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There is no unified approach in European regulation of how to calculate primary energy when assessing energy performance of buildings. Instead, member states can decide on their own method of …

There is no unified approach in European regulation of how to calculate primary energy when assessing energy performance of buildings. Instead, member states can decide on their own method of calculation of primary energy. As the share of renewables will progress towards 2050, the primary energy factors for electricity in Europe will also be subject to changes over time.

Related to the energy performance of buildings, the question is in what way different (due to national electricity mix or methodology) and changing (due to increased share of renewable electricity) primary energy factors for electricity influence decisions on a political level and on a level of individual building designs, especially with regard to space heating options (gas vs. electricity). From a point of view of making the electricity supply more flexible, it could be desirable to increase the share of electricity for heating. The objective of this work was to assess to what extent this is stimulated (or hampered) by changing primary energy factors in building regulation of a number of countries.

Introductory comments on primary energy factors and the EPBD
Primary energy factors of seven countries in the EU: • France • Germany • The Netherlands • Poland • Spain • Sweden • UK
Primary energy factors estimated evolution at 2020 and 2050 horizons, using the same calculation methods for all countries, based on the energy sources that can be expected to be in the national mix of these countries in 2020 and 2050, according to different scenario’s.
Implications of changing primary energy factors for technologies used in the building sector and recommendations on how to deal with primary energy factors in the EPBD in the short term and the longer term.

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  • 1. Primary energy factors for electricity in buildings Edith Molenbroek, Eva Stricker, Thomas Boermans September 22 nd , 2011
  • 2. Introduction - 1
    • In assessing energy performance of buildings according to European regulations:
    • No unified approach in determination PEFs (different calculation methodologies, different electricity mixes)
    • Evolving share of renewable energy
    • => changing PEFs influence gas vs. electricity in heating
    • => increased need for flexibility in electricity supply
    • Goal: assess effect of changing PEFs on building practices in European countries
  • 3. Introduction - 1
    • EPBD and Primary Energy Factors
    • National PEFs for electricity
    • Developments electricity mix until 2050
    • Implications for technologies in building sector
    • Conclusions and recommendations
  • 4. 1. EPBD and Primary Energy Factors
    • EPBD Art 3: ‘ Primary energy factors used for the determination of the primary energy use may be based on national or regional yearly average values and may take into account relevant European standards’
    • EPBD Annex I: ‘The energy performance of a building shall be expressed in a transparent manner and shall include an energy performance indicator and a numeric indicator of primary energy use, based on primary energy factors per energy carrier , which may be based on national or regional annual weighted averages or a specific value for on-site production. The methodology for calculating the energy performance of buildings should take into account European standards and shall be consistent with relevant Union legislation, including Directive 2009/28/EC’
  • 5. 1. EPBD and Primary Energy Factors
    • CEN standard EN 15603 ’Energy performance of buildings. Overall energy use and definition of energy ratings’
    • Non-renewable primary energy factor (RE=0)
    • Total primary energy factor (RE= 1)
  • 6. 1. EPBD and Primary Energy Factors Conversion Conversion losses
  • 7. 1. EPBD and Primary Energy Factors Conversion Conversion losses Generation Upstream losses Conversion Conversion losses Distribution Downstream losses
  • 8. 1. EPBD and Primary Energy Factors
      • PEFs including losses:
      • ‘ Informative’ PEFs in Annex E of CEN 15606:2008
      • (Gas: 1.36)
  • 9. 1. EPBD and Primary Energy Factors
      • Up to each country to decide
      • RE = 0 or 1
      • Factor nuclear
      • Upstream / downstream losses taken into account? How?
  • 10. 1. EPBD and Primary Energy Factors
    • Per energy carrier, exported energy can be subtracted from energy demand
    • PEFs for export and demand need not be the same
  • 11. 1. EPBD and Primary Energy Factors 3000 kWh X 2.6 PEF Net demand: 3000 kWh
  • 12. 1. EPBD and Primary Energy Factors 2000 kWh X 2.6 PEF 1000 kWh X 2.6 PEF Net demand: 2000 kWh
  • 13. 1. EPBD and Primary Energy Factors 0 kWh X 2.6 PEF 3000 kWh X 2.6 PEF 1000 kWh X 2.0 PEF Net demand: 0 kWh Net export: 1000 kWh
  • 14. 1. EPBD and Primary Energy Factors 2000 kWh X 2.6 PEF 1000 kWh X 2.6 PEF Net demand: 2000 kWh
  • 15. 2. National Primary Energy Factors (PEFs)
    • Method:
    • Contact persons per country
    • Retreiving relevant documents
    • Information not documented
    • Countries: ES, FR, PL, DE, NL, UK, SE
  • 16. 2. National Primary Energy Factors (PEFs) 2.92 2 2.6 3 2.56 2.6 2.58 PEF UK Sweden Spain Poland NL Ger-many France
  • 17. 2. National Primary Energy Factors (PEFs) 4.7% 50.2% 22.3% 2.7% 4.2% 10.3% 12.8% %RE 2.92 2 2.6 3 2.56 2.6 2.58 PEF UK Sweden Spain Poland NL Ger-many France
  • 18. 2. National Primary Energy Factors (PEFs) Nuclear: 2.8, av.  thermal , no upstream and downstream losses 2.43 1.60 1.78 3.23 2.30 2.54 2.63 PEF (RE=0) 2.48 2.14 2.01 3.26 2.35 2.65 2.77 PEF (RE=1) 2.92 2 2.6 3 2.56 2.6 2.58 PEF 4.7% 50.2% 22.3% 2.7% 4.2% 10.3% 12.8% %RE UK Sweden Spain Poland NL Ger-many France
  • 19. 2. National Primary Energy Factors (PEFs) 2.43 1.60 1.78 3.23 2.30 2.54 2.63 PEF (RE=0) 2.48 2.14 2.01 3.26 2.35 2.65 2.77 PEF (RE=1) 2.92 2 2.6 3 2.56 2.6 2.58 PEF 4.7% 50.2% 22.3% 2.7% 4.2% 10.3% 12.8% %RE UK Sweden Spain Poland NL Ger-many France
  • 20. 2. National Primary Energy Factors (PEFs)
    • PEFs generation technologies Spain:
    • Nuclear 3,03
    • PV, wind, hydro 1
    • CSP 4,56
    • Does not add up to 2,6
  • 21. 2. National Primary Energy Factors (PEFs) 2.43 1.60 1.78 3.23 2.30 2.54 2.63 PEF (RE=0) 2.48 2.14 2.01 3.26 2.35 2.65 2.77 PEF (RE=1) 2.92 2 2.6 3 2.56 2.6 2.58 PEF 4.7% 50.2% 22.3% 2.7% 4.2% 10.3% 12.8% %RE UK Sweden Spain Poland NL Ger-many France
  • 22. 2. National Primary Energy Factors (PEFs) 2.43 1.60 1.78 3.23 2.30 2.54 2.63 PEF (RE=0) 2.48 2.14 2.01 3.26 2.35 2.65 2.77 PEF (RE=1) 2.92 2 2.6 3 2.56 2.6 2.58 PEF 4.7% 50.2% 22.3% 2.7% 4.2% 10.3% 12.8% %RE UK Sweden Spain Poland NL Ger-many France
  • 23. 2. National Primary Energy Factors (PEFs)
    • Delivered electricity:
    • All countries: factor for RE and nuclear unclear
    • NL, FR, SE: political arguments rather than algorithm only
    • Produced electricity (≤ electricity demand):
    • Can subtract RE with same PEF as delivered electricity
    • Exported electricity:
    • 0 or lower PEF (NL)
  • 24. 3. Developments electricity mix until 2050
    • Three scenario’s:
    • 2020: National Renewable Energy Action Plans
    • 2050: EREC/Greenpeace energy [r]evolution scenarios 2010 => corridor of possibilities:
    • A relatively conservative reference scenario based on the International Energy Agency’s World Energy Outlook 2009
    • The energy [r]evolution scenario with the aim of drastically reducing the world’s CO 2 emissions and thus exploiting renewables to a very high level
  • 25. 3. Developments electricity mix until 2050
  • 26. 3. Developments electricity mix until 2050
  • 27. 3. Developments electricity mix until 2050
  • 28. 3. Developments electricity mix until 2050
  • 29. 3. Developments electricity mix until 2050
  • 30. 3. Developments electricity mix until 2050 – RE= 1
  • 31. 3. Developments electricity mix until 2050 – RE= 0
  • 32. 4. Implications for technologies in building sector
  • 33. 4. Implications for technologies in building sector
    • Relevant observations national PEFs delivered electricity:
    • Most PEFs hover around 2,6
    • Sweden: 2
    • Spain: very conservative PEF
    • Poland: optimistic PEF
    • Most countries take RE>0
    • 2020: Gradual change in PEFs to ~ 2
  • 34. 4. Implications for technologies in building sector
    • Relevant observations produced electricity:
    • countries investigated have chosen not to differentiate in the PEF for delivered and produced electricity
    • Electric heating (heat pump) allows more RE to have effect on calculated energy performance
  • 35. 4. Implications for technologies in building sector
    • PEF delivered electricity:
    • Lower PEF => stimulus for fuel shift fossil => electric in heating
    • Lower PEF => lower drive for efficient equipment (ventilation, lighting, air conditioning)
    • If Spain would start using lower PEF, likely to have implications for electric vs. fuel based heating
  • 36. 4. Implications for technologies in building sector
    • PEF produced electricity:
    • If coupling between PEF delivered and PEF produced retained: Lower PEF => less incentive for RE
  • 37. 4. Implications for technologies in building sector
    • Flexible electricity mix – demand side measures:
    • Heat pumps (in winter)
    • Air conditioning + ice storage (in summer)
    • Electric heating in passive homes
    • Cooling applications in services sector
    • Micro and mini-CHP (+ heat storage)
    • Electric and plug-in hybrid cars
  • 38. 4. Implications for technologies in building sector
    • Outlooks PEFs
  • 39. 4. Implications for technologies in building sector
    • Outlooks PEFs
    • Lower PEFs can favour electrification
    • Lower PEFs should not lead to lower stimulus for efficiency
    • Lower PEFs can imply lower stimulus for local RE
    • Zero Energy Buildings:
    • Separate calculation of demand and supply => first demand minimised, then decisions on supply (locally produced / grid)
    • Taking into account appliances in calculation => more reward RE
  • 40. 5. Recommendations
    • 1.
    • For countries that use PEFs that deviate substantially from those calculated based on their national electricity mix, more work should be done to find out the details of the decision-making process behind the PEFs previously used and those to be used in the future (Spain, Sweden).
  • 41. 5. Recommendations
    • 2.
    • PEFs are used as a political factor, with sometimes unclear calculation methods. As a minimum, the calculation method to produce a PEF should be documented, especially for renewable electricity systems.
  • 42. 5. Recommendations
    • 3.
    • Considering the rapid evolution of the electricity system, PEFs need regular revision, e.g. every 3 to 5 years.
  • 43. 5. Recommendations
    • 4.
    • Calculation methods for zero energy buildings can provide new ways of calculating energy performance for buildings that do not have negative effects of lower PEFs.
  • 44. 5. Recommendations
    • 5.
    • In move toward zero energy buildings, there is a case for taking appliances into account in the electricity demand. => greater reward for renewable electricity on-site
  • 45. Acknowledgements
    • Thanks to
    • Ronald Voskens Eco-Creations (ES)
    • Marynka Szweykowska-Muradin and Henryk Gaj (PO) Primum Polska
    • Wolfram Trinius Büro Trinius (SE)
    • Jean Robert Millet CSTB (FR)

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