USH History Ch. 2
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USH History Ch. 2






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USH History Ch. 2 USH History Ch. 2 Presentation Transcript

  • New Republic.
    • Things that were done right away:
    • Pass the Bill of Rights.
    • Fix national financial troubles.
  • Rise Of Political Parties. Federalists
    • Hamilton(Hamiltonians)
    • Strong central government.
    • Rule by elites.
    • Support manufacturing.
    • Loose constructionists.
    • Protective tariffs.
  • Jefferson(Jeffersonian) Democratic-Republicans.
    • Stronger state governments.
    • Ruling power by all land owners, big/small.
    • Pro agriculture.
    • Strict constructionists.
    • No protective tariffs.
  • John Adams, Federalist. The Second President.
    • Not a popular guy. He was called his “Rotundity” by critics.
    • Alien and sedition Acts.
    • Impressment.
    • “Kept The Peace in 1800.”
  • Election OF 1800.
    • Jefferson wins-Democratic-Republican.
    • Peaceful transfer of power.
    • Democracy works!
    • One result: Hamilton and Burr duel.
  • Jefferson In Office.
    • Marbury V. Madison.
    • Judicial Review.
    • Louisiana Purchase-1803. Fifteen million dollars.
    • Four cents an acre!
    • Where in the constitution does it state a pres. Can buy land?
    • Election of 1800 pitted Thomas Jefferson and his Democratic-Republican Party vs. John Adams and his Federalist Party
    • While Jefferson defeated Adams by 8 electoral votes, he tied his running mate, Aaron Burr
    • For six days the House of Reps took vote after vote until 36 votes later – Jefferson prevailed (Led to 12 th Amendment)
    3 rd President of the U.S . 1800-1808
    • After two terms, Jefferson is succeeded by James Madison
    • Madison was two-term President 1808-1816
    • Known as the “Father of the Constitution, Madison also is known for his leadership during the War of 1812
    4 th President 1808-1816
  • WAR OF 1812 – U.S. vs. BRITAIN
    • Causes: British “impressment” (seizing Americans at sea and drafting them into their navy) upset Americans
    • The War: 1814 – British sack D.C. Burn White house
    • Andrew Jackson leads great victory in New Orleans
    • Treaty of Ghent signed, Christmas Eve, 1814
    British Impressment of U.S. seamen upset Americans
    • Results of the war included:
    • End of the Federalist Party (opposed war)
    • Encouraged industries in U.S.
    • Confirmed status of U.S. as a strong, free, and independent nation
    Despite the burning of the President’s mansion, the U.S. emerged strong
  • War Of 1812.
    • Impressment of American sailors.
    • War Hawks who wanted Canadian lands.
    • War went badly for U.S.
    • British even burned White House down!
    • Even though we got beat, we won the RESPECT of other countries!
  • American Nationalism.
    • National Bank.
    • Internal improvements of infrastructure.
    • Taking of Florida from Spain.
    • Supreme Court rulings that strengthened the Federal government.
  • Important Supreme Court Rulings During That Time:
    • Marbury V. Madison-1803. Created Judicial Review.
    • McCulloch V. Maryland-1819. Upheld “Implied Powers” of Fed.
    • Gibbons V. Ogden-1824. Affirmed Congress's power over interstate commerce. Civil rights of 1960’s?
  • Monroe Doctrine.
    • Foreign policy nationalism:
    • United States AND Britain to keeps their hands OFF countries in Central and South America who gained their independence.
    • We wanted to trade with them!
    • In the early 19 th Century, various European countries hinted at increased colonization
    • In his 1823 address to Congress, Monroe made it clear to Europe: Don’t interfere with Western Hemisphere (Monroe Doctrine )
  • A Growing Nation.
    • Revolution in transportation, Feds built roads, canals, ports, bridges to connect the North West with the North East. Trains will come later!
    • Why no major infrastructure in South?
    • The above will become one of the Civil War issues!
  • Industrialization Sweeps North.
    • Puritans helped to start our industrial revolution.
    • The North East also had lots of streams creeks and rivers to help the Ind. Revolution.
    • Eli Whitney-Interchangeable parts and the Cotton Gin.
  • Urban Growth And Immigration.
    • The Industrial Revolution needed HUGE amounts of CHEAP labor. Immigration solved this problem AND kept wages CHEAP!
    • Average workers and others resented the new immigrants-NATIVISM.
    • Push-Pull theory of immigration?
  • Renewed Interest Of Slavery By the South.
    • Eli Whitney’s Cotton Gin created a huge new demand for slaves. Why?
    • What did the Cotton Gin do?
    • The number of slaves went from 1.5 million slaves in 1820 to 3.2 million by 1850.
  • From Nationalism back to SECTIONALISM!
    • Several issues started to divide the country into two major parts or sections:
    • National Bank.
    • Protective Tariffs.
    • Internal improvements.
    • Free land.
    • Slavery.
  • Differences between the North and the South
    • Southern crops
    • Cotton, sugarcane, sugar beets, tobacco, and rice
    • These crops led the economy of the South.
    • By 1840 the South was a thoroughly agricultural region.
    • Northern goods
    • Since colonial times, farming was important.
    • The Industrial Revolution made manufacturing and trade the base of the North’s economy.
  • Differences between the North and the South
    • North
    • Trade and industry encouraged urbanization, and so cities grew in the North much more than in the South.
    • The Industrial Revolution and the revolutions in transportation and communication had the greatest impact on the North.
    • Northern businesses seized new technology in pursuit of efficiency and growth.
    • South
    • There was relatively little in the way of technological progress.
    • Many southerners saw little need for labor-saving devices when they had an ample supply of enslaved people to do their work.
  • Differences between the North and the South
    • Different points of view
    • In the North, urban dwellers were exposed to many different types of people and tended to view change as progress.
    • In the South, where the landscape was less prone to change and where the population was less diverse, people tended to place a higher value on tradition.
    • Physical distance
    • Relatively few southerners had the means or motivation to travel extensively in the North, and relatively few northerners had ever visited the South.
  • Missouri Compromise Of 1820.
    • New states admitted to the Union were fought over.
    • Free or slave?
    • The M.C. stated that any new state located BELOW the 36’ 30’ parallel would be slave. Mason-Dixon line.
    • Why did compromise work?
    • In 1818 settlers in Missouri applied for statehood
    • Northerners and Southerners disagreed on whether Missouri should be admitted as a “free” state
    • Henry Clay organized a compromise in which Missouri was “slave” but Maine would be “free”
    • Also Louisiana Territory split at 36 30’ north latitude
  • The Missouri Compromise
    • There were 22 states in the Union in 1819.
    • In half of the states—the “slave states” of the South—slavery was legal.
    • In half of the states—the “free states” of the North—slavery was illegal.
    • This exact balance between slave states and free states gave them equal representation in the U.S. Senate.
    • If Missouri were admitted as a slave state, the balance would be upset.
    • Missouri Compromise of 1820: agreement under which Missouri was admitted to the Union as a slave state and Maine was to be admitted as a free state
    • The agreement also banned slavery in the northern part of the Louisiana Territory.
    • The Missouri Compromise kept the balance between slave and free states.
  • Stolen Election Of 1824.
    • Andrew Jackson won the popular vote, BUT he didn’t get enough ELECTORIAL votes.
    • Has this happened in YOUR life time?
    • House of Reps picked John Quincy Adams to be Pres.
    • Jackson will be back!
  • Expansion Of Voting Rights-1828.
    • All citizens who were white males and who were of age could now vote.
    • Property not an issue any more.
    • In 1824 355,000 people voted.
    • By 1828, 1.13 now were able to vote.
    • During a time of growing Sectionalism, Andrew Jackson’s election in 1828, ushered in a new era of popular democracy
  • Voting Requirements in the Early 19c
  • Essential Question: Champion of the “Common Man”? “ King” Andrew? OR
  • Spoils System And A Kitchen?
    • Jackson fired much of the federal bureaucracy and hired his own people.
    • He he was criticized for having his unelected or non nominated “Cronies” as advisors.
    • They would meet in the White House kitchen to talk, hence the name.
  • Nullification Crisis
    • Jefferson and Adams maintained in 1832 that states could declare Federal laws null and void.
    • Compact theory of the constitution.
    • During the Civil Rights movement many southern states clamed “States Rights” to nullify African-Amercan’s their civil rights.
  • “Tariff Of Abomination”
    • S. Carolina hated the protective tariff.
    • It hurt their trade with England. Cotton and tobacco.
    • S. Carolina called for secession.
    • Congress passes “Force Bill” in 1832.
    • This ends the crisis
    • Preview of the Civil War!
  • Trail Of Tears-1838.
    • Jackson moved Native Americans off their land to the west to get them out of the way of white settlers.
    • Cherokee’s took the federal government to the Supreme Court.
    • The Court ruled in favor of the Cherokee’s.
  • “Chief Justice Marshall has made his decision, now let him enforce it!”
    • Jackson would not enforce the Courts ruling and Pres. Martin Van Buren later moved the Native Americans.
    • 2000 Native American died while on the
    • “Trail Of Tears.”
    • Today Jackson or Van Buren would be impeached.
  • A New Political Party Emerges.
    • Critics of Jackson became known as the Wig party.
    • His critics said that Jackson was a “Bigwig.”
    • This was an insult for that time period.
    • Somehow this become the critics name.
  • Famous Members of the Whig Party.
    • Henry Clay.
    • John Quincy Adams.
    • Daniel Webster.
    • Revoking the National Bank Charter got these guys riled up.
  • What Did The Whigs Want?
    • Expand the power of the federal government.
    • Encourage commerce and industrialization
    • Have a centralized economy.
    • Recreate the National Bank.
    • Jackson opposed National Bank so he created Pet Banks – so called because they were favored by Jackson’s Democrats
    • Many felt Jackson was acting more like a King than a president
    • In 1832, his opponents formed a new party – the Whigs
  • PANIC OF 1837
    • In 1836, Democrat Martin Van Buren won the Presidency
    • He inherited problems from the “Bank Wars”
    • Jackson’s Pet Banks printed money without Gold backing
    • In 1837 a panic set in and many banks closed, accounts went bankrupted, and unemployment soared
    MARTIN VAN BUREN 1837-1841
    • In the 1840s Americans became preoccupied with expansion
    • Many believed that their movement westward was predestined by God
    • Manifest Destiny was the belief that the U.S. would expand “from sea to shining sea”
  • Manifest Destiny and U.S. Territorial Expansion.
    • Many Americans felt that God ordained that American would obtain all the land to the Pacific Ocean= Manifest Destiny.
    • 1803. Louisiana Purchase.
    • 1819. Invaded Florida. War.
    • 1845. Texas. War,
    • 1848. California, New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, Utah. War.
    • 1853. Gadsden Purchase. Train.
  • Slavery And Westward Expansion.
    • All these new lands created tension between the North and South.
    • Which lands would be “Free” and which be “Slave?”
    • The Compromise of 1820 was obsolete.
    • A new Compromise is needed.
  • Compromise Of 1850.
    • California joins the Union as a FREE state.
    • Texas comes in as slave.
    • New Mexico and Arizona will decide their choice about slavery later.
    • Done deal.
    • The Union, for now, is preserved.
  • Fugitive Slave Act.
    • Gave the South extreme power the catch runaway slaves
    • Even FREED slaves in the North could be sent South, because they could NOT legally defend themselves!
    • Northerners hated the F.S.A!
    • Harriet Tubman and “The Underground Railroad” smuggled runaway slaves through northern states to Canada.
  • Bloody Kanas-1856.
    • Kansas-Nebraska Act-1856.
    • Allowed these states to decide about slavery.
    • These states had a mini civil war over this issue.
    • It got bloody!
  • Dred Scott Decision-1857.
    • Supreme Court ruled that a slave brought into a free state to live could not be freed.
    • What does this do to the Compromise of 1850 AND the spread of slavery?
    • A day of shame for the Supreme Court.
    • Chief Justice Taney was a “States Rights” believer.
    • 1820s: Abolitionist movement to free African Americans from slavery arose
    • Leader was a white radical named William Lloyd Garrison
    • Abolitionist called for immediate emancipation of all slaves
    • Freed slave, Frederick Douglass escaped from bandage and became an eloquent abolitionist (critic of slavery) leader
    • He began an anti-slavery newspaper called, Northstar – named after the star that guided runaway slaves to freedom
    • The vast majority of African-Americans were enslaved in the South and were subjected to constant degradation
    • Some rebelled against their condition
    • Most famous revolt was led by Virginia slave Nat Turner
    • Turner led 50 followers in a revolt killing 60 whites – he was caught and executed
    Turner plans his rebellion
  • John Brown’s Raid-1858
    • Fervent abolitionist who lead armed men raid at Harper’s Ferry armory.
    • They wanted guns to give to slaves.
    • They thought they could cause an uprising among slaves against their masters.
    • He was captured and hung.
    • Southerners were outraged!
  • Harriet Beecher Stowe.
    • Uncle Tom’s Cabin.
    • Lincoln: “So this is the little lady who caused all the big problems.”
    • She was under 5 feet tall.
  • Union Dissolves-1861
    • Election of Pres. elect Lincoln scares South. Could he try to free the slaves?
    • President Buchanan does little to keep the southern states in the Union.
    • The South secedes.
    • Jefferson Davis is elected Confederacy’s president.
  • Civil War.1861--1865.
    • Fort Sumter is attacked and taken by Southern forces.
    • This is the outbreak of the Civil War.
    • These are the states that joined the Confederacy: Virginia, Arkansas,North Carolina, South Carolina Alabama, Texas, Georgia, Florida, Louisiana, and Mississippi.
  • Front Sumter, South Carolina
    • Since South Carolina had seceded from the United States, it didn’t want Northern soldiers on its land at Fort Sumter
    • Southern General Bueargard tried to get the northern general Anderson to peacefully surrender Fort Sumter.
    Picture Credit: W1861001.html
  • Abe Lincoln
    • Was the president for the North
    • The North’s Capital was Washington D.C.
  • Jefferson Davis
    • Was the president for the South.
    • The South’s Capital was Richmond, Virginia
  • Lincoln’s Response. Martial law declared in Baltimore, Maryland. Why? He also suspended habeas corpus. Has President Bush done this too? What has the Supreme Court said about that?
  • More Union Actions.
    • Issue of “greenbacks.”
    • Conscription-Draft.
    • These were VERY unpopular measures!
  • Confederate Generals.
    • The South had the best generals over all.
    • Robert E. Lee was the best.
    • The South hoped to fight a defensive war. AVOID HEAVY LOSSES.
    • Wear out the North and win independence.
  • First Modern War.
    • Heavy, long range artillery.
    • Rifled long guns and pistols.
    • Mini ball or modern day bullet.
    • Trench warfare.
    • Industry and railroads to supply large armies.
    • This was a preview to WWI, but no one noticed. Disease killed thousands!
  • War Strategies Of The North.
    • North has to invade South, Especially capture Richmond. Why?
    • Anaconda Plan.
    • Separate the South from Texas.
    • Fight war of attrition.
  • Emancipation Proclamation-1862.
    • Lincoln freed the slaves ONLY in the states in the Confederacy.
    • Battle of Antietam made the E.P. possible.
  • Antietam or Sharpsburg, Maryland
    • September 17, 1862
    • The general for the Confederates was Robert E. Lee.
    • The general for the Yankees was McClellan.
    • A Union soldier found 3 cigars that helped the North to know what General Lee planned to do.
    Picture Credit: august01/feature.html
  • Turning Points.
    • Vicksburg-1863.
    • Gettysburg-1863.
    • Sherman’s march to the sea. Destruction was 30 miles wide and 90 mile long!
    • Thirteenth Amendment passes after these victories.
  • The Battle of Gettysburg, PA
    • The battle of Gettysburg, PA took place on July1-3, 1863.
    • Major fighting occurred around Little Round top hill.
    • The North won this battle.
    • On November 19,1863. President Lincoln gave Gettysburg Address.
    Picture Credit:
  • Ulysses S. Grant.
    • Grant used attrition warfare instead maneuver warfare like the South. Why is this so?
  • Lee Surrenders-1865.
    • Surrender documents signed at the Appomattox Courthouse.
    • Ex Confederate soldiers and political leaders not tried for treason.
  • Freedmen’s Bureau.
    • Created to help former slaves get on their feet and be successful as a free people.
  • Lincoln Killed By Booth!
    • Andrew Johnson becomes President.
    • 14th Amendment created to over ride “Black Codes” enacted by Southern States.
    • Radical Republicans Impeach Johnson; they fail.
  • Ulysses S. Grant Elected President-1868.
    • 15th Amendment passed. All males regardless of race may vote.
    • Carpetbaggers and scalawags descend on South.
    • Southern Resistance:
    • Ku Klux Klan started terrorist activities.
  • Reconstruction Begins.
    • Lincoln v. Radical Republicans.
    • Lincoln’s Plan:
    • No punishment of South.
    • General Amnesty.
    • Easy path to regain statehood.
  • Radical Republicans.
    • What did they want?
    • Punish the South.
    • Create a strong Republican party in the South.
    • Make VERY difficult for former Confederate states to rejoin the Union as equals.
  • Wade-Davis Bill-1864.
    • Radical Republicans sponsored this bill to make it difficult for Southern states to rejoin the Union.
    • Lincoln used a “Pocket Veto.”