DiminishingWater SUPPLY
What is Water?  - is a chemical substance withthe chemical formula H2O. Awater molecule contains oneoxygen and two hydroge...
-is a liquid at ambientconditions, but it often co-exists on Earth with its solidstate, ice, and gaseous state(water vapor...
-a liquid crystal state nearhydrophilic surfaces. Undernomenclature used to namechemical compounds,Dihydrogen monoxide is ...
Facts and FIGUREWater covers 70.9% of theEarths surface, and is vital forall known forms of life.On Earth, 96.5% of the pl...
1.7% in groundwater,1.7% in glaciers andthe ice caps ofAntarctica andGreenland, a smallfraction in other largewater bodies.
0.001% in the air as vapor,clouds (formed of solid andliquid water particlessuspended in air), andprecipitation. Only 2.5%...
98.8% of that water is in iceand groundwater.
Less than 0.3% of all freshwateris in rivers, lakes, and theatmosphere, and an even smalleramount of the Earthsfreshwater ...
"PhilippineClean Water Actof 2004."
 Declaration of Policy.   The State shall pursue a policy of economicgrowth in a manner consistent with the protection,pre...
To achieve this end,the framework forsustainabledevelopment shall bepursued. As such, itshall be the policy ofthe State.
Coverage of theAct
This Act shall apply to water qualitymanagement in all water bodies:Provided, That it shall primarilyapply to the abatemen...
Provided, further, That thewater quality standards andregulations and the civilliability and penal provisionsunder this Ac...
RoleEach local government unit shall,through its Environment andNatural Resources Office (ENRO)established in Republic Act...
Monitoring of water quality;Emergency response;Compliance with the frameworkof the Water QualityManagement Action Plan;
To take active participation in all effortsconcerning water quality protection andrehabilitation; andTo coordinate with ot...
MAIN IMPLEMENTOR-denrPhilippine Coast Guardin coordination with DAand the Department
- shall enforce for theenforcement of water qualitystandards in marine waters,set pursuant to this Act,specifically from o...
DPWH
-through its attached agencies,such as the MWSS, LWUA, andincluding other urban waterutilities for the provision orsewerag...
Department ofAgriculture
-shall coordinate with theDepartment(DENR), in theformulation of guidelines for the re-use of wastewater for irrigation an...
Departmentof Health
-shall be primarilyresponsible for thepromulgation, revisionand enforcement ofdrinking water qualitystandards;
Department of Science andTechnology,   in coordination with theDepartment      and    otherconcerned agencies
-shall prepare a program forthe evaluation, verification,development and publicdissemination of pollutionprevention and cl...
Bureau of Fisheries andAquatic Resources(BFAR) of the DA
-shall be primarily responsiblefor the prevention and control ofwater pollution for thedevelopment, management andconserva...
Department of Education(DepEd), Commission HigherEducation (CHED), Departmentof the Interior and LocalGovernment (DILG) an...
-shall assist and coordinatewith the Department in, thepreparation andimplementation of acomprehensive programpursuant to ...
Fines, Damages and Penalties Any Violates any of theprovision of this Act orits implementing rulesand regulations, shall b...
r more than Two hundred thousand pes
percent (10%) every two (2) years to com
Failure to undertake clean-up operations, willfully, orthrough gross negligence
ars and not more than four (4) years and a f
Such failure or refusalwhich results in seriousinjury or loss of life and/orirreversible watercontamination of surface,gro...
(6) years and one day and not more than twe
LANdDEGRADATION
LAND DEGRADATION  - is a concept in which thevalue     of   the     biophysicalenvironment is affected by one ormore combi...
Facts and FigureExtent in many parts of theworld, with more than 20percent of all cultivated areas,30 percent of forests a...
An estimated 1.5 billionpeople, or a quarter of theworlds population, dependdirectly on land that is beingdegraded.
22 percent of degrading landis in very arid to dry-sub-humid areas, while 78 percentof it is in humid regions.
Signs
Fertile soils erode away,Indigenous trees are removed,Alien plants invade an area,Farm land is used for housing,Soils beco...
Causes of LandDegradation
Land clearance such asclear cutting anddeforestationLivestock includingovergrazing
Inappropriate irrigation andover draftingUrban sprawl and commercialdevelopment
Land pollution includingindustrial wasteVehicle off- roadingQuarrying of stone, sand, oreand minerals
Land Degradation Percentage in Asia
Effects of LandDegradation
Accelerated soil erosion bywind and waterSoil acidification and theformulation of acid sulfatesoil resulting in barrensoil
Soil alkalinisationSoil salinationSoil water logging in irrigatedlandDestruction of soil structure
SolutionGrazing managementErosion reductionWaterconservation/harvesting
EXTINCTION OFSPECIE  S
EXTINCTION OF SPECIESIs the end of an organismor of a group of organism(taxon)
Facts and Figure  At least 15 species havegone extinct over the pastfew decades. The realextinction figure is believedto b...
Thousands of animal, plantand lichen species are nowconsidered at risk ofextinction;
One in three amphibians(32%) and almost half (42%) ofturtles and tortoises are nowknown to be threatened withextinction, a...
Causes of ExtinctionHabitat degradationPredation, competition anddiseaseSpread of invasive species
Human Causes ofExtinctionIncreased human populationDestruction/ Fragmentation ofhabitatPollution
Solution and ConservationManagement strategiesEnvironmental strategiesGenetic strategies
Management strategies:conserve large areas of naturalecosystemsprovide bush corridors that linknatural ecosystems
reduce human consumption (ofresources)encourage recyclingimplement community educationprograms.
Environmental strategies:reduce the number ofintroduced speciesextensive reforestationprograms includingreplanting of nati...
Genetic strategies:captive breeding programsseed banks
DNA profiling/breedingresearch programs,including the developmentof new strains.
DEFORESTATION
What is Deforestationtand of trees where the land is thereafte
include conversion of forestland to farm
CausesCorruption of governmentinstitutionsInequitable distribution ofwealth and power
Population growthOver population andurbanizationGlobalization
Other CausesHistoric Factors(war)Population GrowthUrbanizationClimate ChangeGreen House EffectCO2 Emission Increase
Effects of DeforestationSoil ErosionGround Water TableDepletion of BiodiversityFloodsDroughtGlobal warming
Control and SolutionReducing emissionsFarmingMonitoring deforestationForest managementSustainable practicesReforestation ion
Other SolutionLegislationWildlife SanctuariesCitiesIncentive to CorporateCommercial ForestPlantationsWater Management
CORAL   REEFDESTRUCTION
CORAL REEF DESTRUCTION-human activity is taking a tallon a vital marine ecosystem, onethat protect coastlines andprovides ...
Benefits of Coral ReefsCoral reefs are rich sources ofmarine lifeCarbon dioxide threatens reefsSource of Food and Medicine
Facts and figureCoral reefs, one of the richestand most interestingecosystems on the planet,provide shelter and food for a...
The coral reefs of the Philippinesare among the most diverse,providing a home to more than900 fish species and more than40...
The Philippine coral reefs totalabout 6.5 million acres (26,000square kilometers). More than7,000 islands and the warm oce...
Causes of the Destruction ofCoral Reefs1. Global Change Threats2. Direct Human Pressure3. The HumanDimension(governance,aw...
Global Change ThreatsRising Level of CO2Coral BleachingDiseases, Plagues and Invasive
Reefs exposed to imminentdestruction from climatechangeReefs exposed to imminentdestruction from climatechange
2. Direct Human PressureOverfishingSedimentsNutrients and ChemicalPollution
Development of CoastalAreasCoral bombing destroyshabitat and fishBlast fishingMoro ami
3. The Human Dimension(governance, awareness andpolitical will)Rising Poverty, IncreasingPopulation, Alienation from theland
Poor Capacity for Managementand Lack of ResourcesLack of Political will and OceanicGovernance
EffectsThe End of Habitats with aHigh Density of Biodiversity:The Demise of EconomiesDependent on Reefs:
The Loss of Natural CoastalProtection:Killing the Hope for a Cure:
Solution to DISTRUCTIONPhysical RestorationBiological RestorationCoral Nurseries
Coral TransplantationMonitoring and MaintenanceLegislation
Thank You    forListening!!              BSAB              2A
G roup 2
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G roup 2

  1. 1. DiminishingWater SUPPLY
  2. 2. What is Water? - is a chemical substance withthe chemical formula H2O. Awater molecule contains oneoxygen and two hydrogen atomsconnected by covalent bonds.
  3. 3. -is a liquid at ambientconditions, but it often co-exists on Earth with its solidstate, ice, and gaseous state(water vapor or steam).
  4. 4. -a liquid crystal state nearhydrophilic surfaces. Undernomenclature used to namechemical compounds,Dihydrogen monoxide is thescientific name for water.
  5. 5. Facts and FIGUREWater covers 70.9% of theEarths surface, and is vital forall known forms of life.On Earth, 96.5% of the planetswater is found in oceans,
  6. 6. 1.7% in groundwater,1.7% in glaciers andthe ice caps ofAntarctica andGreenland, a smallfraction in other largewater bodies.
  7. 7. 0.001% in the air as vapor,clouds (formed of solid andliquid water particlessuspended in air), andprecipitation. Only 2.5% of theEarths water is freshwater,and
  8. 8. 98.8% of that water is in iceand groundwater.
  9. 9. Less than 0.3% of all freshwateris in rivers, lakes, and theatmosphere, and an even smalleramount of the Earthsfreshwater (0.003%) is containedwithin biological bodies andmanufactured products
  10. 10. "PhilippineClean Water Actof 2004."
  11. 11.  Declaration of Policy. The State shall pursue a policy of economicgrowth in a manner consistent with the protection,preservation and revival of the quality of our fresh,brackish and marine waters.
  12. 12. To achieve this end,the framework forsustainabledevelopment shall bepursued. As such, itshall be the policy ofthe State.
  13. 13. Coverage of theAct
  14. 14. This Act shall apply to water qualitymanagement in all water bodies:Provided, That it shall primarilyapply to the abatement and control ofpollution from land based sources:
  15. 15. Provided, further, That thewater quality standards andregulations and the civilliability and penal provisionsunder this Act shall beenforced irrespective ofsources of pollution.
  16. 16. RoleEach local government unit shall,through its Environment andNatural Resources Office (ENRO)established in Republic ActNo.7160, have the followingpowers and functions:
  17. 17. Monitoring of water quality;Emergency response;Compliance with the frameworkof the Water QualityManagement Action Plan;
  18. 18. To take active participation in all effortsconcerning water quality protection andrehabilitation; andTo coordinate with other governmentagencies and civil society and theconcerned sectors in the implementationof measures to prevent and control waterpollution
  19. 19. MAIN IMPLEMENTOR-denrPhilippine Coast Guardin coordination with DAand the Department
  20. 20. - shall enforce for theenforcement of water qualitystandards in marine waters,set pursuant to this Act,specifically from offshoresources;
  21. 21. DPWH
  22. 22. -through its attached agencies,such as the MWSS, LWUA, andincluding other urban waterutilities for the provision orsewerage and sanitation facilitiesand the efficient and safecollection, treatment and disposalof sewage within their area ofjurisdiction;
  23. 23. Department ofAgriculture
  24. 24. -shall coordinate with theDepartment(DENR), in theformulation of guidelines for the re-use of wastewater for irrigation andother agricultural uses and for theprevention, control and abatement ofpollution from agricultural andaquaculture activities: 
  25. 25. Departmentof Health
  26. 26. -shall be primarilyresponsible for thepromulgation, revisionand enforcement ofdrinking water qualitystandards;
  27. 27. Department of Science andTechnology, in coordination with theDepartment and otherconcerned agencies
  28. 28. -shall prepare a program forthe evaluation, verification,development and publicdissemination of pollutionprevention and cleanerproduction technologies; and
  29. 29. Bureau of Fisheries andAquatic Resources(BFAR) of the DA
  30. 30. -shall be primarily responsiblefor the prevention and control ofwater pollution for thedevelopment, management andconservation of the fisheries andaquatic resources;
  31. 31. Department of Education(DepEd), Commission HigherEducation (CHED), Departmentof the Interior and LocalGovernment (DILG) andPhilippine Information Agency(PIA)
  32. 32. -shall assist and coordinatewith the Department in, thepreparation andimplementation of acomprehensive programpursuant to the objectives ofthis Act.
  33. 33. Fines, Damages and Penalties Any Violates any of theprovision of this Act orits implementing rulesand regulations, shall befined by the Secretary
  34. 34. r more than Two hundred thousand pes
  35. 35. percent (10%) every two (2) years to com
  36. 36. Failure to undertake clean-up operations, willfully, orthrough gross negligence
  37. 37. ars and not more than four (4) years and a f
  38. 38. Such failure or refusalwhich results in seriousinjury or loss of life and/orirreversible watercontamination of surface,ground, coastal and marinewater
  39. 39. (6) years and one day and not more than twe
  40. 40. LANdDEGRADATION
  41. 41. LAND DEGRADATION - is a concept in which thevalue of the biophysicalenvironment is affected by one ormore combination of human-induced processes acting uponthe land.
  42. 42. Facts and FigureExtent in many parts of theworld, with more than 20percent of all cultivated areas,30 percent of forests and 10percent of grasslandsundergoing degradation.
  43. 43. An estimated 1.5 billionpeople, or a quarter of theworlds population, dependdirectly on land that is beingdegraded.
  44. 44. 22 percent of degrading landis in very arid to dry-sub-humid areas, while 78 percentof it is in humid regions.
  45. 45. Signs
  46. 46. Fertile soils erode away,Indigenous trees are removed,Alien plants invade an area,Farm land is used for housing,Soils become salty through poorirrigation, orSoils are degraded by acidpollution and heavy
  47. 47. Causes of LandDegradation
  48. 48. Land clearance such asclear cutting anddeforestationLivestock includingovergrazing
  49. 49. Inappropriate irrigation andover draftingUrban sprawl and commercialdevelopment
  50. 50. Land pollution includingindustrial wasteVehicle off- roadingQuarrying of stone, sand, oreand minerals
  51. 51. Land Degradation Percentage in Asia
  52. 52. Effects of LandDegradation
  53. 53. Accelerated soil erosion bywind and waterSoil acidification and theformulation of acid sulfatesoil resulting in barrensoil
  54. 54. Soil alkalinisationSoil salinationSoil water logging in irrigatedlandDestruction of soil structure
  55. 55. SolutionGrazing managementErosion reductionWaterconservation/harvesting
  56. 56. EXTINCTION OFSPECIE S
  57. 57. EXTINCTION OF SPECIESIs the end of an organismor of a group of organism(taxon)
  58. 58. Facts and Figure At least 15 species havegone extinct over the pastfew decades. The realextinction figure is believedto be much higher, however,due to the conservativeapproach used in suchlistings;
  59. 59. Thousands of animal, plantand lichen species are nowconsidered at risk ofextinction;
  60. 60. One in three amphibians(32%) and almost half (42%) ofturtles and tortoises are nowknown to be threatened withextinction, along with one ineight birds (12%) and one infour mammals (23%);
  61. 61. Causes of ExtinctionHabitat degradationPredation, competition anddiseaseSpread of invasive species
  62. 62. Human Causes ofExtinctionIncreased human populationDestruction/ Fragmentation ofhabitatPollution
  63. 63. Solution and ConservationManagement strategiesEnvironmental strategiesGenetic strategies
  64. 64. Management strategies:conserve large areas of naturalecosystemsprovide bush corridors that linknatural ecosystems
  65. 65. reduce human consumption (ofresources)encourage recyclingimplement community educationprograms.
  66. 66. Environmental strategies:reduce the number ofintroduced speciesextensive reforestationprograms includingreplanting of nativevegetation
  67. 67. Genetic strategies:captive breeding programsseed banks
  68. 68. DNA profiling/breedingresearch programs,including the developmentof new strains.
  69. 69. DEFORESTATION
  70. 70. What is Deforestationtand of trees where the land is thereafte
  71. 71. include conversion of forestland to farm
  72. 72. CausesCorruption of governmentinstitutionsInequitable distribution ofwealth and power
  73. 73. Population growthOver population andurbanizationGlobalization
  74. 74. Other CausesHistoric Factors(war)Population GrowthUrbanizationClimate ChangeGreen House EffectCO2 Emission Increase
  75. 75. Effects of DeforestationSoil ErosionGround Water TableDepletion of BiodiversityFloodsDroughtGlobal warming
  76. 76. Control and SolutionReducing emissionsFarmingMonitoring deforestationForest managementSustainable practicesReforestation ion
  77. 77. Other SolutionLegislationWildlife SanctuariesCitiesIncentive to CorporateCommercial ForestPlantationsWater Management
  78. 78. CORAL REEFDESTRUCTION
  79. 79. CORAL REEF DESTRUCTION-human activity is taking a tallon a vital marine ecosystem, onethat protect coastlines andprovides a habitat for a richvariety of marine life.wild decay of coral reefs
  80. 80. Benefits of Coral ReefsCoral reefs are rich sources ofmarine lifeCarbon dioxide threatens reefsSource of Food and Medicine
  81. 81. Facts and figureCoral reefs, one of the richestand most interestingecosystems on the planet,provide shelter and food for awide array of living organisms.
  82. 82. The coral reefs of the Philippinesare among the most diverse,providing a home to more than900 fish species and more than400 coral species, includingmany that are endemic to thearea. 
  83. 83. The Philippine coral reefs totalabout 6.5 million acres (26,000square kilometers). More than7,000 islands and the warm oceanwaters that surround them haveresulted in numerous reefs, bothsmall and large, around thecountry.
  84. 84. Causes of the Destruction ofCoral Reefs1. Global Change Threats2. Direct Human Pressure3. The HumanDimension(governance,awareness and political will
  85. 85. Global Change ThreatsRising Level of CO2Coral BleachingDiseases, Plagues and Invasive
  86. 86. Reefs exposed to imminentdestruction from climatechangeReefs exposed to imminentdestruction from climatechange
  87. 87. 2. Direct Human PressureOverfishingSedimentsNutrients and ChemicalPollution
  88. 88. Development of CoastalAreasCoral bombing destroyshabitat and fishBlast fishingMoro ami
  89. 89. 3. The Human Dimension(governance, awareness andpolitical will)Rising Poverty, IncreasingPopulation, Alienation from theland
  90. 90. Poor Capacity for Managementand Lack of ResourcesLack of Political will and OceanicGovernance
  91. 91. EffectsThe End of Habitats with aHigh Density of Biodiversity:The Demise of EconomiesDependent on Reefs:
  92. 92. The Loss of Natural CoastalProtection:Killing the Hope for a Cure:
  93. 93. Solution to DISTRUCTIONPhysical RestorationBiological RestorationCoral Nurseries
  94. 94. Coral TransplantationMonitoring and MaintenanceLegislation
  95. 95. Thank You forListening!! BSAB 2A

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