B 737 NG Ground School.           See the aircraft study guide at www.theorycentre.comThe information contained here is fo...
B737-800AUTOPILOT FLIGHT DIRECTOR SYSTEM              (AFDS)             PART 1
Autopilot Flight Director System (AFDS)The automatic flight system (AFS) consists of the autopilot flightdirector system (...
Mode Control Panel
Mode Control Panel Current Thrust limit
Mode Control PanelCommand speedFMC or MCP
Mode Control PanelAFS mode annunciationsThrust, Roll and Pitch
The AFDS is a dual system consisting of two individual flightcontrol computers (FCCs) and a single mode control panel.The ...
Mode Control Panel
Mode Control Panel                   Controls two Flight Control ComputersTwo FCCs calculate thrust, pitch & roll paramete...
FCCs send commands to auto throttle, flight director & autopilots
Autopilot Status                   Flight Director Command bars
If the FCC fails.Associated Auto-pilotand F/D are also failed.                           Autopilot B uses hydraulic system...
Mode Control Panel   Centralized location for autopilot, flight director     & auto-throttle selections
MCP Mode Selector SwitchesThe mode selector switches are pushed to select desired commandmodes for the AFDS and A/T. The s...
Illuminated button means mode may be deselected -
Illuminated button means mode may be deselected -                                 Flight Mode Annunciator                 ...
Engaged mode may have button light extinguished
Engaged mode may have button light extinguishedVOR/LOC andG/S are bothGreen engagedmodes on thePFD. Theselector switchligh...
Engaged mode may have button light extinguishedVOR/LOC andG/S are both                                              To Dis...
Flight Mode Annunciators     Autoflight modes which are engaged are shown at       the top of the PFD    Autothrottle, Rol...
AUTO THROTTLE   ROLL    PITCHFlight Mode Annunciators     Autoflight modes which are engaged are shown at       the top of...
Green font indicates an ENGAGED mode
Green font indicates an ENGAGED mode   White font indicates an ARMED mode   Armed means the mode is   waiting for some con...
Mode Highlight Change SymbolA mode change highlight symbol (rectangle) is drawnaround each pitch, roll, CWS, A/P status, a...
COURSE DisplayDisplays course set by course selector.Note: Different courses and frequencies on two VHF NAVreceivers can c...
Course SelectorSets course in COURSE display for related VHF NAV receiver, AFDS andDU. Two course selectors and COURSE dis...
Autothrottle (A/T) ARM SwitchARM – Arms A/T for engagement. Magnetically held at ARM. A/T engagesautomatically when follow...
The indicator light illuminates green when A/T ARM switch is in the ARMposition.OFF – disengages A/T and prevents A/T enga...
Master (MA) Flight Director Indicators (white letters)If a F/D switch is ON, the light indicates which FCC is controlling ...
Master (MA) Flight Director Indicators (white letters)If a F/D switch is ON, the light indicates which FCC is controlling ...
Flight Director (F/D) SwitchON –• in flight with A/P ON and F/Ds OFF, turning a F/D switch ON engagesF/D in currently sele...
Flight Director (F/D) Switch                          FD command bars                          2 styles possible          ...
Flight Director (F/D) SwitchOn ground, arms pitch and roll modes for engagement in TO/GA andwings level when TO/GA switch ...
Flight Director DisplayTurning ON if command pitch and roll modes are engaged. Ifcommand pitch and roll modes are not enga...
The master FCC is indicated by illumination of the respectivemaster (MA) F/D indicator light. The master FCC is determined...
Flight Director Mode
Flight Director (F/D) display       Related F/D switch must be ONFirst FD ON sets the Master FCC (MA light illuminated)
Flight Director (F/D) display   Related F/D switch must be ON   With a Pitch mode selected   horizontal bar displayed
Flight Director (F/D) display   Related F/D switch must be ON    Roll mode selected - vertical bar    displayed
Flight Director (F/D) display   Both bars retract at 50 ft RA on approach   The FD is not certified to give flare guidance.
Note: F/D Pop-Up is available whenbelow 2,000’ RA with anairspeed >80 knotsBefore150 secs after lift-offPUSH the TO/GA swi...
IAS/MACH DisplayDisplays speed selected by IAS/MACH selector• display is blank when:• VNAV mode engaged• A/T engaged in FM...
MCP Speed Condition SymbolsOverspeed or underspeed limiting symbolappears when commanded speedcannot be reached.Underspeed...
N1 SwitchPush – (light not illuminated)• engages A/T in N1 mode if compatible with AFDS modes alreadyengaged• illuminates ...
Changeover (C/O) SwitchPush –• changes IAS/MACH display between IAS andMACH• automatic changeover occurs at approximatelyF...
SPEED SwitchPush – (light not illuminated)• engages A/T in SPEED mode if compatible with engaged AFDS modes• illuminates S...
SPEED SwitchPush – (light illuminated)• deselects speed mode and extinguishes switch light• engages A/T in ARM mode.Speed ...
Level Change (LVL CHG) SwitchPush –• LVL CHG switch light illuminates• pitch mode annunciates MCP SPD for climb or descent•
Level Change (LVL CHG) SwitchPush –• LVL CHG switch light illuminates• pitch mode annunciates MCP SPD for climb or descent...
Level Change (LVL CHG) SwitchPush –• LVL CHG switch light illuminates• pitch mode annunciates MCP SPD for climb or descent...
VNAV SwitchPush –• VNAV switch light illuminates• pitch mode annunciates VNAV SPD, VNAV PTH, or (VNAV ALT only someaircraf...
VNAV arm criteria on the ground:• a valid flight plan has been entered.• performance data has been entered and executed.• ...
VNAVClimb –• autothrottle holds FMC thrust limit N1• AFDS holds FMC target speed FMC SPD• automatic level-off occurs at MC...
VNAV Cruise –• autothrottle holds FMC target speed (FMC SPD)• AFDS holds FMC altitude (VNAV PTH)• selecting a lower MCP al...
VNAV Descent –• VNAV SPD descent• autothrottle holds idle (RETARD then ARM)• AFDS holds FMC target speed.• VNAV PTH descen...
VNAV mode is terminated by any one of the following:• selecting another pitch mode• glideslope capture• reaching end of LN...
LNAV SwitchPush –• commands AFDS roll to intercept and track the active FMC route• annunciates LNAV as roll mode and illum...
LNAV arming criteria on the ground:• origin runway in flight plan• active route entered in FMC• track of first leg within ...
LNAV engagement criteria in flight:• active route entered in FMC• within 3 NM of active route, LNAV engagement occurs with...
Lateral Navigation (LNAV)LNAV provides steering commands to the active waypoint
Lateral Navigation (LNAV)        LNAV provides steering commands to the active waypoint                                   ...
Lateral Navigation (LNAV)        LNAV provides steering commands to the active waypoint                                   ...
Lateral Navigation (LNAV)        LNAV provides steering commands to the active waypoint                                   ...
LNAV automatically disconnects for following reasons:• reaching end of active route• reaching a route discontinuity• inter...
Heading SelectorRotate –• sets heading in HEADING display• positions selected heading bugs on the DUs.   PFDHEADING Displa...
Bank Angle SelectorRotate – (outer knob)• sets maximum bank angle for AFDSoperation in HDG SEL or VOR modes• commanded ban...
Heading Select (HDG SEL) SwitchPush –• engages HDG SEL command mode• commands roll to follow selected heading• annunciates...
Heading Select Command ModeThe HDG SEL mode commands roll to turn to and maintain heading shown inMCP HEADING display:• in...
VOR Localizer (LOC) SwitchPush –• commands AFDS roll to capture and track selected VOR or LOC course• annunciates VOR/LOC ...
VOR LOC ModePushing the VOR LOC switch selects VOR mode if a VOR frequency is tunedor selects LOC mode if a localizer freq...
VOR LOC ModeThe capture point is variable and depends on intercept angle and closure rate.Localizer capture occurs not lat...
VOR LOC ModeThe capture point is variable and depends on intercept angle and closure rate.Localizer capture occurs not lat...
VOR LOC ModeWhile engaged in VOR or LOC modes:• Autopilot A and Captain’s F/D use information from Captain’scourse selecto...
Approach (APP) SwitchPush –• illuminates APP switch light• arms the AFDS for localizer and glideslope capture• roll mode a...
Approach (APP) SwitchPush –• illuminates APP switch light• arms the AFDS for localizer and glideslope capture• roll mode a...
Glideslope capture occurs at 2/5 dot below glideslope• APP switch light extinguishes after localizer and glideslope captur...
APP ModeThe approach mode arms AFDS to capture and track localizer andglideslope and can be engaged for dual or single aut...
APP ModeThe approach mode arms AFDS to capture and track localizer andglideslope and can be engaged for dual or single aut...
APP ModeWhile engaged in the APP mode:• Autopilot A and Captain’s F/D use information from Captain’s CourseSelector and No...
Altitude Hold (ALT HLD) SwitchPush –• engages ALT HOLD command mode• commands pitch to hold uncorrected barometric altitud...
Altitude Hold Command ModeALT HOLD mode commands pitch to hold either:• MCP selected altitude• pitch mode annunciates ALT ...
Altitude Hold Command ModeALT HOLD mode is inhibited after G/S capture.The selected MCP altitude is referenced to:• Captai...
Vertical Speed (V/S) SwitchPush –• arms or engages V/S command mode• commands pitch to hold vertical speed• engages A/T in...
Vertical Speed (V/S) SwitchPush –• arms or engages V/S command mode• commands pitch to hold vertical speed• engages A/T in...
Vertical Speed Command ModeThe V/S mode commands pitch to hold selected vertical speed andengages A/T in SPEED mode to hol...
Vertical Speed Command ModeThe V/S mode commands pitch to hold selected vertical speed andengages A/T in SPEED mode to hol...
Vertical Speed Command ModeThe V/S mode commands pitch to hold selected vertical speed andengages A/T in SPEED mode to hol...
Vertical Speed Command ModeV/S mode automatically engages if ALT ACQ mode is engaged and anew MCP altitude is selected whi...
Control Wheel Steering
Control Wheel Steering Engage (CWS ENGAGE) Switch (A or B):Push –• engages A/P• engages pitch and roll modes in CWS. Other...
Autopilot CWSIs attitude hold commanded by the control  wheel and control column.
Autopilot CWSIs attitude hold commanded by the control  wheel and control column.   Control wheel forces are not affected ...
Autopilot CWSIs attitude hold commanded by the control  wheel and control column.   Control wheel forces are not affected ...
CWS Roll  Commanded bank angles of 6º or less are   ignored & wings level results (HDG HLD)  UNLESS below 1,500 ft with ge...
CWS Roll  Commanded bank angles of 6º or less are   ignored & wings level results (HDG HLD)  UNLESS below 1,500 ft with ge...
Autopilot CWSIs attitude hold commanded by the control  wheel and control column.   CWS Pitch is engaged automatically if ...
Autopilot CWSIs attitude hold commanded by the control  wheel and control column.   CWS Pitch is engaged automatically if ...
CWS Pitch  If no pressure applied to control wheel when     within 250 ft of selected altitude, CWS P will     revert to A...
Flashes amberwhen A/P revertsto CWS P or Rwhile in CMD
Command Mode
Command Engage (CMD ENGAGE) Switch (A or B):Push –• engages A/P• enables all command modes• displays CMD in A/P status dis...
Autopilot (A/P) engagement criteria   • No force is being applied to the control column or     wheel   • STAB TRIM AUTOPIL...
Autopilot (A/P) engagement criteria   • No force is being applied to the control wheel   • STAB TRIM AUTOPILOT cutout swit...
Autopilot disengagement    • Pushing either disengage switch,    This is the normal and correct method. A double push is  ...
Autopilot disengagement    • Pushing either disengage switch,    • Pushing the illuminated A/P engage switch    • Moving d...
Autopilot disengagement    • Pushing either disengage switch,    • Pushing the illuminated A/P engage switch    • Moving d...
Autopilot disengagement    • Pushing either disengage switch,    • Pushing the illuminated A/P engage switch    • Moving d...
Flashes redwhenA/P hasdisengaged(tone sounds)
THRUST MODE DISPLAYThrust Mode DisplayN1 limit reference is the active N1 limit for autothrottle and manualthrust control....
Thrust mode display is above the N1gage. Thrust modes are normallycalculated by the FMC
TO = Full Power Take Off.   Set on the N1 Limit Page.
R-TO – reduced takeoff                                  Set on the N1 Limit Page.      R-TO does not indicate the type of ...
R-TO = Assumed Temperature   + 42 is the SEL temperatureReduced T/O                  Set on the N1 Limit Page.
POSSIBLE THRUST MODE INDICATIONS• TO – takeoff• R-TO – reduced takeoff• R-CLB – reduced climb• CLB – climb• CRZ – cruise• ...
N1 SET KNOBN1 SET Outer KnobAUTO –• both reference N1 bugs set by FMC based on N1 limit page andtakeoff reference page• di...
N1 SET KNOBN1 SET Outer KnobBOTH –• both reference N1 bugs and readouts manually set by turning N1SET inner knob• has no e...
A/T LIM FMC is not providing N1 limits.A/T is setting degraded limits using EECinputs.
THRUST MODE ANNUNCIATION
Magnetic clutch if free and Thrustcan be set MANUALLY
The Green bug                           represents the                           ACTIVE N1 limitN1 The Auto ThrottleHOLDS ...
The Green bug                           represents the                           ACTIVE N1 limitN1 The Auto ThrottleHOLDS ...
Speed is on THRUSTFMC is commanding.
Speed is on THRUSTFMC is commanding. Speed is on THRUST MCP is commanding.
LVL CHG DescentVNAV DescentFLARE                  Thrust Levers are moving towards IDLE.                  Normally followe...
With VNAV mode engaged, the AFDS pitch and Autothrottle modes are controlled by the:
With VNAV mode engaged, the AFDS pitch and Autothrottle modes are controlled by the: FMC
The N1 limit reference on the Upper DU isnormally calculated by?
The N1 limit reference on the Upper DU isnormally calculated by?
When control wheel pressure is released during CWSR operation, with 5° of bank at 1,000 Ft RA with theLanding Gear down th...
When control wheel pressure is released during CWSR operation, with 5° of bank at 1,000 Ft RA with theLanding Gear down th...
Which A/T modes permit manual thrust changes withoutA/T interference?
Which A/T modes permit manual thrust changes withoutA/T interference?THR HLD and ARM
Which FCC is the Master FCC?
Which FCC is the Master FCC?
LOC Antenna switching from tail to nose antenna occurswhen?
LOC Antenna switching from tail to nose antenna occurswhen?
The END of AUTO FLIGHT Part 1 Now Take a look at AUTO FLIGHT PART 2 Or take the test at www.theorycentre.comFor more infor...
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B737 NG Autoflight Part 1

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B737NG Auto-pilot Flight Director system overview.

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B737 NG Autoflight Part 1

  1. 1. B 737 NG Ground School. See the aircraft study guide at www.theorycentre.comThe information contained here is for training purposes only. It is of a general nature it isunamended and does not relate to any individual aircraft. The FCOM must be consulted forup to date information on any particular aircraft.
  2. 2. B737-800AUTOPILOT FLIGHT DIRECTOR SYSTEM (AFDS) PART 1
  3. 3. Autopilot Flight Director System (AFDS)The automatic flight system (AFS) consists of the autopilot flightdirector system (AFDS) and the autothrottle (A/T).The flight management computer (FMC) provides N1 limits andtarget N1 for the A/T and command airspeeds for the A/T andAFDS.The AFDS and A/T are controlled using the AFDS mode controlpanel (MCP) and the FMC.Normally, the AFDS and A/T are controlled automatically by theFMC to fly an optimized lateral and vertical flight path throughclimb, cruise and descent.AFS mode status is displayed on the flight mode annunciationon each pilot’s primary display.
  4. 4. Mode Control Panel
  5. 5. Mode Control Panel Current Thrust limit
  6. 6. Mode Control PanelCommand speedFMC or MCP
  7. 7. Mode Control PanelAFS mode annunciationsThrust, Roll and Pitch
  8. 8. The AFDS is a dual system consisting of two individual flightcontrol computers (FCCs) and a single mode control panel.The two FCCs are identified as A and B. For A/P operation,they send control commands to their respective pitch and rollhydraulic servos, which operate the flight controls through twoseparate hydraulic systems.For F/D operation, each FCC positions the F/D command barson the respective attitude indicator.
  9. 9. Mode Control Panel
  10. 10. Mode Control Panel Controls two Flight Control ComputersTwo FCCs calculate thrust, pitch & roll parameters for auto flight system
  11. 11. FCCs send commands to auto throttle, flight director & autopilots
  12. 12. Autopilot Status Flight Director Command bars
  13. 13. If the FCC fails.Associated Auto-pilotand F/D are also failed. Autopilot B uses hydraulic system B. If this hydraulic system fails then A/P B will either disconnect or not engage in CMD. The FD will still work normally.
  14. 14. Mode Control Panel Centralized location for autopilot, flight director & auto-throttle selections
  15. 15. MCP Mode Selector SwitchesThe mode selector switches are pushed to select desired commandmodes for the AFDS and A/T. The switch illuminates to indicatemode selection and that the mode can be deselected by pushingthe switch again. While a mode is active, deselection can beautomatically inhibited and is indicated by the switch beingextinguished.When engagement of a mode would conflict with current AFSoperation, pushing the mode selector switch has no effect. All AFDSmodes can be disengaged either by selecting another commandmode or by disengaging the A/P and turning the F/Ds off.
  16. 16. Illuminated button means mode may be deselected -
  17. 17. Illuminated button means mode may be deselected - Flight Mode Annunciator confirms the engaged mode!
  18. 18. Engaged mode may have button light extinguished
  19. 19. Engaged mode may have button light extinguishedVOR/LOC andG/S are bothGreen engagedmodes on thePFD. Theselector switchlight areextinguished.
  20. 20. Engaged mode may have button light extinguishedVOR/LOC andG/S are both To Disengage mode afterGreen engaged LOC or G/S capture.modes on the Disengage Autopilots Turn off both flight directorsPFD. The OR retune the VHF NAVselector switch radio.light areextinguished.
  21. 21. Flight Mode Annunciators Autoflight modes which are engaged are shown at the top of the PFD Autothrottle, Roll, Pitch & Autopilot status
  22. 22. AUTO THROTTLE ROLL PITCHFlight Mode Annunciators Autoflight modes which are engaged are shown at the top of the PFD Autothrottle, Roll, Pitch & Autopilot status AUTO PILOT STATUS
  23. 23. Green font indicates an ENGAGED mode
  24. 24. Green font indicates an ENGAGED mode White font indicates an ARMED mode Armed means the mode is waiting for some condition to exist before it can engage.
  25. 25. Mode Highlight Change SymbolA mode change highlight symbol (rectangle) is drawnaround each pitch, roll, CWS, A/P status, and thrustengaged mode annunciation for a period of 10 secondsafter each engagement.
  26. 26. COURSE DisplayDisplays course set by course selector.Note: Different courses and frequencies on two VHF NAVreceivers can cause disagreement between Captain and FO F/Ddisplays and affect A/P operation.
  27. 27. Course SelectorSets course in COURSE display for related VHF NAV receiver, AFDS andDU. Two course selectors and COURSE displays are located on the MCP.Rotate Captain’s course selector – provides selected course information to:• FCC A• No. 1 VHF NAV receiver• Captain’s course pointer and course deviation bar.First Officer’s course selector – provides selected course information to:• FCC B• No. 2 VHF NAV receiver• First Officer’s course pointer and course deviation bar.
  28. 28. Autothrottle (A/T) ARM SwitchARM – Arms A/T for engagement. Magnetically held at ARM. A/T engagesautomatically when following AFDS modes are engaged:• LVL CHG• ALT ACQ• V/S• VNAV• ALT HOLD• G/S capture• TO/GA.
  29. 29. The indicator light illuminates green when A/T ARM switch is in the ARMposition.OFF – disengages A/T and prevents A/T engagement.
  30. 30. Master (MA) Flight Director Indicators (white letters)If a F/D switch is ON, the light indicates which FCC is controlling the F/Dmodes. (Master FCC) First switch ON sets the master FCC• illuminated – related FCC is controlling F/D modes.• extinguished – F/D modes are controlled from opposite FCC• both lights illuminated – each FCC is controlling modes for related F/D.
  31. 31. Master (MA) Flight Director Indicators (white letters)If a F/D switch is ON, the light indicates which FCC is controlling the F/Dmodes. (Master FCC) First switch ON sets the master FCC• illuminated – related FCC is controlling F/D modes.• extinguished – F/D modes are controlled from opposite FCC• both lights illuminated – each FCC is controlling modes for related F/D.Flight Director (F/D) SwitchLeft F/D switch activates command bars on the Captain’sattitude indicator.Right F/D switch activates command bars on the FirstOfficer’s attitude indicator.
  32. 32. Flight Director (F/D) SwitchON –• in flight with A/P ON and F/Ds OFF, turning a F/D switch ON engagesF/D in currently selected A/P modes• displays FD in A/P status display if A/P is OFF or engaged in CWS• enables command bar display on related pilot’s attitude indicator Auto pilot status display
  33. 33. Flight Director (F/D) Switch FD command bars 2 styles possible Depends on aircraft fit.
  34. 34. Flight Director (F/D) SwitchOn ground, arms pitch and roll modes for engagement in TO/GA andwings level when TO/GA switch is pushed.OFF – command bar retracts from related pilot’s attitude indicator.
  35. 35. Flight Director DisplayTurning ON if command pitch and roll modes are engaged. Ifcommand pitch and roll modes are not engaged, the F/D commandbars do not appear. The F/Ds can be operated with or without the A/Pand A/T. F/D command modes can be used with an A/P engaged inCWS.F/D commands operate in the same command modes as the A/Pexcept:• the takeoff mode is a F/D only mode• dual F/D guidance is available for single engine operation• the F/D has no landing flare capability. F/D command bars retractfrom view at approximately 50 feet RA on an ILS approach.Normally, FCC A drives the captain’s command bars and FCC Bdrives the first officer’s command bars. With both F/D switches ON,the logic for both pilots’ F/D modes is controlled by the master FCC,and both FMA displays show the same mode status.
  36. 36. The master FCC is indicated by illumination of the respectivemaster (MA) F/D indicator light. The master FCC is determinedas follows:• with neither A/P engaged in CMD, the FCC for the first F/Dturned on is the master• with one or both A/Ps engaged in CMD, the FCC for the firstA/P in CMD is the master FCC, regardless of which F/D isturned on first.If the Captains FD is on first and then autopilot B is engaged incommand the master FCC changes to B. When the autopilot isdisengaged the master reverts back to A the first in command.To avoid continually switching the master FCC duringnormal operation. The pilot flying turns his FD on first. Thissets the master FCC. The pilot flying uses his on side autopilot. Captain A F/O B. This leaves the master FCC unchangedthroughout the flight.
  37. 37. Flight Director Mode
  38. 38. Flight Director (F/D) display Related F/D switch must be ONFirst FD ON sets the Master FCC (MA light illuminated)
  39. 39. Flight Director (F/D) display Related F/D switch must be ON With a Pitch mode selected horizontal bar displayed
  40. 40. Flight Director (F/D) display Related F/D switch must be ON Roll mode selected - vertical bar displayed
  41. 41. Flight Director (F/D) display Both bars retract at 50 ft RA on approach The FD is not certified to give flare guidance.
  42. 42. Note: F/D Pop-Up is available whenbelow 2,000’ RA with anairspeed >80 knotsBefore150 secs after lift-offPUSH the TO/GA switch with one ormore F/Ds switched off
  43. 43. IAS/MACH DisplayDisplays speed selected by IAS/MACH selector• display is blank when:• VNAV mode engaged• A/T engaged in FMC SPD mode• during 2 engine AFDS go–around• displays 100 knots when power is first applied• display range is:• 100 KIAS – Vmo in 1 knot increments• .60M – Mmo in .01M increments.
  44. 44. MCP Speed Condition SymbolsOverspeed or underspeed limiting symbolappears when commanded speedcannot be reached.Underspeed limiting (flashing character“A”) – minimum speedOverspeed limiting (flashing character “8”)• Vmo or Mmo limit• landing gear limit• flap limit.
  45. 45. N1 SwitchPush – (light not illuminated)• engages A/T in N1 mode if compatible with AFDS modes alreadyengaged• illuminates N1 switch light• annunciates N1 autothrottle mode.Push – (light illuminated)• deselects N1 mode and extinguishes switch light• engages autothrottles in ARM mode.N1 Mode• A/T maintains thrust at N1 limit selected from FMC CDU. N1 modeengaged manually by pushing N1 switch if N1 mode is compatible withexisting AFDS modes. N1 mode engages automatically when:• engaging LVL CHG in climb• engaging VNAV in climb.
  46. 46. Changeover (C/O) SwitchPush –• changes IAS/MACH display between IAS andMACH• automatic changeover occurs at approximatelyFL260.
  47. 47. SPEED SwitchPush – (light not illuminated)• engages A/T in SPEED mode if compatible with engaged AFDS modes• illuminates SPEED switch light• annunciates MCP SPD autothrottle mode• maintains speed in MCP IAS/MACH display.
  48. 48. SPEED SwitchPush – (light illuminated)• deselects speed mode and extinguishes switch light• engages A/T in ARM mode.Speed ModeAutothrottle holds speed in IAS/MACH display or a performance or limit speed.Speed mode engages automatically when:• ALT ACQ engages• ALT HOLD engages• V/S engages• G/S capture occurs.A/T does not set thrust above displayed N1 limit, however, A/T can exceed N1value manually set by N1 Manual Set Knob.
  49. 49. Level Change (LVL CHG) SwitchPush –• LVL CHG switch light illuminates• pitch mode annunciates MCP SPD for climb or descent•
  50. 50. Level Change (LVL CHG) SwitchPush –• LVL CHG switch light illuminates• pitch mode annunciates MCP SPD for climb or descent• autothrottle mode annunciates N1 for climb and RETARDfollowed by ARM for descent
  51. 51. Level Change (LVL CHG) SwitchPush –• LVL CHG switch light illuminates• pitch mode annunciates MCP SPD for climb or descent• autothrottle mode annunciates N1 for climb and RETARDfollowed by ARM for descent• IAS/MACH display and airspeed cursors display targetspeed.
  52. 52. VNAV SwitchPush –• VNAV switch light illuminates• pitch mode annunciates VNAV SPD, VNAV PTH, or (VNAV ALT only someaircraft)• A/T mode annunciates FMC SPD, N1, RETARD, or ARM• IAS/MACH display blanks and airspeed cursors positioned to FMCcommanded airspeed.VNAV ModeThe FMC commands AFDS pitch and autothrottle to fly vertical profileselected on FMC CDUs. Profile includes climb, cruise, descent, speeds, andcan also include waypoint altitude constraints.
  53. 53. VNAV arm criteria on the ground:• a valid flight plan has been entered.• performance data has been entered and executed.• both flight director switches have been switched on.• VNAV guidance becomes active at 400 feet AGL
  54. 54. VNAVClimb –• autothrottle holds FMC thrust limit N1• AFDS holds FMC target speed FMC SPD• automatic level-off occurs at MCP altitude or VNAV altitude, whicheveris reached first. Thrust mode changes to FMC SPD• MCP constrained altitude annunciates VNAV ALT• VNAV constrained altitude annunciates VNAV PTH.
  55. 55. VNAV Cruise –• autothrottle holds FMC target speed (FMC SPD)• AFDS holds FMC altitude (VNAV PTH)• selecting a lower MCP altitude arms FMC to automaticallybegin descent upon arrival at FMC top of descent point.
  56. 56. VNAV Descent –• VNAV SPD descent• autothrottle holds idle (RETARD then ARM)• AFDS holds FMC target speed.• VNAV PTH descent• autothrottle holds idle but can command FMC SPD mode if ground speedbecomes too low to maintain FMC vertical path• AFDS tracks FMC descent path.• automatic level-off occurs at MCP altitude or VNAV altitude, whicheveris reached first• MCP constrained altitude annunciates VNAV ALT• VNAV constrained altitude annunciates VNAV PTH.Inhibited below 400 ft RA or if performance initialization not complete.
  57. 57. VNAV mode is terminated by any one of the following:• selecting another pitch mode• glideslope capture• reaching end of LNAV route• transition of glideslope intercept waypoint if G/S is armed• crosstrack deviation exceeds twice the RNP value during PTH descent foran active leg with a database vertical angle and LNAV not engagedIn the event of glideslope intercept waypoint transition, VNAV can be re-engaged.
  58. 58. LNAV SwitchPush –• commands AFDS roll to intercept and track the active FMC route• annunciates LNAV as roll mode and illuminates LNAV switch light.LNAV ModeIn LNAV mode, the FMC controls AFDS roll to intercept and track active FMCroute. Active route is entered and modified through FMC CDUs and caninclude SIDs, STARs, and instrument approaches.
  59. 59. LNAV arming criteria on the ground:• origin runway in flight plan• active route entered in FMC• track of first leg within 5 degrees of runway heading• LNAV selected prior to TO/GA.• LNAV guidance becomes active at 50 or 400 feet AGL (depends on aircraft)bank angle is limited to 8 degrees from 50 feet to 200 feet and 15degrees from 200 feet to 400 feet and 30 degrees above 400 feet AGL.
  60. 60. LNAV engagement criteria in flight:• active route entered in FMC• within 3 NM of active route, LNAV engagement occurs with any airplaneheading• outside of 3 NM, airplane must:• be on intercept course of 90 degrees or less• intercept route segment before active waypoint.
  61. 61. Lateral Navigation (LNAV)LNAV provides steering commands to the active waypoint
  62. 62. Lateral Navigation (LNAV) LNAV provides steering commands to the active waypoint 3 NmLNAV engagement in flight  Within 3 Nm of track LNAV will fly aircraft from any heading
  63. 63. Lateral Navigation (LNAV) LNAV provides steering commands to the active waypoint 3 NmLNAV engagement in flight  Within 3 Nm of track LNAV will fly aircraft from any heading  Outside 3 Nm from track, LNAV requires aircraft to be on an intercept heading <90 before LNAV engages
  64. 64. Lateral Navigation (LNAV) LNAV provides steering commands to the active waypoint 3 NmLNAV engagement in flight  Within 3 Nm of track LNAV will fly aircraft from any heading  Outside 3 Nm from track, LNAV requires aircraft to be on an intercept heading <90 before LNAV engages Note: If not within the LNAV capture criteria then CDU message NOT ON INTERCEPT HEADING and LNAV will not engage. Use Heading select to establish an intercept heading.
  65. 65. LNAV automatically disconnects for following reasons:• reaching end of active route• reaching a route discontinuity• intercepting a selected approach course in VOR LOC or APP modes(VOR/LOC armed)• selecting HDG SEL• loss of capture criteria.
  66. 66. Heading SelectorRotate –• sets heading in HEADING display• positions selected heading bugs on the DUs. PFDHEADING DisplayDisplays selected heading. ND
  67. 67. Bank Angle SelectorRotate – (outer knob)• sets maximum bank angle for AFDSoperation in HDG SEL or VOR modes• commanded bank angle can be selected at10, 15, 20, 25, or 30 degrees.NOTE: Slight differences on different MCP’s
  68. 68. Heading Select (HDG SEL) SwitchPush –• engages HDG SEL command mode• commands roll to follow selected heading• annunciates HDG SEL as FMA roll mode and illuminatesHDG SEL switch light.
  69. 69. Heading Select Command ModeThe HDG SEL mode commands roll to turn to and maintain heading shown inMCP HEADING display:• initial selection commands turn in shortest direction toward selectedheading bug• after mode engagement, roll commands are given to turn in samedirection as rotation of heading selector• bank angle limit is established by bank angle selector• HDG SEL mode automatically disengages upon capture of selected radiocourse in VOR LOC and APP modes.
  70. 70. VOR Localizer (LOC) SwitchPush –• commands AFDS roll to capture and track selected VOR or LOC course• annunciates VOR/LOC armed or engaged as roll mode and illuminatesVOR LOC switch light.
  71. 71. VOR LOC ModePushing the VOR LOC switch selects VOR mode if a VOR frequency is tunedor selects LOC mode if a localizer frequency is tuned.The VOR mode provides roll commands to track selected VOR course.The LOC mode provides roll commands to track selected localizer coursealong inbound front course bearing.The selected course can be intercepted while engaged in:• LNAV• HDG SEL• CWS R if an autopilot is engaged in CMD.
  72. 72. VOR LOC ModeThe capture point is variable and depends on intercept angle and closure rate.Localizer capture occurs not later than 1/2 dot deviation. Course capture isindicated when VOR/LOC annunciation changes from armed to engaged.
  73. 73. VOR LOC ModeThe capture point is variable and depends on intercept angle and closure rate.Localizer capture occurs not later than 1/2 dot deviation. Course capture isindicated when VOR/LOC annunciation changes from armed to engaged. The mode can no longer be deselected by pushing the VOR/LOC switch. The green light is extinguished at capture.
  74. 74. VOR LOC ModeWhile engaged in VOR or LOC modes:• Autopilot A and Captain’s F/D use information from Captain’scourse selector and No. 1 VHF NAV receiver• Autopilot B and First Officer’s F/D use information from FirstOfficer’s course selector and No. 2 VHF NAV receiver• different courses and/or frequencies for two VHF NAV receiverscan cause disagreement between the Captain’s and First Officer’sF/D displays and affect A/P operation.Note: When a localizer frequency is selected, VHF NAV radiosautomatically switch from using the tail VOR antenna to the noseLOC antenna when VOR/LOC is selected. If annunciated (armed orengaged) switching has occurred.If antenna switching does not occur, LOC mode is inhibited.Note: Localizer back course tracking is not available.
  75. 75. Approach (APP) SwitchPush –• illuminates APP switch light• arms the AFDS for localizer and glideslope capture• roll mode annunciates VOR/LOC armed• pitch mode annunciates G/S armed• enables selection of both autopilots.
  76. 76. Approach (APP) SwitchPush –• illuminates APP switch light• arms the AFDS for localizer and glideslope capture• roll mode annunciates VOR/LOC armed• pitch mode annunciates G/S armed• enables selection of both autopilots. SINGLE CH annunciates in A/P Status Display after localizer capture
  77. 77. Glideslope capture occurs at 2/5 dot below glideslope• APP switch light extinguishes after localizer and glideslope capture.After localizer and glideslope capture, APP mode can be disengaged by:• pushing a TO/GA switch single autopilot.• disengaging autopilot(s) and turning off both F/D switches• retuning the VHF NAV receiver.
  78. 78. APP ModeThe approach mode arms AFDS to capture and track localizer andglideslope and can be engaged for dual or single autopilot operation.One VHF NAV receiver must be tuned to an ILS frequency beforeapproach mode can be engaged. With one VHF NAV receiver tuned,onside AFDS is enabled for guidance and operation.For dual autopilot operation, both VHF NAV receivers must be tuned tothe ILS frequency and both autopilots must be selected in CMD prior to800 feet RA
  79. 79. APP ModeThe approach mode arms AFDS to capture and track localizer andglideslope and can be engaged for dual or single autopilot operation.One VHF NAV receiver must be tuned to an ILS frequency beforeapproach mode can be engaged. With one VHF NAV receiver tuned,onside AFDS is enabled for guidance and operation.For dual autopilot operation, both VHF NAV receivers must be tuned tothe ILS frequency and both autopilots must be selected in CMD prior to800 feet RAFor single autopilot approach, SINGLE CH remains annunciated forentire approach. For dual autopilot approach, SINGLE CH annunciationextinguishes when second autopilot engages at 1500 feet RA
  80. 80. APP ModeWhile engaged in the APP mode:• Autopilot A and Captain’s F/D use information from Captain’s CourseSelector and No. 1 VHF NAV receiver• Autopilot B and First Officer’s F/D use information from FirstOfficer’s Course Selector and No. 2 VHF NAV receiver• Different courses and/or frequencies for the two VHF NAV receivers cancause disagreement between Captain’s and First Officer’s F/D displaysand affect A/P operation.Note: During a dual autopilot approach and after FLARE ARMannunciation, any attempted manual override of the autopilots will result inan autopilot disconnect.
  81. 81. Altitude Hold (ALT HLD) SwitchPush –• engages ALT HOLD command mode• commands pitch to hold uncorrected barometric altitude at which switchwas pressed• annunciates ALT HOLD pitch mode and illuminates ALT HLD switchlight.
  82. 82. Altitude Hold Command ModeALT HOLD mode commands pitch to hold either:• MCP selected altitude• pitch mode annunciates ALT HOLD• ALT HLD switch light extinguishes.Or uncorrected barometric altitude at which ALT HLD switch was pressed ifnot at MCP selected altitude• pitch mode annunciates ALT HOLD• ALT HLD switch light illuminates.When in ALT HOLD at selected MCP altitude:• selecting a new MCP altitude illuminates the ALT HLD switch light andarms V/S mode• LVL CHG, V/S, and VNAV climb and descent functions are inhibiteduntil a new MCP altitude is selected.
  83. 83. Altitude Hold Command ModeALT HOLD mode is inhibited after G/S capture.The selected MCP altitude is referenced to:• Captain’s barometric altimeter setting for A/P A and F/D• First Officer’s barometric altimeter setting for A/P B and F/D.Note: After ALT HOLD engages, changes in altimeter barometric settingsdo not change the selected altitude reference.
  84. 84. Vertical Speed (V/S) SwitchPush –• arms or engages V/S command mode• commands pitch to hold vertical speed• engages A/T in speed mode to hold selected airspeed• annunciates V/S pitch mode and illuminates V/S switch light.
  85. 85. Vertical Speed (V/S) SwitchPush –• arms or engages V/S command mode• commands pitch to hold vertical speed• engages A/T in speed mode to hold selected airspeed• annunciates V/S pitch mode and illuminates V/S switch light.Selected Vertical speed Bug (magenta)Indicates the speed selected in the MCP vertical speedwindow with V/S pitch mode engaged.
  86. 86. Vertical Speed Command ModeThe V/S mode commands pitch to hold selected vertical speed andengages A/T in SPEED mode to hold selected airspeed. V/S mode hasboth an armed and an engaged state.
  87. 87. Vertical Speed Command ModeThe V/S mode commands pitch to hold selected vertical speed andengages A/T in SPEED mode to hold selected airspeed. V/S mode hasboth an armed and an engaged state.Engaged –• annunciates V/S pitch mode• vertical speed display changes from blank to present vertical speed• desired vertical speeds can be selected with vertical speed thumbwheel.
  88. 88. Vertical Speed Command ModeThe V/S mode commands pitch to hold selected vertical speed andengages A/T in SPEED mode to hold selected airspeed. V/S mode hasboth an armed and an engaged state.Engaged –• annunciates V/S pitch mode• vertical speed display changes from blank to present vertical speed• desired vertical speeds can be selected with vertical speed thumbwheel.V/S becomes armed if:• pitch mode is ALT HLD at selected MCP altitude and• new MCP altitude is selected (more than 100 feet from current altitude).With V/S armed, V/S mode is engaged by moving vertical speed thumbwheel.
  89. 89. Vertical Speed Command ModeV/S mode automatically engages if ALT ACQ mode is engaged and anew MCP altitude is selected which is more than 100 feet different frompreviously selected altitude.• vertical speeds can be selected which command flight toward or awayfrom selected altitude.Inhibited if:• ALT HOLD mode is active at selected MCP altitude• glideslope captured in APP mode.
  90. 90. Control Wheel Steering
  91. 91. Control Wheel Steering Engage (CWS ENGAGE) Switch (A or B):Push –• engages A/P• engages pitch and roll modes in CWS. Other pitch and roll modesnot enabled• displays CWS P and CWS R in A/P status display• CMD not displayed in A/P status display• F/Ds, if ON, display guidance commands and FD annunciates inA/P status display. A/P does not follow commands while in CWS• A/P pitch and roll controlled by pilot with control wheel pressure• when control pressure released, A/P holds existing attitude. Ifaileron pressure released with 6 degrees or less bank, the A/P rollswings level and holds existing heading. Heading hold feature isinhibited:• below 1500 feet RA with gear down• after LOC capture in APP mode• after VOR capture with TAS 250 knots or less.
  92. 92. Autopilot CWSIs attitude hold commanded by the control wheel and control column.
  93. 93. Autopilot CWSIs attitude hold commanded by the control wheel and control column. Control wheel forces are not affected largely CWS Roll is engaged automatically if no roll mode is selected or autopilot roll overridden
  94. 94. Autopilot CWSIs attitude hold commanded by the control wheel and control column. Control wheel forces are not affected largely CWS Roll is engaged automatically if no roll mode is selected or autopilot roll overridden
  95. 95. CWS Roll Commanded bank angles of 6º or less are ignored & wings level results (HDG HLD) UNLESS below 1,500 ft with gear down or VOR capture with TAS<250 knots or LOC capture in APP mode (HDG HLD INHIBIT)
  96. 96. CWS Roll Commanded bank angles of 6º or less are ignored & wings level results (HDG HLD) UNLESS below 1,500 ft with gear down or VOR capture with TAS<250 knots or LOC capture in APP mode (HDG HLD INHIBIT) Heading hold feature is inhibited: • below 1500 feet RA with gear down • after LOC capture in APP mode • after VOR capture with TAS 250 knots or less.
  97. 97. Autopilot CWSIs attitude hold commanded by the control wheel and control column. CWS Pitch is engaged automatically if no pitch mode selected or autopilot pitch overridden Overriding autopilot is inhibited during a dual autopilot approach (autopilots disengage)
  98. 98. Autopilot CWSIs attitude hold commanded by the control wheel and control column. CWS Pitch is engaged automatically if no pitch mode selected or autopilot pitch overridden Overriding autopilot is inhibited during a dual autopilot approach (autopilots disengage) Shown. Autopilot CMD using LNAV and VNAV. A manual pitch command is made. Autopilot remains in CMD for roll mode pitch mode disengages and CWS P is annunciated. Autopilot disengage light flashes amber.
  99. 99. CWS Pitch If no pressure applied to control wheel when within 250 ft of selected altitude, CWS P will revert to ALT ACQ & then ALT HLD Note: CWS is used during flight through severe turbulence (as described in SP.16.19)
  100. 100. Flashes amberwhen A/P revertsto CWS P or Rwhile in CMD
  101. 101. Command Mode
  102. 102. Command Engage (CMD ENGAGE) Switch (A or B):Push –• engages A/P• enables all command modes• displays CMD in A/P status display• pushing an engage switch for second A/P, while not in approach mode,engages second A/P and disengages first A/P• enables CWS operation• CWS engages if:• pitch or roll mode not selected• pitch or roll mode deselected• pitch or roll mode manually overridden with control column force.
  103. 103. Autopilot (A/P) engagement criteria • No force is being applied to the control column or wheel • STAB TRIM AUTOPILOT cutout switch NORMAL • Only one A/P may be engaged at a time unless the approach mode (APP) is engaged
  104. 104. Autopilot (A/P) engagement criteria • No force is being applied to the control wheel • STAB TRIM AUTOPILOT cutout switch NORMAL • Only one A/P may be engaged at a time unless the approach mode (APP) is engaged Then Changes to Note: CMD changes to FD if A/P disengaged while FD switched ON
  105. 105. Autopilot disengagement • Pushing either disengage switch, This is the normal and correct method. A double push is normal. First push disengages second push cancels Aural and lights.
  106. 106. Autopilot disengagement • Pushing either disengage switch, • Pushing the illuminated A/P engage switch • Moving disengage bar down • Activating either control wheel electric trim switch.
  107. 107. Autopilot disengagement • Pushing either disengage switch, • Pushing the illuminated A/P engage switch • Moving disengage bar down • Activating either control wheel electric trim switch • (Single A/P) pushing TO/GA below 2,000 ft RA • (Single A/P) pushing TO/GA above 2,000 ft RA with flaps not up or G/S engaged • (Dual A/P) pushing TO/GA after touchdown
  108. 108. Autopilot disengagement • Pushing either disengage switch, • Pushing the illuminated A/P engage switch • Moving disengage bar down • Activating either control wheel electric trim switch • (Single A/P) pushing TO/GA below 2,000 ft RA • (Single A/P) pushing TO/GA above 2,000 ft RA with flaps not up or G/S engaged • (Dual A/P) pushing TO/GA after touchdown • STAB TRIM AUTOPILOT switch to CUTOUT • Loss of respective hydraulic system pressure • Loss of electrical power or a sensor input • IRS system failure or FAULT light illuminated
  109. 109. Flashes redwhenA/P hasdisengaged(tone sounds)
  110. 110. THRUST MODE DISPLAYThrust Mode DisplayN1 limit reference is the active N1 limit for autothrottle and manualthrust control.N1 limit reference is also displayed by N1 reference bugs with N1SET control in AUTO position.
  111. 111. Thrust mode display is above the N1gage. Thrust modes are normallycalculated by the FMC
  112. 112. TO = Full Power Take Off. Set on the N1 Limit Page.
  113. 113. R-TO – reduced takeoff Set on the N1 Limit Page. R-TO does not indicate the type of reduced takeoff. The N1 limit may be reduced due to the entry of an assumed temperature, a takeoff thrust derate or a combination of both assumed temperature and takeoff thrust derate.
  114. 114. R-TO = Assumed Temperature + 42 is the SEL temperatureReduced T/O Set on the N1 Limit Page.
  115. 115. POSSIBLE THRUST MODE INDICATIONS• TO – takeoff• R-TO – reduced takeoff• R-CLB – reduced climb• CLB – climb• CRZ – cruise• G/A – go–around• CON – continuous• ––– – FMC not computing thrust limit.
  116. 116. N1 SET KNOBN1 SET Outer KnobAUTO –• both reference N1 bugs set by FMC based on N1 limit page andtakeoff reference page• displays reference N1 bugs at active N1 limit for A/T.
  117. 117. N1 SET KNOBN1 SET Outer KnobBOTH –• both reference N1 bugs and readouts manually set by turning N1SET inner knob• has no effect on A/T operation.1 or 2 –• respective N1 reference bug and readout manually set by turningN1 SET inner knob• has no effect on A/T operation.
  118. 118. A/T LIM FMC is not providing N1 limits.A/T is setting degraded limits using EECinputs.
  119. 119. THRUST MODE ANNUNCIATION
  120. 120. Magnetic clutch if free and Thrustcan be set MANUALLY
  121. 121. The Green bug represents the ACTIVE N1 limitN1 The Auto ThrottleHOLDS the engines to theselected thrust limit. TO N1 can be annunciated for GA any of these thrust modes CLB The Auto throttle HOLDS that thrust limit. CRZ CON
  122. 122. The Green bug represents the ACTIVE N1 limitN1 The Auto ThrottleHOLDS the engines to theselected thrust limit. TO N1 can be annunciated for GA any of these thrust modes For takeoff the green bug can CLB represent TO, TO-1 or TO-2 as The Auto throttle HOLDS selected on the N1 limit page. that thrust limit. CRZ The bug does not reflect any CON Assumed temperature. The bug represents a limitation. The assumed temperature is not a limitation. Thrust must never be set past the bug
  123. 123. Speed is on THRUSTFMC is commanding.
  124. 124. Speed is on THRUSTFMC is commanding. Speed is on THRUST MCP is commanding.
  125. 125. LVL CHG DescentVNAV DescentFLARE Thrust Levers are moving towards IDLE. Normally followed by ARM
  126. 126. With VNAV mode engaged, the AFDS pitch and Autothrottle modes are controlled by the:
  127. 127. With VNAV mode engaged, the AFDS pitch and Autothrottle modes are controlled by the: FMC
  128. 128. The N1 limit reference on the Upper DU isnormally calculated by?
  129. 129. The N1 limit reference on the Upper DU isnormally calculated by?
  130. 130. When control wheel pressure is released during CWSR operation, with 5° of bank at 1,000 Ft RA with theLanding Gear down the aircraft will:
  131. 131. When control wheel pressure is released during CWSR operation, with 5° of bank at 1,000 Ft RA with theLanding Gear down the aircraft will:
  132. 132. Which A/T modes permit manual thrust changes withoutA/T interference?
  133. 133. Which A/T modes permit manual thrust changes withoutA/T interference?THR HLD and ARM
  134. 134. Which FCC is the Master FCC?
  135. 135. Which FCC is the Master FCC?
  136. 136. LOC Antenna switching from tail to nose antenna occurswhen?
  137. 137. LOC Antenna switching from tail to nose antenna occurswhen?
  138. 138. The END of AUTO FLIGHT Part 1 Now Take a look at AUTO FLIGHT PART 2 Or take the test at www.theorycentre.comFor more information info@theorycentre.com

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