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Nutrition: Food, Nutrition and Health

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Nutrition: Food, Nutrition and Health

  1. 1. Chapter 1 Food, Nutrition, and Health Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide
  2. 2. Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide Chapter 1 Lesson 1.1
  3. 3. Key Concepts <ul><li>Optimal personal and community nutrition is a major component of health promotion. </li></ul><ul><li>Certain nutrients in food are essential to our health and well-being. </li></ul>Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide
  4. 4. Tell me why…..? <ul><li>How do these nutritional objectives relate to nursing care? </li></ul><ul><li>Why is it important for health care professionals to exemplify optimal nutrition both in regard to themselves and their clients? </li></ul><ul><li>Besides carbohydrates, fats and proteins, what other nutrients are essential for health? </li></ul><ul><li>How does nutrition relate to physical activity in terms of homeostasis? </li></ul>Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide
  5. 5. Nutrition and Dietetics <ul><li>Nutrition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Food people eat and how bodies use it </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nutritional science </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scientific knowledge on human’s food requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dietetics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Health profession for applying nutritional science </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(Cont'd…) </li></ul>Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide
  6. 6. Nutrition and Dietetics <ul><li>(…Cont’d) </li></ul><ul><li>Registered Dietitian (RD) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrition authority on the health care team </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also referred to as clinical nutrition specialist or public health nutritionist </li></ul></ul>Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide
  7. 7. More questions <ul><li>How do the terms nutritional science and dietetics differ? </li></ul><ul><li>Which governmental agencies study nutritional science and make public health recommendations? </li></ul><ul><li>Name some recent nutritional discoveries or topics in the news pertaining to nutrition </li></ul><ul><li>How have nutritional recommendations changed over time? </li></ul>Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide
  8. 8. …… ?..... <ul><li>Is the high-protein, low carbohydrate trend backed up by scientific knowledge? </li></ul><ul><li>How can a consumer make sense of dietary recommendations in the face of changing guidelines? </li></ul><ul><li>What type of education and training does a RD receive? </li></ul><ul><li>How do nurses and RDs work together in a hospital or clinical setting? </li></ul>Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide
  9. 9. …………………… ??????? <ul><li>What resources can an RD provide to assist with a nursing plan of care? </li></ul><ul><li>How do surgery, infection, and different developmental stages affect nutritional requirements? </li></ul>Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide
  10. 10. Health and Wellness <ul><li>Good nutrition is essential to good health </li></ul><ul><li>Health must include meeting basic human needs </li></ul><ul><li>Wellness seeks the full development of potential for all persons </li></ul>Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide
  11. 11. Do you know??? <ul><li>Why is nutrition a component of health and wellness? </li></ul><ul><li>What uses of food are there other to satisfy hunger? </li></ul><ul><li>How do nutritional requirements change during a person’s life? </li></ul><ul><li>If a person is malnourished, how does that affect his or her functioning? </li></ul>Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide
  12. 12. ????? <ul><li>How can a nurse incorporate nutritional science and education into a plan of care? </li></ul>Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide
  13. 13. Wellness Movement and National Health Goals <ul><li>Response to medical care system’s focus on illness and disease </li></ul><ul><li>Response to rising health costs </li></ul><ul><li>Focuses on lifestyle and personal choices </li></ul>Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide
  14. 14. Things to ponder… <ul><li>How does wellness approach differ from the traditional medical model of health care? </li></ul><ul><li>How can preventive care reduce health costs? </li></ul><ul><li>Give an example of a disease process directly related to nutritional status. </li></ul><ul><li>If disease is a result of various factors, how can lifestyle life style affect overall health and wellness? </li></ul>Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide
  15. 15. ???????????????? <ul><li>Name a life style choice that promotes nutritional health. </li></ul><ul><li>Name a life style choice that reduces nutritional health. </li></ul>Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide
  16. 16. Traditional and Preventive Approaches to Health <ul><li>Traditional </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attempts change only when illness or disease already exist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Little value for lifelong positive health </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Preventive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify risk factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows people to choose behaviors to minimize risk of disease </li></ul></ul>Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide
  17. 17. Risk factors <ul><li>What are risk factors for CVD? DM? Ca? </li></ul><ul><li>What support organizations promote nutritional wellness? </li></ul><ul><li>Compare and contrast the traditional and preventive models of health care. What contributed to the shift in focus? Why does involving personal choice and preference support a healthy lifestyle? </li></ul><ul><li>What benefits over time does optimal nutrition provide? </li></ul>Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide
  18. 18. Good Nutrition <ul><li>Well-developed body </li></ul><ul><li>Ideal weight for body composition </li></ul><ul><li>Good muscle development </li></ul><ul><li>Smooth skin, glossy hair, clear and bright eyes </li></ul><ul><li>Mental and physical alertness </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to resist disease </li></ul><ul><li>Increased life span </li></ul>Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide
  19. 19. What is Ideal? <ul><li>How is the ideal body weight calculated? </li></ul><ul><li>Why does poor nutrition impact the immune system? </li></ul><ul><li>How can you assess malnutrition in your client? </li></ul><ul><li>Why is nutrition essential during prenatal development? </li></ul>Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide
  20. 20. ??????????? <ul><li>Why is nutritional status related to disease prevention and recovery from surgery or other trauma? </li></ul><ul><li>How do exercise and food relate to good nutrition? </li></ul>Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide
  21. 21. Nutrients in Food <ul><li>Provide energy </li></ul><ul><li>Build tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Regulate metabolic processes </li></ul><ul><li>Individual nutrients have many special metabolic functions </li></ul><ul><li>No nutrient ever works alone </li></ul>Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide
  22. 22. ?????????????? <ul><li>What are the primary nutrients? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the body’s main source of food and how is it stored? </li></ul><ul><li>What is metabolism? </li></ul><ul><li>How does metabolism affect the body weight? </li></ul><ul><li>Provide and example of nutrients that work with each other? </li></ul>Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide
  23. 23. ??????????????????? <ul><li>What are examples of diseases that result from a mineral or other nutrient dificiency? </li></ul>Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide
  24. 24. Energy Sources <ul><li>Carbohydrates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary source of fuel for heat and energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain body’s back-up store of quick energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Should provide 45%-65% of total kilocalories </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(Cont'd…) </li></ul>Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide
  25. 25. ???????????? <ul><li>What are recommended sources of complex carbohydrates? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the pathophysiology of diabetes and how does it relate to carbohydrates? </li></ul><ul><li>What type of carbohydrates should be limited in the diet? </li></ul>Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide
  26. 26. Energy Sources <ul><li>(…Cont’d) </li></ul><ul><li>Fats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Animal and plant sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary (storage) form of heat and energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Should provide no more than 20%-35% of total kilocalories </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(Cont'd…) </li></ul>Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide
  27. 27. ????????? <ul><li>List plant and animal sources of fats </li></ul><ul><li>What is cholesterol? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the risks associated with a high fat diet? </li></ul><ul><li>Where is fat stored in the body? </li></ul>Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide
  28. 28. Energy Sources <ul><li>(…Cont’d) </li></ul><ul><li>Proteins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Source of energy when supply from carbohydrates and fats is insufficient </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary function is tissue building </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Should provide 10%-35% of total kilocalories </li></ul></ul>Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide
  29. 29. ??????????????? <ul><li>What are proteins composed of? </li></ul><ul><li>What are examples of foods high in proteins? </li></ul><ul><li>How do vegetarians get enough protein? </li></ul>Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide
  30. 30. Tissue Building <ul><li>Proteins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide amino acids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Necessary for building and repairing tissues </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Vitamins and minerals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vitamin C for tissue building </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calcium and phosphorus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Building and maintaining bone </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>(Cont'd…) </li></ul>Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide
  31. 31. ????????????? <ul><li>List foods high in vitamin C, calcium, phosphorous and iron? </li></ul>Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide
  32. 32. Tissue Building <ul><li>(…Cont’d) </li></ul><ul><li>Iron </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Builds hemoglobin in the blood </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fatty acids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Build central fat substance of cell walls </li></ul></ul>Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide
  33. 33. ??????????????? <ul><li>What are conditions related to too little iron? Too much iron? </li></ul><ul><li>How does calcium relate to osteoporosis? </li></ul><ul><li>Why is fat important to brain development? </li></ul>Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide
  34. 34. Regulation and Control <ul><li>Vitamins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Function as coenzyme factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Components of cell enzymes in governing chemical reaction during cell metabolism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Minerals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also serve as coenzyme factors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(Cont'd…) </li></ul>Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide
  35. 35. ??????? <ul><li>What are food sources for vitamins and minerals? </li></ul><ul><li>Why are supplements prescribed during pregnancy? </li></ul>Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide
  36. 36. Regulation and Control <ul><li>(…Cont’d) </li></ul><ul><li>Other nutrients </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Essential base for all metabolic processes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fiber </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Regulates passage of food material through GI tract </li></ul></ul></ul>Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide
  37. 37. ???????????? <ul><li>Why is water essential for life? </li></ul><ul><li>What foods are high in fiber? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the relationship between colon cancer and low-fiber diet? </li></ul>Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide
  38. 38. Types of Nutrition <ul><li>Optimal nutrition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Obtained from a varied diet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Desired amounts should be balanced </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Undernutrition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less than desired amounts of nutrients </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limits work capacity, immune system, mental activity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(Cont'd…) </li></ul>Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide
  39. 39. ???????????? <ul><li>How can heath professionals promote variety and moderation? </li></ul><ul><li>What are risk factors for under nutrition? </li></ul><ul><li>What federal programs address under nutrition? </li></ul>Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide
  40. 40. Types of Nutrition <ul><li>(…Cont’d) </li></ul><ul><li>Malnutrition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reserves depleted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrient and energy intake insufficient </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Overnutrition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Excess nutrient and energy intake over time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Produces harmful gross body weight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excessive amounts of nutrient supplements over time </li></ul></ul>Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide
  41. 41. Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide Chapter 1 Lesson 1.2
  42. 42. Key Concepts <ul><li>Food and nutrient guides help us to plan a balanced diet according to individual needs and goals. </li></ul>Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide
  43. 43. Dietary Reference Intakes <ul><li>Published by the National Academy of Sciences </li></ul><ul><li>Updated every 5-10 years </li></ul><ul><li>Includes recommendations for each gender and age group </li></ul><ul><li>(Cont'd…) </li></ul>Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide
  44. 44. Dietary Reference Intakes <ul><li>(…Cont’d) </li></ul><ul><li>Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Daily intake of nutrients that meet needs of almost all healthy individuals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intake level that meets needs of half the individuals in a specific group </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(Cont'd…) </li></ul>Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide
  45. 45. Dietary Reference Intakes <ul><li>(…Cont’d) </li></ul><ul><li>Adequate intake (AI) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used when not enough evidence to establish the RDA </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tolerable upper intake level (UL) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sets maximum intake unlikely to pose adverse health risks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(Cont'd…) </li></ul>Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide
  46. 46. Dietary Reference Intakes <ul><li>(…Cont’d) </li></ul>Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide
  47. 47. Food Guide Pyramid <ul><li>Simple practical education tool </li></ul><ul><li>Basis for general meal planning and food-intake pattern </li></ul><ul><li>Promotes carbohydrates while limiting fat intake </li></ul><ul><li>Daily food-group choices may be spread over three or more meals </li></ul><ul><li>(Cont'd…) </li></ul>Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide
  48. 48. Food Guide Pyramid <ul><li>(…Cont’d) </li></ul>Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide
  49. 49. Dietary Guidelines for Americans <ul><li>Issued every five years </li></ul><ul><li>Aim for fitness </li></ul><ul><li>Build a healthy base </li></ul><ul><li>Choose sensibly </li></ul>Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide
  50. 50. Principles of Nutrition Therapy <ul><li>Weight management </li></ul><ul><li>Sodium control </li></ul><ul><li>Proper diet of minerals </li></ul><ul><li>DASH diet </li></ul><ul><li>Additional lifestyle factors </li></ul>Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide
  51. 51. Dietary Guidelines for Americans Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide
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