit.Fixed derates can be selected on the N1 LIMIT page. Performance data forthese derates is provided in the Airplane Flight Manual (AFM).With derated takeoff selected, the thrust setting parameter is considered alimitation for takeoff; therefore, thrust levers should not be advancedfurther except in an emergency. A further thrust increase following anengine failure could result in a loss of directional control while on theground. Use the takeoff speeds supplied by the FMC or specified in ChapterPI, Performance-Inflight, for the selected derate condition.Derated takeoff rating can be further reduced by assumed temperature.
  109. 109. Reduced Thrust TakeoffReduced thrust takeoffs lower EGT and extend engine life. They areused whenever performance limits and noise abatement procedurespermit.Fixed derates can be selected on the N1 LIMIT page. Performance data forthese derates is provided in the Airplane Flight Manual (AFM).With derated takeoff selected, the thrust setting parameter is considered alimitation for takeoff; therefore, thrust levers should not be advancedfurther except in an emergency. A further thrust increase following anengine failure could result in a loss of directional control while on theground. Use the takeoff speeds supplied by the FMC or specified in ChapterPI, Performance-Inflight, for the selected derate condition.Derated takeoff rating can be further reduced by assumed temperature.The green bugs represent thecurrent thrust limit in this case TakeOff. This is a limitation andcommanded thrust should never bemore than this for take off. Vmcg.
  110. 110. Assumed Temperature Thrust Reduction TakeoffA takeoff thrust less than the full rated thrust may be achieved by usingan assumed temperature that is higher than the actual temperature.The desired thrust level is obtained through entry of a SEL TEMP valueon the N1 LIMIT page or TAKEOFF REF page 2. Use approved sources forselecting the assumed temperature.The maximum thrust reduction authorized is 25 percent below anycertified rating.Do not use assumed temperature reduced thrust if conditions exist thataffect braking, such as slush, snow, or ice on the runway, or if potentialwindshear conditions exist.If the assumed temperature method is applied to a fixed derate,application of additional power should not exceed the fixed derate N1limit as loss of directional control could occur while on the ground.When the assumed temperature method is used with full rate, thereduced thrust setting is not considered a limitation. If conditions areencountered where additional thrust is desired, the crew can manuallyapply full thrust.
  111. 111. An assumed temperature of +42 isentered on the N1 limit page.R-TO represents an assumedtemperature reduced take off.The bugs represent TO. And are themaximum thrust limit.The reduced take off setting will beslightly below the bugs.The thrust levers should not beadvanced manually past the bug.Because in the event of an enginefailure loss of directional control mayresult!
  112. 112. Derated Thrust ClimbTwo fixed climb thrust derates can be selected on the N1 LIMIT page. CLB–1provides a climb limit reduced by 3% N1 (approximately 10% thrust).CLB–2 provides a climb limit reduced by 6% N1 (approximately 20% thrust).The reduced climb setting gradually increases to full rated climb thruststarting at 10,000 feet giving full climb thrust by 15,000 feet.In cruise, the thrust reference automatically changes to CRZ. The referencecan be manually selected on the N1 LIMIT page.Use of an assumed temperature reduced thrust takeoff or takeoff derateaffects the FMCs climb derate computation. If a reduced thrust takeoff hasbeen specified on the TAKEOFF REF page, the FMC will re-compute CLB-1and CLB-2 values as required to avoid a climb N1 value greater than thereduced thrust takeoff N1 value.Use of derated climb thrust reduces engine maintenance costs, butincreases total trip fuel.
  113. 113. Selected Temperature De-rate / OATOAT depends on the TAT probe.If it is Aspirated OAT will show in smallfont /+13Enter any de-rate to a maximum of 70 CEnter OAT 50/20Temperature de-rate is to a maximum of25% of rated thrust.Any manually entered figure is in largefont.
  114. 114. Selecting TO <ACT> also selects CLBTO - 1 Selects CLB- 1TO - 2 Selects CLB- 2Climb N1 will not be greater than reducedthrust TO N1.CLB – 1 = 3% N1 reduction or 10% of thrustCLB – 2 = 6 % N1 reduction or 20% of thrustThe CLB derate will washout progressivelyfrom 10,000 feet to full climb thrust atapproximately 15,000 ft.
  115. 115. Any changes made on TAKE OFF REF 1 and 2 will affect the V speeds. Anychanges after the V speeds are entered will cause the V speeds to be deleted.Make entries on Page 2 first!
  116. 116. Enter flap setting forTake Off.
  117. 117. Enter Take Off C of Gfrom load sheet.This is a percentage ofMAC.
  118. 118. FMC now calculates thetakeoff stabiliser trim position.Trim position must be withinthe STAB TRIM Green band.
  119. 119. Enter the intersection foran intersection Take Off
  120. 120. Enter distance in metersfrom the end of therunway for a displacedthreshold.FMC updates to thisposition when TO/GA isselected.
  121. 121. Enter distance in metersfrom the end of therunway for a displacedthreshold.FMC updates to thisposition when TO/GA isselected.TOGA UPDATEINHIBITED IF GPSNAVIGATION IS ON!
  122. 122. If V Speeds areautomatically calculatedthey are displayed insmall font.NO VSPD flag is still in view.V speeds must be manuallycalculated and entered.
  123. 123. LSK to accept.OR Manually enter in thescratch pad.
  124. 124. No more Prompts Pre-Flight Complete
  125. 125. When adequate radio updating is not available, navigation display mapmode may display a shift error. This error results in the displayedposition of the airplane, route, waypoints, and navigation aids shiftedfrom their actual positions.An across track, undetected map shift may result in the airplane flying aground track that is offset from the desired track. An along track,undetected map shift may result in the flight crew initiating altitudechanges earlier or later than desired. In either case, an undetected mapshift may compromise terrain or traffic separation.Map shift errors can be detected by comparing the position of theairplane on the navigation display map mode with data from the ILS,VOR, DME, and ADF systems.See the next slide for more details.
  126. 126. In MAP and MAP CENTER.Select position.The tip of the aircraft symbolrepresents the FMC LAT and LONGfor the aircraft. The FMC thenshows the VOR symbols based ontheir stored LAT and LONG and maprange selected.
  127. 127. In MAP and MAP CENTER.VOR symbol isFMC generatedfrom navigationdatabaseGreen radial line isRAW DATA fromNav Radio length isDME to map scale.Select position.The dual frequency–scanning DMEradios are automatically tuned bythe FMC
  128. 128. This picture represents a map shift
  129. 129. This picture represents a map shiftThe VOR is actually hereaccording to theNavigation radio.
  130. 130. This picture represents a map shiftThe VOR is actually hereaccording to theNavigation radio.NOT HERE This is the FMCstored position only.
  131. 131. Navigation PerformanceThe FMC uses data from the navigationsystems to accurately calculate theposition of the airplane. The currentFMC position is shown on line 1 of thePOS REF page 2/3.
  132. 132. Navigation PerformanceThe FMC position is derived from a mathematical combination ofthe positions determined by the IRS, radio, and GPS systems. Itrepresents the FMC’s estimate of the actual position of the airplane.Its accuracy varies according to the accuracy of the other positiondetermining systems.
  133. 133. Navigation PerformanceThe FMC position is derived from a mathematical combination ofthe positions determined by the IRS, radio, and GPS systems. Itrepresents the FMC’s estimate of the actual position of the airplane.Its accuracy varies according to the accuracy of the other positiondetermining systems.Actual Navigation Performance (ANP)Actual navigation performance (ANP) is the FMC’s estimate of thequality of its position determination. It is shown on POS SHIFT page3/3 and on RTE LEGS pages. ANP represents the estimatedmaximum position error with 95% probability. That is, the FMC is95% certain that the airplane’s actual position lies within a circlewith a radius of the ANP value around the FMC position. The lowerthe ANP value, the more confident the FMC is of its positionestimate. See the next slide.
  134. 134. ANP = 2.0FMC is 95% certain that theaircraft lies within a circle of2.0 NM RADIUS.4 NMANP =0.5FMC is 95% certain that theaircraft lies within a Circleof 0.5 NM RADIUS.= 1NM
  135. 135. Vertical Actual Navigation Performance (VANP)Vertical Actual Navigation Performance (VANP) is the FMC’s estimateof the quality of its altitude determination. It is shown on RNPPROGRESS page 4/4.VANP represents the estimated maximum altitude error with 99.7%probability.That is, the FMC is 99.7% certain that the airplane’s actual altitude lieswithin a vertical band equal to plus or minus the ANP value. Thelower the VANP value, the more confident the FMC is of its altitudeestimate.Note: VANP is calculated from the baro-corrected altitude providedby the Air Data System. The pilot must set the baro setting reportedby ATIS or provided in the approach clearance for the 99.7%confidence level to be valid.
  136. 136. Required Navigation Performance (RNP)The FMC supplies a default required navigation performance (RNP)value for oceanic, en route, terminal, and approach environments. RNPcan also be supplied by the Navigation Database or may be entered bythe crew. Actual navigation performance (ANP) should not exceed RNP.
  137. 137. Required Navigation Performance (RNP)The FMC supplies a default required navigation performance (RNP)value for oceanic, en route, terminal, and approach environments. RNPcan also be supplied by the Navigation Database or may be entered bythe crew. Actual navigation performance (ANP) should not exceed RNP.If ANP exceeds the displayed RNP value, theUNABLE REQD NAV PERF–RNP message will be displayed on the CDUscratchpad after the designated time to alert has elapsed. An additionalamber UNABLE REQD NAV PERF–RNP will be displayed on the MAP.The amber FMC lights located on the forward instrument panel will alsoilluminate with the annunciation of this message.RNP is shown on the POS SHIFT, RNP PROGRESS 4/4 and the RTE LEGSpages.
  138. 138. PFD Navigation Performance Scales (NPS)NPS Deviation Scale• lateral NPS deviation scale represents current FMC lateral RNPThe short bars can represent 0.5, 1,0 or 2,0 depending on current RNP
  139. 139. PFD Navigation Performance Scales (NPS)NPS Deviation Scale• vertical NPS deviation scale represents current FMC vertical RNP• displayed if an approach mode is not engaged and either HDG SEL, TO/GA,LNAV or any VNAV mode is engaged. Replaced when engaged modechanges to LOC or G/S and replaced with normal ILS scales
  140. 140. PFD Navigation Performance Scales (NPS)Flight Technical error is thedeviation of aircraft positionas reported by thenavigation sensors, fromthe desired flight path.
  141. 141. PFD Navigation Performance Scales (NPS)Actual Navigation Performance (ANP) Bars• lateral/vertical indication of available flight technical error remainingbased on total system error. If the bars touch in the centre ANP = RNPLateral bars here show ANP to be about 50% of RNP. Vertical bars showlarge flight technical error margin.• lateral ANP bars can be displayed in all phases of flight• vertical ANP bars can be displayed only after reaching top-of-descent
  142. 142. PFD Navigation Performance Scales (NPS)NPS Pointer• a filled magenta symbol when it is not parked at deflection limit• an unfilled pointer outline when at deflection limit• indicates lateral/vertical paths relative to the airplaneThis shows flight technical error. Lateral path is right of aircraftVertical path is below the aircraft.• will flash for 10 seconds if deviation is within ANP bar limits for 10continuous seconds and the ANP bars will change colour to amber.
  143. 143. Actual navigation Performance (ANP) is a measure of:a) Current cross track error.b) Estimated maximum position errorc) The aircrafts current position based on dual FMC combined positions..d) Estimated maximum vertical position error.
  144. 144. Actual navigation Performance (ANP) is a measure of:a) Current cross track error.b) Estimated maximum position errorc) The aircrafts current position based on dual FMC combined positions..d) Estimated maximum vertical position error.
  145. 145. Actual navigation Performance (ANP) is a measure of:a) Current cross track error.b) Estimated maximum position errorc) The aircrafts current position based on dual FMC combined positions..d) Estimated maximum vertical position error.
  146. 146. On which pages can you view RNP/ANP?a) RTE LEGS page and PROGRESS page 4 of 4.b) LEGS page, POSITION SHIFT Page 3 of 3 and PROGRESS page 4 of 4.c) POSITION SHIFT page 3 of 3 and PROGRESS page 4 of 4.d) RTE LEGS page and POSITION SHIFT page 3 of 3.
  147. 147. On which pages can you view RNP/ANP?a) RTE LEGS page and PROGRESS page 4 of 4.b) LEGS page, POSITION SHIFT Page 3 of 3 and PROGRESS page 4 of 4.c) POSITION SHIFT page 3 of 3 and PROGRESS page 4 of 4.d) RTE LEGS page and POSITION SHIFT page 3 of 3.
  148. 148. After performing an FSM/CDU pre-flight the crew see the Scratch pad messageNAV DATA OUT OF DATE.What effect will the corrective action have on the pre-flight entries?a) This action will not affect other entries.b) The route will have a discontinuity if information relating to any affected waypoint haschanged.c) The previously entered route will be deleted.d) The option to change the active NAV DATA BASE is only available before the pre-flightactions are completed.
  149. 149. After performing an FSM/CDU pre-flight the crew see the Scratch pad messageNAV DATA OUT OF DATE.What effect will the corrective action have on the pre-flight entries?a) This action will not affect other entries.b) The route will have a discontinuity if information relating to any affected waypoint haschanged.c) The previously entered route will be deleted.d) The option to change the active NAV DATA BASE is only available before the pre-flightactions are completed.
  150. 150. The ACTIVE label appears above the activenavigation database date. No label appearsabove the inactive navigation database date.The navigation database date can bechanged only on the ground. If the currentactive data base is out of date a CDU scratchpad message NAV DATA OUT OF DATE will bedisplayed.Changing the navigation database removes allpreviously entered route data.
  151. 151. FMC Alerting MessagesThese messages relate to operationally significant conditions whichaffect FMC operation.FMC alerting messages:• are shown in the CDU scratchpad• cause the amber FMC alert light on each pilot’s instrument panel toilluminate• illuminate message lights (MSG) on both CDUs.Use the CLR key or correct the condition responsible for the messageto remove the message. The message is temporarily removed from thescratchpad when manually entering data. The message returns whenthe data is removed from the scratchpad.The following list is a selection of commonly seen messages. There area large number of possible messages which depend on the softwareversion installed.
  152. 152. FMC Advisory Messages
  153. 153. FMC Alert LightIlluminated (amber) –• the FAIL light on CDU(s) is illuminated, or• an alerting message exists for both CDUs, or• test switch is in position 1 or 2.Push – both pilots’ FMC alert lights extinguish.
  154. 154. AUTO FLIGHT ANNUNCIATORTEST Position 1All AMBERTEST Position 22 RED1 AMBER
  155. 155. The FMC alerting message RESET MCP ALT means;a) Within 25 nm of the FMC calculated TOD and a lower MCP selected altitude is required toallow VNAV decent to begin.b) Within 5 nm of the FMC calculated Step climb point and a higher MCP selected altitude isrequired to allow VNAV climb to begin.c) Within 15 nm of the FMC calculated TOD and a lower MCP selected altitude is required toallow VNAV decent to begin.d) Within 5 nm of the FMC calculated TOD and a lower MCP selected altitude is required to allowVNAV decent to begin.
  156. 156. The FMC alerting message RESET MCP ALT means;a) Within 25 nm of the FMC calculated TOD and a lower MCP selected altitude is required toallow VNAV decent to begin.b) Within 5 nm of the FMC calculated Step climb point and a higher MCP selected altitude isrequired to allow VNAV climb to begin.c) Within 15 nm of the FMC calculated TOD and a lower MCP selected altitude is required toallow VNAV decent to begin.d) Within 5 nm of the FMC calculated TOD and a lower MCP selected altitude is required toallow VNAV decent to begin.
  157. 157. The fuel quantity displayed on the FMCPROGRESS Page Comes from which source?
  158. 158. The fuel quantity displayed on the FMCPROGRESS Page Comes from which source?
  159. 159. What is indicated by the FMC ALERT LIGHT?
  160. 160. What is indicated by the FMC ALERT LIGHT?
  161. 161. What is indicated by the FMC ALERT LIGHT?There are 4 possible lights on theCDU Not all have a FAIL light!
  162. 162. What is the meaning of the FMC Alerting message“OVERSPEED DISCONNECT”
  163. 163. What is the meaning of the FMC Alerting message“OVERSPEED DISCONNECT”
  164. 164. What is the meaning of the FMC Alerting message“OVERSPEED DISCONNECT”This may be caused by a stronger than forecast tail windincreasing the Ground speed. This will affect the top ofdescent calculations causing a steeper than anticipateddescent. As VNAV descent is an idle thrust descent theaircraft will need additional drag to control the speed.
  165. 165. Where do you getPositioninformation from?
  166. 166. Where do you getPositioninformation from?The most accurateinformation availableto you! Normally GPSor the GATE position.
  167. 167. On which CDU page is the ground speed displayed?a) Progress page 1.b) Progress Page 2.c) Cruise page.d) POS REF Page 2.
  168. 168. On which CDU page is the ground speed displayed?a) Progress page 1.b) Progress Page 2.c) Cruise page.d) POS REF Page 2.
  169. 169. With NORMAL selected on the FMC SOURCE SELECTOR.Which FMC is controlling the CDU’s?
  170. 170. FMC Source Select SwitchBOTH ON L –• selects left FMC for all FMC operations• right map will annunciate “FMC L.”NORMAL –• left FMC controls CDUs and provides input to the autothrottle system• right FMC operates in synchronization with left FMC• maps display composite information from both FMCsBOTH ON R –• selects right FMC for all FMC operations• left map will annunciate “FMC R.”Note: Moving the source select switch will cause LNAV and VNAV todisengage.
  171. 171. This is the end of the FMC presentation. At best this gives an overview.The B737 Uses a Smiths FMC. The B777 and B747-400 use a HoneywellFMC There are many similarities, but also many differences.Everything in this presentation is to be used only as a guide. There are anumber of different software options and not all FMC’s are the same on allaircraft.Always remember the aircraft FCOM is the overriding authority.If you would like more information on the use and workings of the B737NGFMCS IATC recommend a book from Leading Edge Publications called737NG FMC USER’s Guide. The Author is Bill Bulfer.Bill can be contacted at billbulfer@comcast.net
  172. 172. The END of FMSNow Take the test at www.theorycentre.comOr contact us for further information info@theorycentre.com

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