Continental army

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  • 1. The American Revolution
  • 2. SWBAT:
    • Describe the characteristics of the British and American Forces at the start of the Revolution.
  • 3. The colonies were generally unprepared for war The American Revolution Unformed nation 1/3 population of Britain Inferior economic and military resources Enemy: world’s greatest armed power Americans deeply divided
  • 4. Strategy of war
    • The Colonies
      • Keep the Colonial Army together
      • Washington seeks to stretch the British army away from supply lines
      • Harass the enemy, defeat the British in a major battle
      • Get allies to help win!
    • Great Britain
      • Seeks to destroy the Colonial Army
      • Regain control of the colonies by region
      • Take the fight to the Colonial Army using European war tactics
      • Use loyalists support against the colonies
  • 5. The Revolutionary War: 1775–1783 Events
    • 1775 Battle of Lexington and Concord Second Continental Congress convenes
    • 1776 Jefferson writes Declaration of Independence
    • 1777 Battle of Saratoga
    • 1778 France and United States form Franco-American Alliance
    • 1779 Spain enters war against Britain
    • 1781 British forces under Cornwallis surrender to Washington at Yorktown
    • 1783 Peace of Paris signed to end war
  • 6. Battle of Yorktown
    • The French are helping the Continental Army with men, weapons and warships
    • The Americans and the French will corner the British on a small peninsula and bombard them with cannon fire.
    • The British will surrender and end the American Revolution.
    • The colonists will win the American Revolution with this victory.
  • 7. The Battle of Saratoga, August- October 1777
    • The British are harassed by colonial guerilla forces and end up stretching their supply lines.
    • Saratoga is important because it is a major defeat for the British and shows the French that the colonies may be able to win the war
  • 8. The Treaty of Paris
    • THE WAR ENDS WITH THESE CONDITIONS
    • “ free, sovereign and independent states”
    • British must remove all troops from forts
    • Boundary for United States is the Mississippi
    • Loyalist would have rights and property protected
    • captured slaves must be returned to owners
  • 9. How was the Continental Army able to win the war for Independence against Great Britain?
    • British Strengths
    • When war erupted in 1775, it seemed clear that Britain would win. It had a large, well-organized land army, and the Royal Navy was unmatched on the sea.
  • 10. How was the Continental Army able to win the war for Independence against Great Britain?
    • Patriotism
    • The Battle was fought on home soil
    • controlled the countryside
    • limited the number of major battles
    • the strength of our allies
    • George Washington leadership.
  • 11. George Washington
    • On June 15, 1775, the delegates to the Continental Congress, meeting in Philadelphia, unanimously elected George Washington "to command all the continental forces, raised, or to be raised for the defense of American liberty.“
    • TEST* TEST *TEST
  • 12. Why was George Washington elected?
    • Military experience
    • 6 ft tall, commanding presence
    • Trustworthy and honorable
    • Fearless, determined and competent leader
    • Wealthy
    • Southerner (he could unite the colonies)
  • 13. Washington was an inspirational leader
    • Declaration of Independence ( see pg 90 in your textbook)
    • The Crisis (pg 92)
  • 14. How was the Continental Army able to defeat the British?
    • Suppose you were an American soldier in the American Revolution. You are asked to write a short essay about the person who most inspired the continental army to win the war. You have chosen George Washington.
    • The title of your essay is “How General Washington inspired the Continental Army”
  • 15. Directions
    • The first paragraph describes the characteristics of General Washington that prepared him for his role as commander of the Continental Army.
    • The second paragraph supports your choice by citing two events at which Washington provided inspiration.
    • The third paragraph describes how these actions or events led to an American victory.
  • 16. The Battle of Bunker Hill Casualties: Colonials British 311 1000 Deadliest battle of American Revolution. The American Revolution
  • 17. The American Revolution Canadian operations Arnold Montgomery Convinced British not a local MA affair
  • 18. “ These are times that try men’s souls.” Thomas Paine The Howes: General William and Admiral Richard (top) The American Revolution
  • 19. Battle of Long Island—March 1776-August 1776. British: 32,000 regulars Hessian mercenaries The American Revolution
  • 20. Continental Army: 19,000 untrained recruits/poor equipment British victory: heavy continental losses Washington retreats across Delaware River into PA. The American Revolution
  • 21. Christmas night, 1776 Washington leads the Continental Army across the Delaware River into New Jersey. Key victory: Battle of Trenton— --surprise attack, defeated Hessians with minimal ammunition. The American Revolution
  • 22. January 1777, American victory Battle of Princeton Spring 1777, General Howe wins Battle of Brandywine Creek then takes Philadelphia. Also wins later Battle at Germantown in Maryland . The American Revolution
  • 23. Spring 1777—British plan: Burgoyne moves south from Canada to link with Howe in Albany, NY. The American Revolution
  • 24. Continentals harassed British in wooded areas; many British casualties. Finally surrounded and defeated by Benedict Arnold and Horatio Gates at Saratoga. The American Revolution
  • 25. The American Revolution Battle of Saratoga Burgoyne surrenders to Gates
  • 26. Results of Battle of Saratoga British remained along seacoast for remainder of war. British confidence dropped— did not previously believe colonials could defeat them in battle. Led to alliance with France (1778) and French commitment to send troops as well as weapons and ammunition. The American Revolution
  • 27. Winter 1778-- Howe still controlled Philadelphia Continental Army—deadly winter at Valley Forge, PA Little funds for supplies or to pay troops. Congress sold bonds to American investors & foreign governments Congress printed American money leading to inflation. The American Revolution
  • 28. Europeans aided Americans Baron Friedrich von Steuben from Prussia Drillmaster —made “ soldiers out of country bumpkins.” Marquis de Lafayette— 20 year old French aristocrat The American Revolution
  • 29. The War in the South The American Revolution
  • 30. The War in the South The American Revolution British government imposed new limits on its commitment to the war after Saratoga Decided to enlist the support of loyalists in order to undermine the Revolution from within
  • 31. The War in the South End 1778: Lord Cornwallis takes Savannah May 1780— Cornwallis and Henry Clinton take Charles Town, SC— 5,500 American POW. The American Revolution
  • 32. The War in the South January 1781 Battle of Cowpens The Patriot Guilford Court House Costly British win— Lost 25% of force. The American Revolution
  • 33. The War in the South Continental Army, one French army and 2 French fleets surround Cornwallis. One month siege. Cornwallis surrendered 17 Oct 1781 The American Revolution Battle of Yorktown
  • 34. Treaty of Paris September 1783 U.S., GB, France and Spain U.S. negotiators: John Adams, Benjamin Franklin & John Jay Great Britain, France & Spain recognized U. S. independence Nation’s borders confirmed The American Revolution
  • 35. The American Revolution
  • 36. The American Revolution Loyalists after the Revolution Hounded by Patriots Harassed by judicial & legislative actions 100,000 fled to England and to Canada: created the first English- speaking community in Quebec
  • 37. The American Revolution Social Change after the Revolution Anglican Church disestablished and government subsidies eliminated
  • 38. The American Revolution Social Change after the Revolution Quakers in Pennsylvania were weakened
  • 39. The American Revolution Social Change after the Revolution Position of Catholics improved (Charles Carroll)
  • 40. The American Revolution Social Change after the Revolution African Americans Some: freedom, most no change Revolution exposed the continuing tension between the nation’s commitment to liberty and its commitment to slavery
  • 41. The American Revolution Social Change after the Revolution Native Americans Most tribes ultimately chose to stay out of the war Revolution greatly weakened the position of Native Americans in several ways
  • 42. The American Revolution Social Change after the Revolution Women Left in charge of families Some food riots and attacks on British troops Camp followers Molly Pitcher Women of significant value to army
  • 43. The American Revolution Social Change after the Revolution Women Unmarried: some legal rights Married: no rights at all No property No contracts No legal authority over her children No voting Revolution did little to change
  • 44. The American Revolution Concept of republicanism Power came from people Ideal of small freeholder Concept of equality No aristocracy No equality of condition, but equality of opportunity Excluded women, blacks, Native Amer.
  • 45. The American Revolution Two phases of state constitutions All written Phase 1 Fear of bloated executive power Powerful legislatures Property requirements for voters in all states
  • 46. The American Revolution Two phases of state constitutions Phase 2 Significant strengthening of executive Directly elected Fixed salary Expanded appointment powers Veto power More balance in government
  • 47. During the Revolutionary War, the first American national government formed under a document known as The Articles of Confederation Created 1777; formally approved or: ratified by all 13 states in 1781 The American Revolution
  • 48. The Articles of Confederation A loose confederation of independent states Basis: Fear that a strong central government would threaten power of states and individual freedoms Limited power of national government National government actually impotent Oh, Noooooooo The American Revolution
  • 49. The Articles of Confederation Unicameral legislature (Congress) Each state delegation had 1 vote State delegations chosen by the state legislature of each state Majority vote on regular issues Nine “Aye” votes for major decisions such as war Unanimous approval for amendments The American Revolution
  • 50. The Articles of Confederation No executive No judiciary Only Congress:
    • Declare war
    • Conduct foreign policy
    • Borrow Money
    • Establish military forces
    • Settle arguments between states
    The American Revolution
  • 51. Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation
    • No president or executive to enforce
    • laws
    • No national court system
    • No power to tax
    • No power to regulate trade
    • No power to establish a national armed
    • forces—each state raised its own
    • troops)
    • Major laws required 9/13 votes in Cong.
    The American Revolution
  • 52. Problems stemming from the weaknesses in the Articles Difficulty in achieving unity Different states—different religious and cultural traditions Economic differences Slavery issue Poor inter-state transportation systems The American Revolution
  • 53. Some states Problems stemming from the weaknesses in the Articles Refused to pay taxes to the national government, obey laws passed by Congress, respect terms of foreign treaties Negotiated individual treaties with foreign governments Formed their own armed forces Charged tariffs on goods from other states The American Revolution
  • 54. Key events under the Articles of Confederation Victory in the American Revolution. . . but problems keeping the Continental Army equipped and fed The Treaty of Paris—ending the War for Independence and extended U. S. territory to the Mississippi River The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 Procedures for admitting new states, equal to the original 13 Banned slavery in Northwest Territory Bill of rights for territories The American Revolution
  • 55. The American Revolution Ordinance of 1784 120,000 people west of the Appalachian divide 10 self-governing districts Petition Congress for statehood when population equal to number of free inhabitants of smallest existing state
  • 56. Northwest Ordinance The American Revolution
  • 57. Northwest Ordinance The American Revolution Created single Northwest Territory out of lands north of the Ohio River Territory might be subsequently divided into three to five territories Population of 60,000 as a minimum for statehood Guaranteed freedom of religion, right to trial by jury and prohibited slavery
  • 58. Early Battles With Native Americans Native Americans continued to claim tribal lands in northwest. Miami people key victories over U. S. Army 1790-1791 The American Revolution
  • 59. Mad Anthony Wayne The Battle of Fallen Timbers The American Revolution
  • 60. Early Battles With Native Americans August 20, 1794 Battle of Fallen Timbers Treaty of Greenville Miamis gave up most land in Ohio for $10,000 a year. The American Revolution
  • 61. Key Event: Shay’s Rebellion (1786) Prevent the state of Massachusetts from seizing property of debtors Many in the U.S. saw this incident as clear evidence of the weaknesses of the Articles Led to the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia The American Revolution