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Describe the characteristics of the British and American Forces at the start of the Revolution.
The colonies were generally unprepared for war The American Revolution Unformed nation 1/3 population of Britain Inferior economic and military resources Enemy: world’s greatest armed power Americans deeply divided
On June 15, 1775, the delegates to the Continental Congress, meeting in Philadelphia, unanimously elected George Washington "to command all the continental forces, raised, or to be raised for the defense of American liberty.“
Declaration of Independence ( see pg 90 in your textbook)
The Crisis (pg 92)
How was the Continental Army able to defeat the British?
Suppose you were an American soldier in the American Revolution. You are asked to write a short essay about the person who most inspired the continental army to win the war. You have chosen George Washington.
The title of your essay is “How General Washington inspired the Continental Army”
The first paragraph describes the characteristics of General Washington that prepared him for his role as commander of the Continental Army.
The second paragraph supports your choice by citing two events at which Washington provided inspiration.
The third paragraph describes how these actions or events led to an American victory.
The Battle of Bunker Hill Casualties: Colonials British 311 1000 Deadliest battle of American Revolution. The American Revolution
The American Revolution Canadian operations Arnold Montgomery Convinced British not a local MA affair
“ These are times that try men’s souls.” Thomas Paine The Howes: General William and Admiral Richard (top) The American Revolution
Battle of Long Island—March 1776-August 1776. British: 32,000 regulars Hessian mercenaries The American Revolution
Continental Army: 19,000 untrained recruits/poor equipment British victory: heavy continental losses Washington retreats across Delaware River into PA. The American Revolution
Christmas night, 1776 Washington leads the Continental Army across the Delaware River into New Jersey. Key victory: Battle of Trenton— --surprise attack, defeated Hessians with minimal ammunition. The American Revolution
January 1777, American victory Battle of Princeton Spring 1777, General Howe wins Battle of Brandywine Creek then takes Philadelphia. Also wins later Battle at Germantown in Maryland . The American Revolution
Spring 1777—British plan: Burgoyne moves south from Canada to link with Howe in Albany, NY. The American Revolution
Continentals harassed British in wooded areas; many British casualties. Finally surrounded and defeated by Benedict Arnold and Horatio Gates at Saratoga. The American Revolution
The American Revolution Battle of Saratoga Burgoyne surrenders to Gates
Results of Battle of Saratoga British remained along seacoast for remainder of war. British confidence dropped— did not previously believe colonials could defeat them in battle. Led to alliance with France (1778) and French commitment to send troops as well as weapons and ammunition. The American Revolution
Winter 1778-- Howe still controlled Philadelphia Continental Army—deadly winter at Valley Forge, PA Little funds for supplies or to pay troops. Congress sold bonds to American investors & foreign governments Congress printed American money leading to inflation. The American Revolution
Europeans aided Americans Baron Friedrich von Steuben from Prussia Drillmaster —made “ soldiers out of country bumpkins.” Marquis de Lafayette— 20 year old French aristocrat The American Revolution
The War in the South The American Revolution British government imposed new limits on its commitment to the war after Saratoga Decided to enlist the support of loyalists in order to undermine the Revolution from within
The War in the South End 1778: Lord Cornwallis takes Savannah May 1780— Cornwallis and Henry Clinton take Charles Town, SC— 5,500 American POW. The American Revolution
The War in the South January 1781 Battle of Cowpens The Patriot Guilford Court House Costly British win— Lost 25% of force. The American Revolution
The War in the South Continental Army, one French army and 2 French fleets surround Cornwallis. One month siege. Cornwallis surrendered 17 Oct 1781 The American Revolution Battle of Yorktown
Treaty of Paris September 1783 U.S., GB, France and Spain U.S. negotiators: John Adams, Benjamin Franklin & John Jay Great Britain, France & Spain recognized U. S. independence Nation’s borders confirmed The American Revolution
The American Revolution Loyalists after the Revolution Hounded by Patriots Harassed by judicial & legislative actions 100,000 fled to England and to Canada: created the first English- speaking community in Quebec
The American Revolution Social Change after the Revolution Anglican Church disestablished and government subsidies eliminated
The American Revolution Social Change after the Revolution Quakers in Pennsylvania were weakened
The American Revolution Social Change after the Revolution Position of Catholics improved (Charles Carroll)
The American Revolution Social Change after the Revolution African Americans Some: freedom, most no change Revolution exposed the continuing tension between the nation’s commitment to liberty and its commitment to slavery
The American Revolution Social Change after the Revolution Native Americans Most tribes ultimately chose to stay out of the war Revolution greatly weakened the position of Native Americans in several ways
The American Revolution Social Change after the Revolution Women Left in charge of families Some food riots and attacks on British troops Camp followers Molly Pitcher Women of significant value to army
The American Revolution Social Change after the Revolution Women Unmarried: some legal rights Married: no rights at all No property No contracts No legal authority over her children No voting Revolution did little to change
The American Revolution Concept of republicanism Power came from people Ideal of small freeholder Concept of equality No aristocracy No equality of condition, but equality of opportunity Excluded women, blacks, Native Amer.
The American Revolution Two phases of state constitutions All written Phase 1 Fear of bloated executive power Powerful legislatures Property requirements for voters in all states
The American Revolution Two phases of state constitutions Phase 2 Significant strengthening of executive Directly elected Fixed salary Expanded appointment powers Veto power More balance in government
During the Revolutionary War, the first American national government formed under a document known as The Articles of Confederation Created 1777; formally approved or: ratified by all 13 states in 1781 The American Revolution
The Articles of Confederation A loose confederation of independent states Basis: Fear that a strong central government would threaten power of states and individual freedoms Limited power of national government National government actually impotent Oh, Noooooooo The American Revolution
The Articles of Confederation Unicameral legislature (Congress) Each state delegation had 1 vote State delegations chosen by the state legislature of each state Majority vote on regular issues Nine “Aye” votes for major decisions such as war Unanimous approval for amendments The American Revolution
The Articles of Confederation No executive No judiciary Only Congress:
Problems stemming from the weaknesses in the Articles Difficulty in achieving unity Different states—different religious and cultural traditions Economic differences Slavery issue Poor inter-state transportation systems The American Revolution
Some states Problems stemming from the weaknesses in the Articles Refused to pay taxes to the national government, obey laws passed by Congress, respect terms of foreign treaties Negotiated individual treaties with foreign governments Formed their own armed forces Charged tariffs on goods from other states The American Revolution
Key events under the Articles of Confederation Victory in the American Revolution. . . but problems keeping the Continental Army equipped and fed The Treaty of Paris—ending the War for Independence and extended U. S. territory to the Mississippi River The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 Procedures for admitting new states, equal to the original 13 Banned slavery in Northwest Territory Bill of rights for territories The American Revolution
The American Revolution Ordinance of 1784 120,000 people west of the Appalachian divide 10 self-governing districts Petition Congress for statehood when population equal to number of free inhabitants of smallest existing state
Northwest Ordinance The American Revolution Created single Northwest Territory out of lands north of the Ohio River Territory might be subsequently divided into three to five territories Population of 60,000 as a minimum for statehood Guaranteed freedom of religion, right to trial by jury and prohibited slavery
Early Battles With Native Americans Native Americans continued to claim tribal lands in northwest. Miami people key victories over U. S. Army 1790-1791 The American Revolution
Mad Anthony Wayne The Battle of Fallen Timbers The American Revolution
Early Battles With Native Americans August 20, 1794 Battle of Fallen Timbers Treaty of Greenville Miamis gave up most land in Ohio for $10,000 a year. The American Revolution
Key Event: Shay’s Rebellion (1786) Prevent the state of Massachusetts from seizing property of debtors Many in the U.S. saw this incident as clear evidence of the weaknesses of the Articles Led to the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia The American Revolution