What is Water? - is a chemical substance withthe chemical formula H2O. Awater molecule contains oneoxygen and two hydrogen atomsconnected by covalent bonds.
-is a liquid at ambientconditions, but it often co-exists on Earth with its solidstate, ice, and gaseous state(water vapor or steam).
-a liquid crystal state nearhydrophilic surfaces. Undernomenclature used to namechemical compounds,Dihydrogen monoxide is thescientific name for water.
Facts and FIGUREWater covers 70.9% of theEarths surface, and is vital forall known forms of life.On Earth, 96.5% of the planetswater is found in oceans,
1.7% in groundwater,1.7% in glaciers andthe ice caps ofAntarctica andGreenland, a smallfraction in other largewater bodies.
0.001% in the air as vapor,clouds (formed of solid andliquid water particlessuspended in air), andprecipitation. Only 2.5% of theEarths water is freshwater,and
98.8% of that water is in iceand groundwater.
Less than 0.3% of all freshwateris in rivers, lakes, and theatmosphere, and an even smalleramount of the Earthsfreshwater (0.003%) is containedwithin biological bodies andmanufactured products
"PhilippineClean Water Actof 2004."
Declaration of Policy. The State shall pursue a policy of economicgrowth in a manner consistent with the protection,preservation and revival of the quality of our fresh,brackish and marine waters.
To achieve this end,the framework forsustainabledevelopment shall bepursued. As such, itshall be the policy ofthe State.
Coverage of theAct
This Act shall apply to water qualitymanagement in all water bodies:Provided, That it shall primarilyapply to the abatement and control ofpollution from land based sources:
Provided, further, That thewater quality standards andregulations and the civilliability and penal provisionsunder this Act shall beenforced irrespective ofsources of pollution.
RoleEach local government unit shall,through its Environment andNatural Resources Office (ENRO)established in Republic ActNo.7160, have the followingpowers and functions:
Monitoring of water quality;Emergency response;Compliance with the frameworkof the Water QualityManagement Action Plan;
To take active participation in all effortsconcerning water quality protection andrehabilitation; andTo coordinate with other governmentagencies and civil society and theconcerned sectors in the implementationof measures to prevent and control waterpollution
MAIN IMPLEMENTOR-denrPhilippine Coast Guardin coordination with DAand the Department
- shall enforce for theenforcement of water qualitystandards in marine waters,set pursuant to this Act,specifically from offshoresources;
-through its attached agencies,such as the MWSS, LWUA, andincluding other urban waterutilities for the provision orsewerage and sanitation facilitiesand the efficient and safecollection, treatment and disposalof sewage within their area ofjurisdiction;
-shall coordinate with theDepartment(DENR), in theformulation of guidelines for the re-use of wastewater for irrigation andother agricultural uses and for theprevention, control and abatement ofpollution from agricultural andaquaculture activities:
-shall be primarilyresponsible for thepromulgation, revisionand enforcement ofdrinking water qualitystandards;
Department of Science andTechnology, in coordination with theDepartment and otherconcerned agencies
-shall prepare a program forthe evaluation, verification,development and publicdissemination of pollutionprevention and cleanerproduction technologies; and
Bureau of Fisheries andAquatic Resources(BFAR) of the DA
-shall be primarily responsiblefor the prevention and control ofwater pollution for thedevelopment, management andconservation of the fisheries andaquatic resources;
Department of Education(DepEd), Commission HigherEducation (CHED), Departmentof the Interior and LocalGovernment (DILG) andPhilippine Information Agency(PIA)
-shall assist and coordinatewith the Department in, thepreparation andimplementation of acomprehensive programpursuant to the objectives ofthis Act.
Fines, Damages and Penalties Any Violates any of theprovision of this Act orits implementing rulesand regulations, shall befined by the Secretary
r more than Two hundred thousand pes
percent (10%) every two (2) years to com
Failure to undertake clean-up operations, willfully, orthrough gross negligence
ars and not more than four (4) years and a f
Such failure or refusalwhich results in seriousinjury or loss of life and/orirreversible watercontamination of surface,ground, coastal and marinewater
(6) years and one day and not more than twe
LAND DEGRADATION - is a concept in which thevalue of the biophysicalenvironment is affected by one ormore combination of human-induced processes acting uponthe land.
Facts and FigureExtent in many parts of theworld, with more than 20percent of all cultivated areas,30 percent of forests and 10percent of grasslandsundergoing degradation.
An estimated 1.5 billionpeople, or a quarter of theworlds population, dependdirectly on land that is beingdegraded.
22 percent of degrading landis in very arid to dry-sub-humid areas, while 78 percentof it is in humid regions.
Fertile soils erode away,Indigenous trees are removed,Alien plants invade an area,Farm land is used for housing,Soils become salty through poorirrigation, orSoils are degraded by acidpollution and heavy
Causes of LandDegradation
Land clearance such asclear cutting anddeforestationLivestock includingovergrazing
Inappropriate irrigation andover draftingUrban sprawl and commercialdevelopment
Land pollution includingindustrial wasteVehicle off- roadingQuarrying of stone, sand, oreand minerals
Land Degradation Percentage in Asia
Effects of LandDegradation
Accelerated soil erosion bywind and waterSoil acidification and theformulation of acid sulfatesoil resulting in barrensoil
Soil alkalinisationSoil salinationSoil water logging in irrigatedlandDestruction of soil structure
DNA profiling/breedingresearch programs,including the developmentof new strains.
What is Deforestationtand of trees where the land is thereafte
include conversion of forestland to farm
CausesCorruption of governmentinstitutionsInequitable distribution ofwealth and power
Population growthOver population andurbanizationGlobalization
Other CausesHistoric Factors(war)Population GrowthUrbanizationClimate ChangeGreen House EffectCO2 Emission Increase
Effects of DeforestationSoil ErosionGround Water TableDepletion of BiodiversityFloodsDroughtGlobal warming
Control and SolutionReducing emissionsFarmingMonitoring deforestationForest managementSustainable practicesReforestation ion
Other SolutionLegislationWildlife SanctuariesCitiesIncentive to CorporateCommercial ForestPlantationsWater Management
CORAL REEF DESTRUCTION-human activity is taking a tallon a vital marine ecosystem, onethat protect coastlines andprovides a habitat for a richvariety of marine life.wild decay of coral reefs
Benefits of Coral ReefsCoral reefs are rich sources ofmarine lifeCarbon dioxide threatens reefsSource of Food and Medicine
Facts and figureCoral reefs, one of the richestand most interestingecosystems on the planet,provide shelter and food for awide array of living organisms.
The coral reefs of the Philippinesare among the most diverse,providing a home to more than900 fish species and more than400 coral species, includingmany that are endemic to thearea.
The Philippine coral reefs totalabout 6.5 million acres (26,000square kilometers). More than7,000 islands and the warm oceanwaters that surround them haveresulted in numerous reefs, bothsmall and large, around thecountry.
Causes of the Destruction ofCoral Reefs1. Global Change Threats2. Direct Human Pressure3. The HumanDimension(governance,awareness and political will
Global Change ThreatsRising Level of CO2Coral BleachingDiseases, Plagues and Invasive
Reefs exposed to imminentdestruction from climatechangeReefs exposed to imminentdestruction from climatechange
2. Direct Human PressureOverfishingSedimentsNutrients and ChemicalPollution
Development of CoastalAreasCoral bombing destroyshabitat and fishBlast fishingMoro ami
3. The Human Dimension(governance, awareness andpolitical will)Rising Poverty, IncreasingPopulation, Alienation from theland
Poor Capacity for Managementand Lack of ResourcesLack of Political will and OceanicGovernance
EffectsThe End of Habitats with aHigh Density of Biodiversity:The Demise of EconomiesDependent on Reefs:
The Loss of Natural CoastalProtection:Killing the Hope for a Cure:
Solution to DISTRUCTIONPhysical RestorationBiological RestorationCoral Nurseries
Coral TransplantationMonitoring and MaintenanceLegislation