Will be an overview, marginalized populations are extensive and broad
-Inclusion/access generally decreases with secondary level; after one schooling cycle
-The developed world generally has access and equity in their education systems -the developing world is at a disadvantage due to lack of resources, political support, etc -Within developing countries, there are marginalized populations that are further put at disadvantage due to their unique characteristics/situations. In effect, they’re ‘doubly’ marginalized/discriminated -overlapping areas bet purple circles reflect multiple marginality
Bc of late entry and failing to complete primary cycle, wide range of ages and curriculum may not be appropriate Life relevant learning seldom approached Non-Formal Ed should be complementary and can’t replace formal education
Young women especially underrepresented in secondary/higher ed Institutionalized discrimination Security concerns traveling to and from school In Ecuador, 22% of adolescent girls reported as victims as sexual abuse in educational setting China-day cares attached to schools to reduce opportunity cost to attend school Malawi-reserves 1/3 of secondary school places for girls Bangladesh, Chad, India, Pakistan-new all girl schools Guatemala-scholarship programs for Mayan girls Nepal-adjusted school hours to allow for house chores
On the personal level, education helps women marry later, have fewer children, reduces infant mortality rates, increases their earning power, improves family hygiene, nutrition, overall health care, children’s well being, and their daughters’ chances of enrolling in school by 40 percent or more . Providing girls one extra year of education beyond the average boosts eventual wage rates by 13-18 percent. P3 – According to a World Bank study of over 100 countries, secondary education for women boosts per capita income growth particularly as countries advance beyond the earliest stages of development
Challenges to Reaching Disabled Youth Lack of national investment because cultural bias or the assumption that the economic potential of a disabled child is not high. In many developing countries the struggle to develop compulsory education for a majority of children takes precedence over meeting the special educational needs of those with disabilities (Hegarty). The vast majority of individuals with hearing or visual impairments in developing nations lack basic literacy skills and those with intellectual and psychiatric disabilities are often treated with cruel neglect. According to Ingstad and Whyte (1995), many cultures view impairments as a personal failure: a child is considered bad or irreparably tainted. In some cultures, individuals with physical abnormalities are considered deserving of life, but the survival of children born with conditions such as dwarfism and hydrocephalus may be much less valued. There is growing disabled population caused by conflict and other consequences of poverty. Over 6 million children have been seriously injured or permanently disabled by violent conflict over the past decade, and over 10 million have been left with grave psychological trauma. Education systems are rarely able to handle this additional burden and respond adequately even to the needs of children with disabilities not created by conflict. Peters (2003) estimates that 80 percent of persons with disabilities reside in developing countries and that conditions such as poverty, violence, abuse, malnutrition, poor prenatal care and HIV/AIDS result in a higher proportion of disabled persons. There are too many standards for defining who is disabled. – There are many potential problems with classification systems that result in inaccurate labeling of children and segregation from the mainstream (EQUIP, 2005). Disability advocates and some international organizations challenge the need to categorize children with disabilities because labeling perpetuates the medical approach to disability and may socially stigmatizes children. Yet, it remains important to appropriately distinguish children with disabilities from those requiring more intensive educational supports due to poverty, lack of educational opportunity, or similar environmental factors (EQUIP).
To combat discrimination and remove structural barriers to learning and participation in education. To promote a broad concept of education, including essential life skills and lifelong learning. To continue to focus on the needs of individuals with disabilities when resources and activities address the realization of EFA goals (EQUIP). Policy Strategies (Hegarty, pgs. 17-29) Legislation: Can “articulate” and “reinforce” the country’s policy on special education. “ A legal framework can, however, hold the different elements of policy together, clarify ambiguities and resolve tensions among them. Secondly, legislation can help to secure resources or the appropriate channeling of resources.” Therefore, legislation can be used to target expenditure on certain groups of children; it can require that provision be supported by certain administrative structures; it can insist on certain levels of teacher training; and it can require that special educational provision be made in ordinary schools.” Finally, the continuous presentation of special education needs via legislation will legitimize the cause and build national awareness. Administrative Support: By having administrative support for special education policy, there will be a vehicle to better give shape to the provisions created by policy. Supplemental administrative support is also needed to address additional teachers, supply and relevant curriculum to implemented special education. The administrative functions for special education are varied (i.e. planning, resource allocation, the supply and training of personnel, buildings, materials and transport in addition to coordinating the different service elements (Hegarty, p. 14-15)). Additionally, all of these functions must be replicated at the national, regional and local levels. Without properly appropriated administrative support, special education programs will fail in any country. Education Provision: Policy makers must decide if a segregated education is the most appropriate for children with special needs. What will be the required expertise of the teacher? How will they adapted buildings and equipment and training opportunities for staff and students? Early Childhood Education: The absence of appropriate stimulation in infancy and early childhood ranks alongside malnutrition and poverty as a major source of disadvantage and retarded development. This is true of all children but is especially so for children with disabilities. Preparation for Adult Life: The twin goals of action in this area are to help young people become economically active and lead lives that are as full and independent as possible. There is a growing realization that those with disabilities can benefit from the training opportunities available to the general population. This is leading to initiatives to incorporate training provision for people with disabilities into the general system for technical and vocational education. This entails substantial alterations in the latter as well as major changes in attitude, but it is a step towards the normalization of experience for people with disabilities. Parental Involvement: Parents are the child’s first and natural teachers, and it makes sense to help them discharge this role to the best of their ability. As for participating in decision-making, the best they could generally hope for was the reactive role of agreeing to, or taking issue with, the educational placement proposed for their child by the professionals. Parents should be made aware of their right as an active decision-maker and participant for securing the needs of their child. Teacher Training: Considering that the majority of the teachers in developing countries are not receiving the proper training, the case of the special education teacher is even worse. When conceptualizations of handicap are being revised and integration means that teachers in ordinary schools are expected to teach pupils with disabilities, training that was previously adequate may now need to be supplemented or restructured. Research and Development: Educating pupils with disabilities is a complex matter. It is likely to be significantly improved if based on good information about the nature of these children’s learning needs and how best to meet them. Studies designed to separate out the different forms of disability, deepen understanding of them and clarify their educational implications. Incidence surveys to establish the extent of local need. Development activities directed at curricula, teaching approaches and the deployment of resources. Evaluation: The role of evaluation is a constant and growing need in any education system. Its benefits are intuitive.
Need trauma counseling/psychosocial needs addressed-witnessed violent acts, victim of abuse, ideological indoctrination Out of school for long periods of time Gov’t institutions and civic capacity at all levels severely damaged Relief efforts has more focus bc more immediate and overshadows education UNESCO’s Teacher Emergency Package (TEP) Restore functional ed activities in post conflict and refugee settings “ school in a box”-materials for up to 80 students and 1 teacher (slates, books, pencils, blkbd paint, posters) Provides bridge between emergency and recovery phases
Capacity Building Not quantifiable, lack of data Not defined, recognized as distinctive group NGOs-Work w/local governments-sustainability Info-Nat’l Crime Prevention strategy-dismissal of teachers found guilty of serious misconduct w/student, but rare for gov’t intervention Male programs to explore masculinity, increase gender awareness and end violence against girls PPPs-maybe offer experiential job programs to meet business’ needs Community participation-esp good for conflict, organic community development, community/parent resource centers, beautification projects, after school programs run by parent/youth groups Nonformal ed-Uganda Youth Development Link (UYDEL) Building Capacities for Non-Formal Ed and Life Skills program 2 drop in ctrs Vocational training and informal ed marketable skills and make $
Although policy options and programs for marginalized populations may work in theory, due to the complexity of defining each group, which may overlap Middle-child syndrome Not like older and youngest bc their roles are more defined Youngest gets away w/stuff and babied Neglected But forces them to be resourceful and more resilient! Oldest treated like adult and harsher treatment/higher expectations -Integrating supplementary services Social focus-UNESCO’s Hope and Solidarity Through Ball games, focus on social skills to reintegrate street kids back into society and school PEER’s RECREATE Kit-sports and play activities for creative expression and cope w/conflict stress Psychosocial needs-conflict/child soldiers, deep trauma PLAN’s RapidEd-therapeautic and healing forms of self-expression w/school Drama activities Eventually integrated into normal school after 36 weeks Butterfly Garden (Sri Lanka) 1-2 acre walled compound for playing, animals, zone of peace, deal with stress Occupational Therapy-Disabled
YOUTH, GIRLS, CHILDREN IN DIFFICULT CIRCUMSTANCES Seo Hee Chang Kimberly Kon Nicole Mechem Tiffany Min Alexandria Price