Youth, Girls And Children In Difficult Circumstances


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Presentation on educating marginalized students.

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  • Will be an overview, marginalized populations are extensive and broad
  • -Inclusion/access generally decreases with secondary level; after one schooling cycle
  • -The developed world generally has access and equity in their education systems -the developing world is at a disadvantage due to lack of resources, political support, etc -Within developing countries, there are marginalized populations that are further put at disadvantage due to their unique characteristics/situations. In effect, they’re ‘doubly’ marginalized/discriminated -overlapping areas bet purple circles reflect multiple marginality
  • Bc of late entry and failing to complete primary cycle, wide range of ages and curriculum may not be appropriate Life relevant learning seldom approached Non-Formal Ed should be complementary and can’t replace formal education
  • Young women especially underrepresented in secondary/higher ed Institutionalized discrimination Security concerns traveling to and from school In Ecuador, 22% of adolescent girls reported as victims as sexual abuse in educational setting China-day cares attached to schools to reduce opportunity cost to attend school Malawi-reserves 1/3 of secondary school places for girls Bangladesh, Chad, India, Pakistan-new all girl schools Guatemala-scholarship programs for Mayan girls Nepal-adjusted school hours to allow for house chores
  • On the personal level, education helps women marry later, have fewer children, reduces infant mortality rates, increases their earning power, improves family hygiene, nutrition, overall health care, children’s well being, and their daughters’ chances of enrolling in school by 40 percent or more . Providing girls one extra year of education beyond the average boosts eventual wage rates by 13-18 percent. P3 – According to a World Bank study of over 100 countries, secondary education for women boosts per capita income growth particularly as countries advance beyond the earliest stages of development
  • Challenges to Reaching Disabled Youth Lack of national investment because cultural bias or the assumption that the economic potential of a disabled child is not high. In many developing countries the struggle to develop compulsory education for a majority of children takes precedence over meeting the special educational needs of those with disabilities (Hegarty). The vast majority of individuals with hearing or visual impairments in developing nations lack basic literacy skills and those with intellectual and psychiatric disabilities are often treated with cruel neglect. According to Ingstad and Whyte (1995), many cultures view impairments as a personal failure: a child is considered bad or irreparably tainted. In some cultures, individuals with physical abnormalities are considered deserving of life, but the survival of children born with conditions such as dwarfism and hydrocephalus may be much less valued. There is growing disabled population caused by conflict and other consequences of poverty. Over 6 million children have been seriously injured or permanently disabled by violent conflict over the past decade, and over 10 million have been left with grave psychological trauma. Education systems are rarely able to handle this additional burden and respond adequately even to the needs of children with disabilities not created by conflict. Peters (2003) estimates that 80 percent of persons with disabilities reside in developing countries and that conditions such as poverty, violence, abuse, malnutrition, poor prenatal care and HIV/AIDS result in a higher proportion of disabled persons. There are too many standards for defining who is disabled. – There are many potential problems with classification systems that result in inaccurate labeling of children and segregation from the mainstream (EQUIP, 2005). Disability advocates and some international organizations challenge the need to categorize children with disabilities because labeling perpetuates the medical approach to disability and may socially stigmatizes children. Yet, it remains important to appropriately distinguish children with disabilities from those requiring more intensive educational supports due to poverty, lack of educational opportunity, or similar environmental factors (EQUIP).
  • To combat discrimination and remove structural barriers to learning and participation in education. To promote a broad concept of education, including essential life skills and lifelong learning. To continue to focus on the needs of individuals with disabilities when resources and activities address the realization of EFA goals (EQUIP). Policy Strategies (Hegarty, pgs. 17-29) Legislation: Can “articulate” and “reinforce” the country’s policy on special education. “ A legal framework can, however, hold the different elements of policy together, clarify ambiguities and resolve tensions among them. Secondly, legislation can help to secure resources or the appropriate channeling of resources.” Therefore, legislation can be used to target expenditure on certain groups of children; it can require that provision be supported by certain administrative structures; it can insist on certain levels of teacher training; and it can require that special educational provision be made in ordinary schools.” Finally, the continuous presentation of special education needs via legislation will legitimize the cause and build national awareness. Administrative Support: By having administrative support for special education policy, there will be a vehicle to better give shape to the provisions created by policy. Supplemental administrative support is also needed to address additional teachers, supply and relevant curriculum to implemented special education. The administrative functions for special education are varied (i.e. planning, resource allocation, the supply and training of personnel, buildings, materials and transport in addition to coordinating the different service elements (Hegarty, p. 14-15)). Additionally, all of these functions must be replicated at the national, regional and local levels. Without properly appropriated administrative support, special education programs will fail in any country. Education Provision: Policy makers must decide if a segregated education is the most appropriate for children with special needs. What will be the required expertise of the teacher? How will they adapted buildings and equipment and training opportunities for staff and students? Early Childhood Education: The absence of appropriate stimulation in infancy and early childhood ranks alongside malnutrition and poverty as a major source of disadvantage and retarded development. This is true of all children but is especially so for children with disabilities. Preparation for Adult Life: The twin goals of action in this area are to help young people become economically active and lead lives that are as full and independent as possible. There is a growing realization that those with disabilities can benefit from the training opportunities available to the general population. This is leading to initiatives to incorporate training provision for people with disabilities into the general system for technical and vocational education. This entails substantial alterations in the latter as well as major changes in attitude, but it is a step towards the normalization of experience for people with disabilities. Parental Involvement: Parents are the child’s first and natural teachers, and it makes sense to help them discharge this role to the best of their ability. As for participating in decision-making, the best they could generally hope for was the reactive role of agreeing to, or taking issue with, the educational placement proposed for their child by the professionals. Parents should be made aware of their right as an active decision-maker and participant for securing the needs of their child. Teacher Training: Considering that the majority of the teachers in developing countries are not receiving the proper training, the case of the special education teacher is even worse. When conceptualizations of handicap are being revised and integration means that teachers in ordinary schools are expected to teach pupils with disabilities, training that was previously adequate may now need to be supplemented or restructured. Research and Development: Educating pupils with disabilities is a complex matter. It is likely to be significantly improved if based on good information about the nature of these children’s learning needs and how best to meet them. Studies designed to separate out the different forms of disability, deepen understanding of them and clarify their educational implications. Incidence surveys to establish the extent of local need. Development activities directed at curricula, teaching approaches and the deployment of resources. Evaluation: The role of evaluation is a constant and growing need in any education system. Its benefits are intuitive.
  • Need trauma counseling/psychosocial needs addressed-witnessed violent acts, victim of abuse, ideological indoctrination Out of school for long periods of time Gov’t institutions and civic capacity at all levels severely damaged Relief efforts has more focus bc more immediate and overshadows education UNESCO’s Teacher Emergency Package (TEP) Restore functional ed activities in post conflict and refugee settings “ school in a box”-materials for up to 80 students and 1 teacher (slates, books, pencils, blkbd paint, posters) Provides bridge between emergency and recovery phases
  • Capacity Building Not quantifiable, lack of data Not defined, recognized as distinctive group NGOs-Work w/local governments-sustainability Info-Nat’l Crime Prevention strategy-dismissal of teachers found guilty of serious misconduct w/student, but rare for gov’t intervention Male programs to explore masculinity, increase gender awareness and end violence against girls PPPs-maybe offer experiential job programs to meet business’ needs Community participation-esp good for conflict, organic community development, community/parent resource centers, beautification projects, after school programs run by parent/youth groups Nonformal ed-Uganda Youth Development Link (UYDEL) Building Capacities for Non-Formal Ed and Life Skills program 2 drop in ctrs Vocational training and informal ed marketable skills and make $
  • Although policy options and programs for marginalized populations may work in theory, due to the complexity of defining each group, which may overlap Middle-child syndrome Not like older and youngest bc their roles are more defined Youngest gets away w/stuff and babied Neglected But forces them to be resourceful and more resilient! Oldest treated like adult and harsher treatment/higher expectations -Integrating supplementary services Social focus-UNESCO’s Hope and Solidarity Through Ball games, focus on social skills to reintegrate street kids back into society and school PEER’s RECREATE Kit-sports and play activities for creative expression and cope w/conflict stress Psychosocial needs-conflict/child soldiers, deep trauma PLAN’s RapidEd-therapeautic and healing forms of self-expression w/school Drama activities Eventually integrated into normal school after 36 weeks Butterfly Garden (Sri Lanka) 1-2 acre walled compound for playing, animals, zone of peace, deal with stress Occupational Therapy-Disabled
  • Youth, Girls And Children In Difficult Circumstances

    1. 1. YOUTH, GIRLS, CHILDREN IN DIFFICULT CIRCUMSTANCES Seo Hee Chang Kimberly Kon Nicole Mechem Tiffany Min Alexandria Price
    2. 2. Marginalized Populations <ul><li>Marginalized populations are, “perceived as deviating from the norm, or lacking desirable traits, and therefore are excluded or ostracized as outsiders.” </li></ul><ul><li>-(USAID, 2007) </li></ul><ul><li>Ranges from total exclusion to low quality inclusion </li></ul><ul><li>“ Umbrella” term </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Encompasses an extensive list of populations </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Static V. Dynamic <ul><li>Static </li></ul><ul><li>(inherent characteristic) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Girls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Youth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disabled </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethnic Minorities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dynamic </li></ul><ul><li>(situational) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Street Kids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Child Soldiers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Refugees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Migrant Workers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>*Multiple Marginality* </li></ul><ul><ul><li>i.e. female child soldiers, Aboriginal street kids </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Developed Developing Youth Girls Emergencies Disabled
    5. 5. YOUTH “ Education is the single most important factor contributing to young people’s chances of leading productive and responsible lives”
    6. 6. YOUTH Background <ul><li>15-24 years of age </li></ul><ul><li>Majority live in developing countries </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of group definition </li></ul><ul><li>Perceived as adults </li></ul><ul><li>Vulnerable population </li></ul><ul><li>Potential driving force behind development </li></ul>
    7. 7. YOUTH Challenges <ul><li>Addressing gender inequalities </li></ul><ul><li>Making education respond to realities of young peoples lives </li></ul><ul><li>Developing capacity of youth </li></ul><ul><li>Improving access to education </li></ul><ul><li>Expanding opportunities for youth </li></ul>
    8. 8. YOUTH Policy Options/Programs <ul><li>Recognition of youth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Group specific policies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acknowledge special needs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Focus on life skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Health </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Job skills </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Facilitate access </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distance education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-formal education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alternative school hours </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Focus on life-long learning </li></ul>
    9. 9. GIRLS
    10. 10. GIRLS Background <ul><li>Importance of girls’ education </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The most effective means of combating many of the most profound challenges to human development (UNICEF, 2004 ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High returns both to individuals and societies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Higher wages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Greater empowerment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Smaller, heathier and better educated families </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Faster economic growth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Current situations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender gaps in developing countries’ primary enrollment rates have narrowed over last two decades. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>However, 58 million girls are not in school </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>31 of the 196 countries in the world are at high risk of not achieving gender parity in primary enrollment rates by 2015 </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Gender Gaps in Primary Net Enrollment
    12. 12. GIRLS Challenges <ul><li>Costs of schooling </li></ul><ul><li>Social norms </li></ul><ul><li>Inadequate legal frameworks </li></ul><ul><li>Safety and security in and around school </li></ul><ul><li>Irrelevant curricula to their realities </li></ul>
    13. 13. GIRLS Policy Options/Programs <ul><li>Affordable direct and indirect costs of girls education </li></ul><ul><li>Physical arrangement of school </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity to educate non-formally </li></ul><ul><li>More female teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Gender-friendly pregnancy and marriage policies </li></ul>
    14. 14. DISABLED “ It appears highly likely that children with disabilities comprise one of the most socially excluded groups in all societies today.” - Colin Robson, The University of Huddersfield
    15. 15. DISABLED Background <ul><li>Disabilities Defined </li></ul><ul><li>98% of children with disabilities in developing countries do not attend school </li></ul><ul><li>In Africa alone, fewer than 10% of disabled children are in school </li></ul><ul><li>500,000 children every year lose some part of their vision due to vitamin A deficiency </li></ul><ul><li>41 million babies are born each year at risk of mental impairment due to insufficient iodine in their mothers’ diets. </li></ul>
    16. 16. DISABLED Challenges <ul><li>Lack of national investment and political will </li></ul><ul><li>Growing disabled population caused by conflict and other consequences of poverty </li></ul><ul><li>Too many standards for defining disabled individuals </li></ul>
    17. 17. DISABLED Policy Options/Programs <ul><li>Remove barriers to learning and participation in education </li></ul><ul><li>Promote a broad concept of education, including essential life skills and lifelong learning </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on the needs of individuals with disabilities when resources and activities address the realization of EFA goals. </li></ul><ul><li>Creation and Implementation of preventative measures to disability </li></ul>
    19. 19. <ul><li>Emergencies include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>conflict </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>natural disasters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>difficult circumstances </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Complex because education is both: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>an immediate humanitarian response to an emergency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a developmental response in reconstruction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Populations in and affected by emergencies can be the hardest to reach, but most in need of education </li></ul>EMERGENCIES and RECONSTRUCTION Background
    20. 20. <ul><li>Loss of personnel, resources, and communications during the emergency </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult to co-ordinate various types of participants and the numerous groups within each type </li></ul><ul><li>Separate funding and programs for short-term and long term </li></ul><ul><li>Unstable environment </li></ul>EMERGENCIES and RECONSTRUCTION Challenges
    21. 21. EMERGENCIES and RECONSTRUCTION Policy Options/Programs <ul><li>Build capacity of local government, NGOs, and communities </li></ul><ul><li>Create information sharing networks </li></ul><ul><li>Fund and develop programs that address both short-term and long-term needs </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare a contingency plan in case of emergency </li></ul>
    22. 22. General Policies/Programs to reach all Marginalized Populations <ul><li>ISSUE </li></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure/Curricula TOO GENERAL </li></ul><ul><li>Ignorance/lack of awareness and political will </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of funding and resources </li></ul><ul><li>Conflicting cultural roles/responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>POLICY/PROGRAM OPTION </li></ul><ul><li>Decentralization </li></ul><ul><li>Community Participation </li></ul><ul><li>EMIS, data collection </li></ul><ul><li>Informational/Social Mobilization Campaigns </li></ul><ul><li>Non-profits/NGOs </li></ul><ul><li>Private/Public Partnerships (PPPs) </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative/Non-formal Schooling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alternative hours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distance Education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vocational Education </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. Lessons Learned <ul><li>Theory ≠ Practice </li></ul><ul><li>Extensive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Range of specific needs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Contextual </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific issues call for targeted programming </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Middle-Child Syndrome” </li></ul><ul><li>Integrating Supplementary Services </li></ul><ul><li>Managing from the ‘Bottom-Up’ </li></ul>
    24. 24. Questions <ul><li>What other policy options/programs are available to address marginalized populations as a whole? </li></ul><ul><li>How can/should multiple marginality be addressed? </li></ul>