Inland Fisheries and Climate Change


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Inland Fisheries and Climate Change - A Case Study of the Lake Chilwa Fishery. Daniel Jamu, The WorldFish Center, Malawi.

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  • Sensitivity determined from historical (1903-2009) weather, fisheries and livelihoods data from various publications; dapative capacity from a livelihood survey conducted in 2010; exposure from weather data (1903-2009)
  • Illustrates how programme interventions are linked to adaptive capacity and why we are implementing interventions such as solar fish driers and improved smoking kilns as ways of improving adaptive capacity of fishers, fish traders etc.
  • Because these interventions are of immediate benefit to communities, adoption is high indicating that adaptive capacity measures that can achieve quick wins are likely to be adopted quickly
  • Reduction of post harvest losses and improved food safety by solar fish driers = Increased Incomes
  • Fish processed in solar driers and packed priced 10X than open dried fish
  • Village forest areas will be a sustainable source of firewood for fish smoking
  • Inland Fisheries and Climate Change

    1. 1. INLAND FISHERIES AND CLIMATE CHANGEA CASE STUDY OF THE LAKE CHILWA FISHERY Daniel Jamu WorldFish Center, Malawi partnership  excellence  growth
    2. 2. Objective• To illustrate that inland fisheries productivity and livelihoods are affected by climatic anomalies resulting from climate change impacts affect• To present and share experiences on climate change adaptation in inland fisheries from an on-going project in the Lake Chilwa Basin, Malawi. partnership  excellence  growth
    3. 3. Inland Fisheries and Climate Change• Lake Tanganyika: Warming climate has increased surface water temperature, reduced primary productivity and reduced fish catch rate over the last century (O’Reilly, 2003);• Lake Malawi: evidence of warming and eutrophication (Vollmer et al., 2005, Otu et al., 2011)• Shallow lakes(Chad, Bangweulu, Chilwa) – Surface area and water levels fluctuate with regional rainfall anomalies – Fish catches, fishing activity and livelihoods mirror observed fluctuations (Jul-Larsen, 2003) partnership  excellence  growth
    4. 4. Malawi Fisheries Fact Sheet• 65,000MT = total annual production• US$64m = annual value (beach value) of fisheries production• 500,000 = Number of people supported by the fisheries sector• 15 = Rank (n=132 in terms of vulnerability of national economy to climate-change driven impacts on fisheries (Allison et al.,2008) partnership  excellence  growth
    5. 5. LAKE CHILWA CASE STUDY• Ramsar site• Area: 2,310 km2 (1,836 km2 open water)• Shallow (Mean Depth = 1.5m; Max. Depth = 2.5m)• High fish production (16,000MT per year)• Fish valuable resource (US$17m/year) partnership  excellence  growth
    6. 6. LAKE CHILWA CASE STUDY• Lake levels dependent on rainfall• Fish production driven by lake levels• Prone to partial or complete drying• Dried 8 times in last 100 years partnership  excellence  growth
    7. 7. Rainfall variability and lake water levelsRelationship between lake levels and rainfall at Chileka (neareststation with reliable rainfall data (Rebelo et al., 2011) partnership  excellence  growth
    8. 8. Lake Chilwa prone to periodic dryingLake Chilwa normal year (Left) and LakeChilwa dry year (Right) partnership  excellence  growth
    9. 9. Non-climatic factors affecting lake water levels changes• Increased runoff and siltation – Poor agricultural practices + Deforestation• Wetland and forest biomass burning – Reduced silt deposition in wetland – Accelerated runoff partnership  excellence  growth
    10. 10. Lake water level variability and fish production 25000 Catch 14 Mean Lake Level (m) 12 20000 10 Mean Lake Level (m)Catch (tonnes) 15000 8 10000 6 4 5000 2 0 0 1962 1967 1972 1977 1982 1987 1992 1997 2002 2007 Year Historical mean annual lake level (m) of Lake Chilwa and total catch(metric tons). Arrows show periods of partial (broken) and complete (solid) line partnership  excellence  growth
    11. 11. Fish production and livelihoods 7000 6000 5000Individuals 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 1999 2000 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 2001 2002 2003 Gear owners Crew Livelihoods of fishers, traders and basin communities mirror changes in lake hydrology . Arrows denote periods of complete drying partnership  excellence  growth
    12. 12. Responding to impacts of climatechange on livelihoods in the basin LAKE CHILWA BASIN CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION PROGRAMME• Funded by Royal Norwegian Embassy• Implemented by LEAD/University of Malawi, WorldFish Center and Forestry Research Institute of Malawi partnership  excellence  growth
    13. 13. Overall Goal• To secure the livelihoods of 1.5 million people in the Lake Chilwa Basin and build capacity of rural communities to manage the impacts of climate change. – Capacity strengthening – Improve adaptive capacity – Facilitate cross-sector planning and management for climate change in the basin partnership  excellence  growth
    14. 14. Programme Design FrameworkExposure Impact VulnerabilitySensitivity Adger,2000, IPCC, 2001 Adaptive capacityECOSYSTEM APPROACH partnership  excellence  growth
    15. 15. Climate Change VulnerabilityVariable Sensitivity ResilienceFish catches High HighLake ecosystem High MediumIncomes High LowLivelihoods High Low partnership  excellence  growth
    16. 16. Adaptive capacity of Lake Chilwa Communities-Findings• Strong social capital• Weak human, financial, natural and physical capital – Low literacy – Low incomes and poor access to credit – Degraded forests and agricultural land; declining fish catches – Dilapidated educational and health infrastructure partnership  excellence  growth
    17. 17. Addressing weak adaptive capacityAdaptive capacity ActivitymeasureFinancial (income) Value addition and linking commodity enterprises to marketsFinancial (savings and Link farmers and fishers to banks andloans) business management servicesNatural Afforestation and enhanced monitoring of water, soil and fisheriesPhysical Facilitate communities to demand social services partnership  excellence  growth
    18. 18. CLIMATIC ANOMALIES AND ADAPTIVE CAPACITY Increased rainfall High Post Harvest Losses High water levelsClimate Climatic High Fish Low fisher Reducedchange anomalies Catches income adaptive capacity High High Firewood Reduced natural temperatures consumption capital High deforestation rate partnership  excellence  growth
    19. 19. FISH VALUE ADDITION AND ADAPTIVE CAPACITY•Smoking kilns reducepost-harvest losses andsave firewood by 30%•Save 2400 tons of wood(30ha of mature forest) partnership  excellence  growth
    20. 20. FISH VALUE ADDITION AND ADAPTIVE CAPACITYReduction of post harvestlosses and improved foodsafety by solar fish driers= Increased Incomes partnership  excellence  growth
    21. 21. STRENGHTENING CAPACITY OF WOMEN FISH TRADERS •Women fish processors participatingLeadership training in a National Agriculture Fair. partnership  excellence  growth
    22. 22. INCREASING ECOSYSTEM RESILIENCE• Participatory fish monitoring using log books – Reduced IUU – Improved management Spatial mapping of fishing areas partnership  excellence  growth
    23. 23. INCREASING ECOSYSTEM RESILIENCEAfforestation of degraded slopes Promotion of village forest areas Regulate river flow and reduce siltation of Lake Chilwa partnership  excellence  growth
    24. 24. INCREASING ECOSYSTEM RESILIENCEConservation agriculture to reduce Soil erosion monitoring to informsoil erosion and runoff to the lake farmers and managers partnership  excellence  growth
    25. 25. INCREASING ECOSYSTEM RESILIENCE Long term lake water level monitoring partnership  excellence  growth
    26. 26. CONCLUDING REMARKS• Lake Chilwa ecosystem and communities is an example of an inland fishery affected by climatic anomalies resulting from climate change impacts• IPCC framework for defining vulnerability relevant for design and implementation of Lake Chilwa climate change adaptation programme• Adaptive capacity measures which achieve economic benefits in the short term are good candidates for quick wins during early stages of implementation of adaptation projects partnership  excellence  growth