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USH History Ch. 2


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USH History Ch. 2

  1. 1. New Republic. <ul><li>Things that were done right away: </li></ul><ul><li>Pass the Bill of Rights. </li></ul><ul><li>Fix national financial troubles. </li></ul>
  2. 2. Rise Of Political Parties. Federalists <ul><li>Hamilton(Hamiltonians) </li></ul><ul><li>Strong central government. </li></ul><ul><li>Rule by elites. </li></ul><ul><li>Support manufacturing. </li></ul><ul><li>Loose constructionists. </li></ul><ul><li>Protective tariffs. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Jefferson(Jeffersonian) Democratic-Republicans. <ul><li>Stronger state governments. </li></ul><ul><li>Ruling power by all land owners, big/small. </li></ul><ul><li>Pro agriculture. </li></ul><ul><li>Strict constructionists. </li></ul><ul><li>No protective tariffs. </li></ul>
  4. 4. John Adams, Federalist. The Second President. <ul><li>Not a popular guy. He was called his “Rotundity” by critics. </li></ul><ul><li>Alien and sedition Acts. </li></ul><ul><li>Impressment. </li></ul><ul><li>“Kept The Peace in 1800.” </li></ul>
  5. 5. Election OF 1800. <ul><li>Jefferson wins-Democratic-Republican. </li></ul><ul><li>Peaceful transfer of power. </li></ul><ul><li>Democracy works! </li></ul><ul><li>One result: Hamilton and Burr duel. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Jefferson In Office. <ul><li>Marbury V. Madison. </li></ul><ul><li>Judicial Review. </li></ul><ul><li>Louisiana Purchase-1803. Fifteen million dollars. </li></ul><ul><li>Four cents an acre! </li></ul><ul><li>Where in the constitution does it state a pres. Can buy land? </li></ul>
  7. 7. THE JEFFERSONIAN ERA: SECTION 1 <ul><li>Election of 1800 pitted Thomas Jefferson and his Democratic-Republican Party vs. John Adams and his Federalist Party </li></ul><ul><li>While Jefferson defeated Adams by 8 electoral votes, he tied his running mate, Aaron Burr </li></ul><ul><li>For six days the House of Reps took vote after vote until 36 votes later – Jefferson prevailed (Led to 12 th Amendment) </li></ul>3 rd President of the U.S . 1800-1808
  8. 8. MADISON ELECTED PRESIDENT <ul><li>After two terms, Jefferson is succeeded by James Madison </li></ul><ul><li>Madison was two-term President 1808-1816 </li></ul><ul><li>Known as the “Father of the Constitution, Madison also is known for his leadership during the War of 1812 </li></ul>4 th President 1808-1816
  9. 9. WAR OF 1812 – U.S. vs. BRITAIN <ul><li>Causes: British “impressment” (seizing Americans at sea and drafting them into their navy) upset Americans </li></ul><ul><li>The War: 1814 – British sack D.C. Burn White house </li></ul><ul><li>Andrew Jackson leads great victory in New Orleans </li></ul><ul><li>Treaty of Ghent signed, Christmas Eve, 1814 </li></ul>British Impressment of U.S. seamen upset Americans
  10. 10. RESULTS OF WAR OF 1812 <ul><li>Results of the war included: </li></ul><ul><li>End of the Federalist Party (opposed war) </li></ul><ul><li>Encouraged industries in U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Confirmed status of U.S. as a strong, free, and independent nation </li></ul>Despite the burning of the President’s mansion, the U.S. emerged strong
  11. 11. War Of 1812. <ul><li>Impressment of American sailors. </li></ul><ul><li>War Hawks who wanted Canadian lands. </li></ul><ul><li>War went badly for U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>British even burned White House down! </li></ul><ul><li>Even though we got beat, we won the RESPECT of other countries! </li></ul>
  12. 12. American Nationalism. <ul><li>National Bank. </li></ul><ul><li>Internal improvements of infrastructure. </li></ul><ul><li>Taking of Florida from Spain. </li></ul><ul><li>Supreme Court rulings that strengthened the Federal government. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Important Supreme Court Rulings During That Time: <ul><li>Marbury V. Madison-1803. Created Judicial Review. </li></ul><ul><li>McCulloch V. Maryland-1819. Upheld “Implied Powers” of Fed. </li></ul><ul><li>Gibbons V. Ogden-1824. Affirmed Congress's power over interstate commerce. Civil rights of 1960’s? </li></ul>
  14. 14. Monroe Doctrine. <ul><li>Foreign policy nationalism: </li></ul><ul><li>United States AND Britain to keeps their hands OFF countries in Central and South America who gained their independence. </li></ul><ul><li>We wanted to trade with them! </li></ul>
  15. 15. THE MONROE DOCTRINE <ul><li>In the early 19 th Century, various European countries hinted at increased colonization </li></ul><ul><li>In his 1823 address to Congress, Monroe made it clear to Europe: Don’t interfere with Western Hemisphere (Monroe Doctrine ) </li></ul>
  16. 16. A Growing Nation. <ul><li>Revolution in transportation, Feds built roads, canals, ports, bridges to connect the North West with the North East. Trains will come later! </li></ul><ul><li>Why no major infrastructure in South? </li></ul><ul><li>The above will become one of the Civil War issues! </li></ul>
  17. 17. Industrialization Sweeps North. <ul><li>Puritans helped to start our industrial revolution. </li></ul><ul><li>The North East also had lots of streams creeks and rivers to help the Ind. Revolution. </li></ul><ul><li>Eli Whitney-Interchangeable parts and the Cotton Gin. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Urban Growth And Immigration. <ul><li>The Industrial Revolution needed HUGE amounts of CHEAP labor. Immigration solved this problem AND kept wages CHEAP! </li></ul><ul><li>Average workers and others resented the new immigrants-NATIVISM. </li></ul><ul><li>Push-Pull theory of immigration? </li></ul>
  19. 19. Renewed Interest Of Slavery By the South. <ul><li>Eli Whitney’s Cotton Gin created a huge new demand for slaves. Why? </li></ul><ul><li>What did the Cotton Gin do? </li></ul><ul><li>The number of slaves went from 1.5 million slaves in 1820 to 3.2 million by 1850. </li></ul>
  20. 20. From Nationalism back to SECTIONALISM! <ul><li>Several issues started to divide the country into two major parts or sections: </li></ul><ul><li>National Bank. </li></ul><ul><li>Protective Tariffs. </li></ul><ul><li>Internal improvements. </li></ul><ul><li>Free land. </li></ul><ul><li>Slavery. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Differences between the North and the South <ul><li>Southern crops </li></ul><ul><li>Cotton, sugarcane, sugar beets, tobacco, and rice </li></ul><ul><li>These crops led the economy of the South. </li></ul><ul><li>By 1840 the South was a thoroughly agricultural region. </li></ul><ul><li>Northern goods </li></ul><ul><li>Since colonial times, farming was important. </li></ul><ul><li>The Industrial Revolution made manufacturing and trade the base of the North’s economy. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Differences between the North and the South <ul><li>North </li></ul><ul><li>Trade and industry encouraged urbanization, and so cities grew in the North much more than in the South. </li></ul><ul><li>The Industrial Revolution and the revolutions in transportation and communication had the greatest impact on the North. </li></ul><ul><li>Northern businesses seized new technology in pursuit of efficiency and growth. </li></ul><ul><li>South </li></ul><ul><li>There was relatively little in the way of technological progress. </li></ul><ul><li>Many southerners saw little need for labor-saving devices when they had an ample supply of enslaved people to do their work. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Differences between the North and the South <ul><li>Different points of view </li></ul><ul><li>In the North, urban dwellers were exposed to many different types of people and tended to view change as progress. </li></ul><ul><li>In the South, where the landscape was less prone to change and where the population was less diverse, people tended to place a higher value on tradition. </li></ul><ul><li>Physical distance </li></ul><ul><li>Relatively few southerners had the means or motivation to travel extensively in the North, and relatively few northerners had ever visited the South. </li></ul>
  24. 25. Missouri Compromise Of 1820. <ul><li>New states admitted to the Union were fought over. </li></ul><ul><li>Free or slave? </li></ul><ul><li>The M.C. stated that any new state located BELOW the 36’ 30’ parallel would be slave. Mason-Dixon line. </li></ul><ul><li>Why did compromise work? </li></ul>
  25. 26. THE MISSOURI COMPROMISE <ul><li>In 1818 settlers in Missouri applied for statehood </li></ul><ul><li>Northerners and Southerners disagreed on whether Missouri should be admitted as a “free” state </li></ul><ul><li>Henry Clay organized a compromise in which Missouri was “slave” but Maine would be “free” </li></ul><ul><li>Also Louisiana Territory split at 36 30’ north latitude </li></ul>HENRY CLAY: THE GREAT COMPROMISER
  26. 28. The Missouri Compromise <ul><li>There were 22 states in the Union in 1819. </li></ul><ul><li>In half of the states—the “slave states” of the South—slavery was legal. </li></ul><ul><li>In half of the states—the “free states” of the North—slavery was illegal. </li></ul><ul><li>This exact balance between slave states and free states gave them equal representation in the U.S. Senate. </li></ul><ul><li>If Missouri were admitted as a slave state, the balance would be upset. </li></ul><ul><li>Missouri Compromise of 1820: agreement under which Missouri was admitted to the Union as a slave state and Maine was to be admitted as a free state </li></ul><ul><li>The agreement also banned slavery in the northern part of the Louisiana Territory. </li></ul><ul><li>The Missouri Compromise kept the balance between slave and free states. </li></ul>
  27. 29. Stolen Election Of 1824. <ul><li>Andrew Jackson won the popular vote, BUT he didn’t get enough ELECTORIAL votes. </li></ul><ul><li>Has this happened in YOUR life time? </li></ul><ul><li>House of Reps picked John Quincy Adams to be Pres. </li></ul><ul><li>Jackson will be back! </li></ul>
  28. 30. Expansion Of Voting Rights-1828. <ul><li>All citizens who were white males and who were of age could now vote. </li></ul><ul><li>Property not an issue any more. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1824 355,000 people voted. </li></ul><ul><li>By 1828, 1.13 now were able to vote. </li></ul>
  29. 31. THE AGE OF JACKSON. <ul><li>During a time of growing Sectionalism, Andrew Jackson’s election in 1828, ushered in a new era of popular democracy </li></ul>
  30. 32. Voting Requirements in the Early 19c
  31. 33. Essential Question: Champion of the “Common Man”? “ King” Andrew? OR
  32. 34. Spoils System And A Kitchen? <ul><li>Jackson fired much of the federal bureaucracy and hired his own people. </li></ul><ul><li>He he was criticized for having his unelected or non nominated “Cronies” as advisors. </li></ul><ul><li>They would meet in the White House kitchen to talk, hence the name. </li></ul>
  33. 35. Nullification Crisis <ul><li>Jefferson and Adams maintained in 1832 that states could declare Federal laws null and void. </li></ul><ul><li>Compact theory of the constitution. </li></ul><ul><li>During the Civil Rights movement many southern states clamed “States Rights” to nullify African-Amercan’s their civil rights. </li></ul>
  34. 36. “Tariff Of Abomination” <ul><li>S. Carolina hated the protective tariff. </li></ul><ul><li>It hurt their trade with England. Cotton and tobacco. </li></ul><ul><li>S. Carolina called for secession. </li></ul><ul><li>Congress passes “Force Bill” in 1832. </li></ul><ul><li>This ends the crisis </li></ul><ul><li>Preview of the Civil War! </li></ul>
  35. 37. Trail Of Tears-1838. <ul><li>Jackson moved Native Americans off their land to the west to get them out of the way of white settlers. </li></ul><ul><li>Cherokee’s took the federal government to the Supreme Court. </li></ul><ul><li>The Court ruled in favor of the Cherokee’s. </li></ul>
  36. 38. “Chief Justice Marshall has made his decision, now let him enforce it!” <ul><li>Jackson would not enforce the Courts ruling and Pres. Martin Van Buren later moved the Native Americans. </li></ul><ul><li>2000 Native American died while on the </li></ul><ul><li>“Trail Of Tears.” </li></ul><ul><li>Today Jackson or Van Buren would be impeached. </li></ul>
  37. 39. A New Political Party Emerges. <ul><li>Critics of Jackson became known as the Wig party. </li></ul><ul><li>His critics said that Jackson was a “Bigwig.” </li></ul><ul><li>This was an insult for that time period. </li></ul><ul><li>Somehow this become the critics name. </li></ul>
  38. 40. Famous Members of the Whig Party. <ul><li>Henry Clay. </li></ul><ul><li>John Quincy Adams. </li></ul><ul><li>Daniel Webster. </li></ul><ul><li>Revoking the National Bank Charter got these guys riled up. </li></ul>
  39. 41. What Did The Whigs Want? <ul><li>Expand the power of the federal government. </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage commerce and industrialization </li></ul><ul><li>Have a centralized economy. </li></ul><ul><li>Recreate the National Bank. </li></ul>
  40. 42. JACKSON’S BANK WAR <ul><li>Jackson opposed National Bank so he created Pet Banks – so called because they were favored by Jackson’s Democrats </li></ul><ul><li>Many felt Jackson was acting more like a King than a president </li></ul><ul><li>In 1832, his opponents formed a new party – the Whigs </li></ul>
  41. 43. PANIC OF 1837 <ul><li>In 1836, Democrat Martin Van Buren won the Presidency </li></ul><ul><li>He inherited problems from the “Bank Wars” </li></ul><ul><li>Jackson’s Pet Banks printed money without Gold backing </li></ul><ul><li>In 1837 a panic set in and many banks closed, accounts went bankrupted, and unemployment soared </li></ul>MARTIN VAN BUREN 1837-1841
  42. 44. MANIFEST DESTINY: SECTION 3 <ul><li>In the 1840s Americans became preoccupied with expansion </li></ul><ul><li>Many believed that their movement westward was predestined by God </li></ul><ul><li>Manifest Destiny was the belief that the U.S. would expand “from sea to shining sea” </li></ul>
  43. 45. Manifest Destiny and U.S. Territorial Expansion. <ul><li>Many Americans felt that God ordained that American would obtain all the land to the Pacific Ocean= Manifest Destiny. </li></ul><ul><li>1803. Louisiana Purchase. </li></ul><ul><li>1819. Invaded Florida. War. </li></ul><ul><li>1845. Texas. War, </li></ul><ul><li>1848. California, New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, Utah. War. </li></ul><ul><li>1853. Gadsden Purchase. Train. </li></ul>
  45. 47. Slavery And Westward Expansion. <ul><li>All these new lands created tension between the North and South. </li></ul><ul><li>Which lands would be “Free” and which be “Slave?” </li></ul><ul><li>The Compromise of 1820 was obsolete. </li></ul><ul><li>A new Compromise is needed. </li></ul>
  46. 48. Compromise Of 1850. <ul><li>California joins the Union as a FREE state. </li></ul><ul><li>Texas comes in as slave. </li></ul><ul><li>New Mexico and Arizona will decide their choice about slavery later. </li></ul><ul><li>Done deal. </li></ul><ul><li>The Union, for now, is preserved. </li></ul>
  47. 49. Fugitive Slave Act. <ul><li>Gave the South extreme power the catch runaway slaves </li></ul><ul><li>Even FREED slaves in the North could be sent South, because they could NOT legally defend themselves! </li></ul><ul><li>Northerners hated the F.S.A! </li></ul><ul><li>Harriet Tubman and “The Underground Railroad” smuggled runaway slaves through northern states to Canada. </li></ul>
  48. 50. Bloody Kanas-1856. <ul><li>Kansas-Nebraska Act-1856. </li></ul><ul><li>Allowed these states to decide about slavery. </li></ul><ul><li>These states had a mini civil war over this issue. </li></ul><ul><li>It got bloody! </li></ul>
  49. 51. Dred Scott Decision-1857. <ul><li>Supreme Court ruled that a slave brought into a free state to live could not be freed. </li></ul><ul><li>What does this do to the Compromise of 1850 AND the spread of slavery? </li></ul><ul><li>A day of shame for the Supreme Court. </li></ul><ul><li>Chief Justice Taney was a “States Rights” believer. </li></ul>
  50. 52. THE ABOLITIONIST MOVEMENT <ul><li>1820s: Abolitionist movement to free African Americans from slavery arose </li></ul><ul><li>Leader was a white radical named William Lloyd Garrison </li></ul><ul><li>Abolitionist called for immediate emancipation of all slaves </li></ul>
  51. 53. FREDERICK DOUGLASS: AFRICAN AMERICAN LEADER <ul><li>Freed slave, Frederick Douglass escaped from bandage and became an eloquent abolitionist (critic of slavery) leader </li></ul><ul><li>He began an anti-slavery newspaper called, Northstar – named after the star that guided runaway slaves to freedom </li></ul>
  52. 54. TURNER’S REBELLION <ul><li>The vast majority of African-Americans were enslaved in the South and were subjected to constant degradation </li></ul><ul><li>Some rebelled against their condition </li></ul><ul><li>Most famous revolt was led by Virginia slave Nat Turner </li></ul><ul><li>Turner led 50 followers in a revolt killing 60 whites – he was caught and executed </li></ul>Turner plans his rebellion
  53. 55. John Brown’s Raid-1858 <ul><li>Fervent abolitionist who lead armed men raid at Harper’s Ferry armory. </li></ul><ul><li>They wanted guns to give to slaves. </li></ul><ul><li>They thought they could cause an uprising among slaves against their masters. </li></ul><ul><li>He was captured and hung. </li></ul><ul><li>Southerners were outraged! </li></ul>
  54. 56. Harriet Beecher Stowe. <ul><li>Uncle Tom’s Cabin. </li></ul><ul><li>Lincoln: “So this is the little lady who caused all the big problems.” </li></ul><ul><li>She was under 5 feet tall. </li></ul>
  55. 57. Union Dissolves-1861 <ul><li>Election of Pres. elect Lincoln scares South. Could he try to free the slaves? </li></ul><ul><li>President Buchanan does little to keep the southern states in the Union. </li></ul><ul><li>The South secedes. </li></ul><ul><li>Jefferson Davis is elected Confederacy’s president. </li></ul>
  56. 58. Civil War.1861--1865. <ul><li>Fort Sumter is attacked and taken by Southern forces. </li></ul><ul><li>This is the outbreak of the Civil War. </li></ul><ul><li>These are the states that joined the Confederacy: Virginia, Arkansas,North Carolina, South Carolina Alabama, Texas, Georgia, Florida, Louisiana, and Mississippi. </li></ul>
  57. 59. Front Sumter, South Carolina <ul><li>Since South Carolina had seceded from the United States, it didn’t want Northern soldiers on its land at Fort Sumter </li></ul><ul><li>Southern General Bueargard tried to get the northern general Anderson to peacefully surrender Fort Sumter. </li></ul>Picture Credit: W1861001.html
  58. 60. Abe Lincoln <ul><li>Was the president for the North </li></ul><ul><li>The North’s Capital was Washington D.C. </li></ul>
  59. 61. Jefferson Davis <ul><li>Was the president for the South. </li></ul><ul><li>The South’s Capital was Richmond, Virginia </li></ul>
  60. 62. Lincoln’s Response. Martial law declared in Baltimore, Maryland. Why? He also suspended habeas corpus. Has President Bush done this too? What has the Supreme Court said about that?
  61. 63. More Union Actions. <ul><li>Issue of “greenbacks.” </li></ul><ul><li>Conscription-Draft. </li></ul><ul><li>These were VERY unpopular measures! </li></ul>
  62. 64. Confederate Generals. <ul><li>The South had the best generals over all. </li></ul><ul><li>Robert E. Lee was the best. </li></ul><ul><li>The South hoped to fight a defensive war. AVOID HEAVY LOSSES. </li></ul><ul><li>Wear out the North and win independence. </li></ul>
  63. 65. First Modern War. <ul><li>Heavy, long range artillery. </li></ul><ul><li>Rifled long guns and pistols. </li></ul><ul><li>Mini ball or modern day bullet. </li></ul><ul><li>Trench warfare. </li></ul><ul><li>Industry and railroads to supply large armies. </li></ul><ul><li>This was a preview to WWI, but no one noticed. Disease killed thousands! </li></ul>
  64. 66. War Strategies Of The North. <ul><li>North has to invade South, Especially capture Richmond. Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Anaconda Plan. </li></ul><ul><li>Separate the South from Texas. </li></ul><ul><li>Fight war of attrition. </li></ul>
  65. 67. Emancipation Proclamation-1862. <ul><li>Lincoln freed the slaves ONLY in the states in the Confederacy. </li></ul><ul><li>Battle of Antietam made the E.P. possible. </li></ul>
  66. 68. Antietam or Sharpsburg, Maryland <ul><li>September 17, 1862 </li></ul><ul><li>The general for the Confederates was Robert E. Lee. </li></ul><ul><li>The general for the Yankees was McClellan. </li></ul><ul><li>A Union soldier found 3 cigars that helped the North to know what General Lee planned to do. </li></ul>Picture Credit: august01/feature.html
  67. 69. Turning Points. <ul><li>Vicksburg-1863. </li></ul><ul><li>Gettysburg-1863. </li></ul><ul><li>Sherman’s march to the sea. Destruction was 30 miles wide and 90 mile long! </li></ul><ul><li>Thirteenth Amendment passes after these victories. </li></ul>
  68. 70. The Battle of Gettysburg, PA <ul><li>The battle of Gettysburg, PA took place on July1-3, 1863. </li></ul><ul><li>Major fighting occurred around Little Round top hill. </li></ul><ul><li>The North won this battle. </li></ul><ul><li>On November 19,1863. President Lincoln gave Gettysburg Address. </li></ul>Picture Credit:
  69. 71. Ulysses S. Grant. <ul><li>Grant used attrition warfare instead maneuver warfare like the South. Why is this so? </li></ul>
  70. 72. Lee Surrenders-1865. <ul><li>Surrender documents signed at the Appomattox Courthouse. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex Confederate soldiers and political leaders not tried for treason. </li></ul>
  71. 73. Freedmen’s Bureau. <ul><li>Created to help former slaves get on their feet and be successful as a free people. </li></ul>
  72. 74. Lincoln Killed By Booth! <ul><li>Andrew Johnson becomes President. </li></ul><ul><li>14th Amendment created to over ride “Black Codes” enacted by Southern States. </li></ul><ul><li>Radical Republicans Impeach Johnson; they fail. </li></ul>
  73. 75. Ulysses S. Grant Elected President-1868. <ul><li>15th Amendment passed. All males regardless of race may vote. </li></ul><ul><li>Carpetbaggers and scalawags descend on South. </li></ul><ul><li>Southern Resistance: </li></ul><ul><li>Ku Klux Klan started terrorist activities. </li></ul>
  74. 76. Reconstruction Begins. <ul><li>Lincoln v. Radical Republicans. </li></ul><ul><li>Lincoln’s Plan: </li></ul><ul><li>No punishment of South. </li></ul><ul><li>General Amnesty. </li></ul><ul><li>Easy path to regain statehood. </li></ul>
  75. 77. Radical Republicans. <ul><li>What did they want? </li></ul><ul><li>Punish the South. </li></ul><ul><li>Create a strong Republican party in the South. </li></ul><ul><li>Make VERY difficult for former Confederate states to rejoin the Union as equals. </li></ul>
  76. 78. Wade-Davis Bill-1864. <ul><li>Radical Republicans sponsored this bill to make it difficult for Southern states to rejoin the Union. </li></ul><ul><li>Lincoln used a “Pocket Veto.” </li></ul>