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hydrosphere and water pollution

  1. 1. WATER POLLUTION AND SOCIETY By David Krantz and Brad Kifferstein    <br />
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION<br />   Comprising over 70% of the Earth�s surface, water is undoubtedly the most precious natural resource that exists on our planet.  Without the seemingly invaluable compound comprised of hydrogen and oxygen, life on Earth would be non-existent: it is essential for everything on our planet to grow and prosper.  Although we as humans recognize this fact, we disregard it by polluting our rivers, lakes, and oceans. Subsequently, we are slowly but surely harming our planet to the point where organisms are dying at a very alarming rate.  In addition to innocent organisms dying off, our drinking water has become greatly affected as is our ability to use water for recreational purposes.  In order to combat water pollution, we must understand the problems and become part of the solution. <br />
  3. 3. POINT AND NONPOINT SOURCES  <br />  According to the American College Dictionary, pollution is defined as:  �to make foul or unclean; dirty.�  Water pollution occurs when a body of water is adversely affected due to the addition of large amounts of materials to the water.  When it is unfit for its intended use, water is considered polluted.  Two types of water pollutants exist; point source and nonpoint source.  Point sources of pollution occur when harmful substances are emitted directly into a body of water.  The Exxon Valdez oil spill best illustrates a point source water pollution.  A nonpoint source delivers pollutants indirectly through environmental changes.  An example of this type of water pollution is when fertilizer from a field is carried into a stream by rain, in the form of run-off which in turn effects aquatic life.  The technology exists for point sources of pollution to be monitored and regulated, although political factors may complicate matters. Nonpoint sources are much more difficult to control.  Pollution arising from nonpoint sources accounts for a majority of the contaminants in streams and lakes. <br />
  4. 4. CAUSES OF POLLUTION<br />Many causes of pollution including sewage and fertilizers contain nutrients such as nitrates and phosphates.  In excess levels, nutrients over stimulate the growth of aquatic plants and algae.  Excessive growth of these types of organisms consequently clogs our waterways, use up dissolved oxygen as they decompose, and block light to deeper waters. This, in turn, proves very harmful to aquatic organisms as it affects the respiration ability or fish and other invertebrates that reside in water.      Pollution is also caused when silt and other suspended solids, such as soil, washoff plowed fields, construction and logging sites, urban areas, and eroded river banks when it rains.  Under natural conditions, lakes, rivers, and other water bodies undergo Eutrophication, an aging process that slowly fills in the water body with sediment and organic matter.  When these sediments enter various bodies of water, fish respirationbecomes impaired, plant productivity and water depth become reduced, and aquatic organisms and their environments become suffocated.  Pollution in the form of organic material enters waterways in many different forms as sewage, as leaves and grass clippings, or as runoff from livestock feedlots and pastures.  When natural bacteria and protozoan in the water break down this organic material, they begin to use up the oxygen dissolved in the water.  Many types of fish and bottom-dwelling animals cannot survive when levels of dissolved oxygen drop below two to five parts per million.  When this occurs, it kills aquatic organisms in large numbers which leads to disruptions in the food chain. <br />
  5. 5. The specific contaminants leading to pollution in water include a wide spectrum of chemicals, pathogens, and physical or sensory changes such as elevated temperature and discoloration. While many of the chemicals and substances that are regulated may be naturally occurring (calcium, sodium, iron, manganese, etc.) the concentration is often the key in determining what is a natural component of water, and what is a contaminant. High concentrations of naturally-occurring substances can have negative impacts on aquatic flora and fauna.<br />Oxygen-depleting substances may be natural materials, such as plant matter (e.g. leaves and grass) as well as man-made chemicals. Other natural and anthropogenic substances may cause turbidity (cloudiness) which blocks light and disrupts plant growth, and clogs the gills of some fish species.[10]<br />
  6. 6. Many of the chemical substances are toxic. Pathogens can produce waterborne diseases in either human or animal hosts.[11] Alteration of water's physical chemistry includes acidity (change in pH), electrical conductivity, temperature, and eutrophication. Eutrophication is an increase in the concentration of chemical nutrients in an ecosystem to an extent that increases in the primary productivity of the ecosystem. Depending on the degree of eutrophication, subsequent negative environmental effects such as anoxia (oxygen depletion) and severe reductions in water quality may occur, affecting fish and other animal populations.<br />
  7. 7. Pathogens<br />High levels of pathogens may result from inadequately treated sewage discharges.[14] This can be caused by a sewage plant designed with less than secondary treatment (more typical in less-developed countries). In developed countries, older cities with aging infrastructure may have leaky sewage collection systems (pipes, pumps, valves), which can cause sanitary sewer overflows. Some cities also have combined sewers, which may discharge untreated sewage during rain storms.[15]<br />Pathogen discharges may also be caused by poorly managed livestock operations.<br />
  8. 8. Chemical and other contaminants<br />Contaminants may include organic and inorganic substances.<br />Organic water pollutants include:<br />Detergents<br />Disinfection by-products found in chemically disinfecteddrinking water, such as chloroform<br />Food processing waste, which can include oxygen-demanding substances, fats and grease<br />Insecticides and herbicides, a huge range of organohalides and other chemical compounds<br />Petroleum hydrocarbons, including fuels (gasoline, diesel fuel, jet fuels, and fuel oil) and lubricants (motor oil), and fuel combustion byproducts, from stormwaterrunoff[16]<br />Tree and bush debris from logging operations<br />Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), such as industrial solvents, from improper storage. Chlorinated solvents, which are dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs), may fall to the bottom of reservoirs, since they don't mix well with water and are denser.<br />Various chemical compounds found in personal hygiene and cosmetic products<br />A garbage collection boom in an urban-area stream in Auckland, New Zealand.<br />
  9. 9. Inorganic water pollutants include:<br />Acidity caused by industrial discharges (especially sulfur dioxide from power plants)<br />Ammonia from food processing waste<br />Chemical waste as industrial by-products<br />Fertilizers containing nutrients--nitrates and phosphates--which are found in stormwater runoff from agriculture, as well as commercial and residential use[16]<br />Heavy metals from motor vehicles (via urban stormwater runoff)[16][17] and acid mine drainage<br />Silt (sediment) in runoff from construction sites, logging, slash and burn practices or land clearing sites<br />Macroscopic pollution—large visible items polluting the water—may be termed "floatables" in an urban stormwater context, or marine debris when found on the open seas, and can include such items as:<br />Trash or garbage (e.g. paper, plastic, or food waste) discarded by people on the ground, along with accidental or intentional dumping of rubbish, that are washed by rainfall into storm drains and eventually discharged into surface waters<br />Nurdles, small ubiquitous waterborne plastic pellets<br />Shipwrecks, large derelict ships<br />
  10. 10. Transport and chemical reactions of water pollutants<br />Most water pollutants are eventually carried by rivers into the oceans. In some areas of the world the influence can be traced hundred miles from the mouth by studies using hydrology transport models. Advanced computer models such as SWMM or the DSSAM Model have been used in many locations worldwide to examine the fate of pollutants in aquatic systems. Indicator filter feeding species such as copepods have also been used to study pollutant fates in the New York Bight, for example. The highest toxin loads are not directly at the mouth of the Hudson River, but 100 kilometers south, since several days are required for incorporation into planktonic tissue. The Hudson discharge flows south along the coast due to coriolis force. Further south then are areas of oxygen depletion, caused by chemicals using up oxygen and by algae blooms, caused by excess nutrients from algal cell death and decomposition. Fish and shellfish kills have been reported, because toxins climb the food chain after small fish consume copepods, then large fish eat smaller fish, etc. Each successive step up the food chain causes a stepwise concentration of pollutants such as heavy metals (e.g. mercury) and persistent organic pollutants such as DDT. This is known as biomagnification, which is occasionally used interchangeably with bioaccumulation.<br />
  11. 11. A polluted river draining an abandoned copper mine on Anglesey<br />Large gyres (vortexes) in the oceans trap floating plastic debris. The North Pacific Gyre for example has collected the so-called "Great Pacific Garbage Patch" that is now estimated at 100 times the size of Texas. Many of these long-lasting pieces wind up in the stomachs of marine birds and animals. This results in obstruction of digestive pathways which leads to reduced appetite or even starvation.<br />Many chemicals undergo reactive decay[disambiguation needed] or chemically change especially over long periods of time in groundwater reservoirs. A noteworthy class of such chemicals is the chlorinated hydrocarbons such as trichloroethylene (used in industrial metal degreasing and electronics manufacturing) and tetrachloroethylene used in the dry cleaning industry (note latest advances in liquid carbon dioxide in dry cleaning that avoids all use of chemicals). Both of these chemicals, which are carcinogens themselves, undergo partial decomposition reactions, leading to new hazardous chemicals (including dichloroethylene and vinyl chloride)<br />
  12. 12. Groundwater pollution is much more difficult to abate than surface pollution because groundwater can move great distances through unseen aquifers. Non-porous aquifers such as clays partially purify water of bacteria by simple filtration (adsorption and absorption), dilution, and, in some cases, chemical reactions and biological activity: however, in some cases, the pollutants merely transform to soil contaminants. Groundwater that moves through cracks and caverns is not filtered and can be transported as easily as surface water. In fact, this can be aggravated by the human tendency to use natural sinkholes as dumps in areas of Karst topography.<br />There are a variety of secondary effects stemming not from the original pollutant, but a derivative condition. An example is silt-bearing surface runoff, which can inhibit the penetration of sunlight through the water column, hampering photosynthesis in aquatic plants.<br />
  13. 13. Control<br />Domestic sewage<br />Main article: Sewage treatment<br />Deer Island Waste Water Treatment Plant serving Boston, Massachusetts and vicinity.<br />Domestic sewage is 99.9 percent pure water, while the other 0.1 percent are pollutants. Although found in low concentrations, these pollutants pose risk on a large scale.[22] In urban areas, domestic sewage is typically treated by centralized sewage treatment plants. In the U.S., most of these plants are operated by local government agencies, frequently referred to as publicly owned treatment works (POTW). Municipal treatment plants are designed to control conventional pollutants: BOD and suspended solids. Well-designed and operated systems (i.e., secondary treatment or better) can remove 90 percent or more of these pollutants. Some plants have additional sub-systems to treat nutrients and pathogens. Most municipal plants are not designed to treat toxic pollutants found in industrial wastewater.[23]<br />Cities with sanitary sewer overflows or combined sewer overflows employ one or more engineering approaches to reduce discharges of untreated sewage, including:<br />utilizing a green infrastructure approach to improve stormwater management capacity throughout the system, and reduce the hydraulic overloading of the treatment plant[24]<br />repair and replacement of leaking and malfunctioning equipment[15]<br />increasing overall hydraulic capacity of the sewage collection system (often a very expensive option).<br />A household or business not served by a municipal treatment plant may have an individual septic tank, which treats the wastewater on site and discharges into the soil. Alternatively, domestic wastewater may be sent to a nearby privately owned treatment system (e.g. in a rural community).<br />
  14. 14. Industrial wastewater<br />Some industrial facilities generate ordinary domestic sewage that can be treated by municipal facilities. Industries that generate wastewater with high concentrations of conventional pollutants (e.g. oil and grease), toxic pollutants (e.g. heavy metals, volatile organic compounds) or other nonconventional pollutants such as ammonia, need specialized treatment systems. Some of these facilities can install a pre-treatment system to remove the toxic components, and then send the partially-treated wastewater to the municipal system. Industries generating large volumes of wastewater typically operate their own complete on-site treatment systems.<br />Some industries have been successful at redesigning their manufacturing processes to reduce or eliminate pollutants, through a process called pollution prevention.<br />Heated water generated by power plants or manufacturing plants may be controlled with:<br />cooling ponds, man-made bodies of water designed for cooling by evaporation, convection, and radiation<br />cooling towers, which transfer waste heat to the atmosphere through evaporation and/or heat transfer<br />cogeneration, a process where waste heat is recycled for domestic and/or industrial heating purposes<br />
  15. 15. Agricultural wastewater<br />Nonpoint source controlsSediment (loose soil) washed off fields is the largest source of agricultural pollution in the United States.[10] Farmers may utilize erosion controls to reduce runoff flows and retain soil on their fields. Common techniques include contour plowing, crop mulching, crop rotation, planting perennial crops and installing riparian buffers.[26][27]:pp. 4-95–4-96<br />Nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) are typically applied to farmland as commercial fertilizer; animal manure; or spraying of municipal or industrial wastewater (effluent) or sludge. Nutrients may also enter runoff from crop residues, irrigation water, wildlife, and atmospheric deposition.[27]:p. 2-9 Farmers can develop and implement nutrient management plans to reduce excess application of nutrients.[26][27]:pp. 4-37–4-38<br />To minimize pesticide impacts, farmers may use Integrated Pest Management (IPM) techniques (which can include biological pest control) to maintain control over pests, reduce reliance on chemical pesticides, and protect water quality.[28]<br />
  16. 16. Point source wastewater treatmentFarms with large livestock and poultry operations, such as factory farms, are called concentrated animal feeding operations or confined animal feeding operations in the U.S. and are being subject to increasing government regulation.[29][30] Animal slurries are usually treated by containment in lagoons before disposal by spray or trickle application to grassland. Constructed wetlands are sometimes used to facilitate treatment of animal wastes, as are anaerobic lagoons. Some animal slurries are treated by mixing with straw and composted at high temperature to produce a bacteriologically sterile and friable manure for soil improvement.<br />
  17. 17. ADDITIONAL FORMS OF WATER POLLUTION<br />Three last forms of water pollution exist in the forms of petroleum, radioactive substances, and heat.  Petroleum often pollutes waterbodies in the form of oil, resulting from oil spills.  The previously mentioned Exxon Valdez is an example of this type of water pollution.  These large-scale accidental discharges of petroleum are an important cause of pollution along shore lines.  Besides the supertankers, off-shore drilling operations contribute a large share of pollution.  One estimate is that one ton of oil is spilled for every million tons of oil transported.  This is equal to about 0.0001 percent. Radioactive substances are produced in the form of waste from nuclear power plants, and from the industrial, medical, and scientific use of radioactive materials.  Specific forms of waste are uranium and thorium mining and refining.  The last form of water pollution is heat.  Heat is a pollutant because increased temperatures result in the deaths of many aquatic organisms.  These decreases in temperatures are caused when a discharge of cooling water by factories and power plants occurs. <br />
  18. 18. CLASSIFYING WATER POLLUTION<br />The major sources of water pollution can be classified as municipal, industrial, and agricultural.  Municipal water pollution consists of waste water from homes and commercial establishments.  For many years, the main goal of treating municipal wastewater was simply to reduce its content of suspended solids, oxygen-demanding materials, dissolved inorganic compounds, and harmful bacteria.  In recent years, however, more stress has been placed on improving means of disposal of the solid residues from the municipal treatment processes.  The basic methods of treating municipal wastewater fall into three stages: primary treatment, including grit removal, screening, grinding, and sedimentation; secondary treatment, which entails oxidation of dissolved organic matter by means of using biologically active sludge, which is then filtered off; and tertiary treatment, in which advanced biological methods of nitrogen removal and chemical and physical methods such as granular filtration and activated carbon absorption are employed.  The handling and disposal of solid residues can account for 25 to 50 percent of the capital and operational costs of a treatment plant.  The characteristics of industrial waste waters can differ considerably both within and among industries.  The impact of industrial discharges depends not only on their collective characteristics, such as biochemical oxygen demand and the amount of suspended solids, but also on their content of specific inorganic and organic substances. Three options are available in controlling industrial wastewater.  Control can take place at the point of generation in the plant; wastewater can be pretreated for discharge to municipal treatment sources; or wastewater can be treated completely at the plant and either reused or discharged directly into receiving waters. <br />
  19. 19.  Agriculture, including commercial livestock and poultry farming, is the source of many organic and inorganic pollutants in surface waters and groundwater.  These contaminants include both sediment from erosion cropland and compounds of phosphorus and nitrogen that partly originate in animal wastes and commercial fertilizers.  Animal wastes are high in oxygen demanding material, nitrogen and phosphorus, and they often harbor pathogenic organisms.  Wastes from commercial feeders are contained and disposed of on land; their main threat to natural waters, therefore, is from runoff and leaching.  Control may involve settling basins for liquids, limited biological treatment in aerobic or anaerobic lagoons, and a variety of other methods.   <br />
  20. 20. GROUND WATER<br />   Ninety-five percent of all fresh water on earth is ground water.  Ground water is found in natural rock formations.  These formations, called aquifers, are a vital natural resource with many uses.  Nationally, 53% of the population relies on ground water as a source of drinking water.  In rural areas this figure is even higher.  Eighty one percent of community water is dependent on ground water.  Although the 1992 Section 305(b) State Water Quality Reports indicate that, overall, the Nation�s ground water quality is good to excellent, many local areas have experienced significant ground water contamination. Some examples are leaking underground storage tanks and municipal landfills.   <br />
  21. 21. LEGISLATION<br />Several forms of legislation have been passed in recent decades to try to control water pollution.  In 1970, the Clean Water Act provided 50 billion dollars to cities and states to build wastewater facilities.  This has helped control surface water pollution from industrial and municipal sources throughout the United States.  When congress passed the Clean Water Act in 1972, states were given primary authority to set their own standards for their water.  In addition to these standards, the act required that all state beneficial uses and their criteria must comply with the �fishable and swimmable� goals of the act.  This essentially means that state beneficial uses must be able to support aquatic life and recreational use.  Because it is impossible to test water for every type of disease-causing organism, states usually look to identify indicator bacteria.  One for a example is a bacteria known as fecal coliforms.(Figure 1 shows the quality of water for each every state in the United States, click on the US link). These indicator bacteria suggest that a certain selection of water may be contaminated with untreated sewage and that other, more dangerous, organisms are present.  These legislations are an important part in the fight against water pollution.  They are useful in preventing Envioronmental catastrophes.  The graph shows reported pollution incidents since 1989-1994.  If stronger legislations existed, perhaps these events would never have occurred.  <br />
  22. 22. GLOBAL WATER POLLUTION<br />     Estimates suggest that nearly 1.5 billion people lack safe drinking water and that at least 5 million deaths per year can be attributed to waterborne diseases. With over 70 percent of the planet covered by oceans, people have long acted as if these very bodies of water could serve as a limitless dumping ground for wastes. Raw sewage, garbage, and oil spills have begun to overwhelm the diluting capabilities of the oceans, and most coastal waters are now polluted. Beaches around the world are closed regularly, often because of high amounts of bacteria from sewage disposal, and marine wildlife is beginning to suffer. <br />
  23. 23. Perhaps the biggest reason for developing a worldwide effort to monitor and restrict global pollution is the fact that most forms of pollution do not respect national boundaries. The first major international conference on environmental issues was held in Stockholm, Sweden, in 1972 and was sponsored by the United Nations (UN). This meeting, at which the United States took a leading role, was controversial because many developing countries were fearful that a focus on environmental protection was a means for the developed world to keep the undeveloped world in an economically subservient position. The most important outcome of the conference was the creation of the United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP).   UNEP was designed to be �the environmental conscience of the United Nations,� and, in an attempt to allay fears of the developing world, it became the first UN agency to be headquartered in a developing country, with offices in Nairobi, Kenya. In addition to attempting to achieve scientific consensus about major environmental issues, a major focus for UNEP has been the study of ways to encourage sustainable development increasing standards of living without destroying the environment. At the time of UNEP's creation in 1972, only 11 countries had environmental agencies. Ten years later that number had grown to 106, of which 70 were in developing countries.  <br />
  24. 24. WATER QUALITY  <br />Water quality is closely linked to water use and to the state of economic development.  In industrialized countries, bacterial contamination of surface water caused serious health problems in major cities throughout the mid 1800�s.  By the turn of the century, cities in Europe and North America began building sewer networks to route domestic wastes downstream of water intakes.  Development of these sewage networks and waste treatment facilities in urban areas has expanded tremendously in the past two decades.  However, the rapid growth of the urban population (especially in Latin America and Asia) has outpaced the ability of governments to expand sewage and water infrastructure.  While waterborne diseases have been eliminated in the developed world, outbreaks of cholera and other similar diseases still occur with alarming frequency in the developing countries.  Since World War II and the birth of the �chemical age�, water quality has been heavily impacted worldwide by industrial and agricultural chemicals. Eutrophication of surface waters from human and agricultural wastes and nitrification of groundwater from agricultural practices has greatly affected large parts of the world. Acidification of surface waters by air pollution is a recent phenomenon and threatens aquatic life in many area of the world.  In developed countries, these general types of pollution have occurred sequentially with the result that most developed countries have successfully dealt with major surface water pollution.  In contrast, however, newly industrialized countries such as China, India, Thailand, Brazil, and Mexico are now facing all these issues simultaneously. <br />
  25. 25. CONCLUSION <br />Clearly, the problems associated with water pollution have the capabilities to disrupt life on our planet to a great extent. Congress has passed laws to try to combat water pollution thus acknowledging the fact that water pollution is, indeed, a seriousissue. But the government alone cannot solve the entire problem.  It is ultimately up to us, to be informed, responsible and involved when it comes to the problems we face with our water.  We must become familiar with our local water resources and learn about ways for disposing harmful household wastes so they don�t end up in sewage treatment plants that can�t handle them or landfills not designed to receive hazardous materials.  In our yards, we must determine whether additional nutrients are needed before fertilizers are applied, and look for alternatives where fertilizers might run off into surface waters. We have to preserve existing trees and plant new trees and shrubs to help prevent soil erosion and promote infiltration of water into the soil.  Around our houses, we must keep litter, pet waste, leaves, and grass clippings out of gutters and storm drains.  These are just a few of the many ways in which we, as humans, have the ability to combat water pollution.  As we head into the 21st century, awareness and education will most assuredly continue to be the two most important ways to prevent water pollution.  If these measures are not taken and water pollution continues, life on earth will suffer severely.      Global environmental collapse is not inevitable. But the developed world must work with the developing world to ensure that new industrialized economies do not add to the world's environmental problems. Politicians must think of sustainable development rather than economic expansion. Conservation strategies have to become more widely accepted, and people must learn that energy use can be dramatically diminished without sacrificing comfort.  In short, with the technology that currently exists, the years of global environmental mistreatment can begin to be reversed. <br />
  26. 26. Hydrosphere<br />A hydrosphere (from Greekὕδωρ - hydor, "water" and σφαῖρα - sphaira, "sphere") in physical geography describes the combined mass of water found on, under, and over the surface of a planet.<br />The total mass of the Earth's hydrosphere is about 1.4 × 1018tonnes, which is about 0.023% of the Earth's total mass. About 20 × 1012tonnes of this is in the Earth's atmosphere (the volume of one tonne of water is approximately 1 cubic metre). Approximately 75% of the Earth's surface, an area of some 361 million square kilometres (139.5 million square miles), is covered by ocean. The average salinity of the Earth's oceans is about 35 grams of salt per kilogram of sea water (35 ‰).[1]<br />
  27. 27. The Hydrosphere <br />The hydrosphere is often called the "water sphere" as it includes all the earth's water found in the oceans, glaciers, streams, lakes, the soil, groundwater, and in the air. The hydrosphere interacts with, and is influenced by, all the other earth spheres. The water of the hydrosphere is distributed among several different stores found in the other spheres. Water is held in oceans, lakes and streams at the surface of the earth. Water is found in vapor, liquid and solid states in the atmosphere. The biosphere serves as an interface between the spheres enabling  water to move between the hydrosphere, lithosphere and atmosphere as is accomplished by plant transpiration. The hydrologic cycle traces the movement of water and energy between these various stores and spheres.<br />
  28. 28. Other hydrospheres<br />A thick hydrosphere is thought to exist around the Jovian moon Europa. The outer layer of this hydrosphere is almost entirely ice, but current models predict that there is an ocean up to 100 km in depth underneath the ice. This ocean remains in a liquid form because of tidal flexing of the moon in its orbit around Jupiter. The volume of Europa's hydrosphere is 3 × 1018 m3, 2.3 times that of Earth.<br />It has been suggested that the Jovian moon Ganymede and the Saturnian moon Enceladus may also possess sub-surface oceans. However the ice covering is expected to be thicker on Jupiter's Ganymede than on Europa.<br />
  29. 29. Hydrological cycle<br />Insolation, or energy (in the form of heat and light) from the sun, provides the energy necessary to cause evaporation from all wet surfaces including oceans, rivers, lakes, soil and the leaves of plants. Water vapor is further released as transpiration from vegetation and from humans and other animals.<br />Aquifer drawdown or overdrafting and the pumping of fossil water increases the total amount of water in the hydrosphere[2] that is subject to transpiration and evaporation thereby causing accretion in water vapour and cloud cover which are the primary absorbers of infrared radiation in the earth's atmosphere. Adding water to the system has a forcing effect on the whole earth system, an accurate estimate of which hydrogeological fact is yet to be quantified.<br />
  30. 30. Earth Spheres/Systems  <br />The cryosphere is the part of the earth's hydrosphere comprised of frozen water. It plays a integral role in the global climate system through its influence on surface energy budgets, atmospheric moisture, hydrology, and atmospheric and oceanic circulation. The cyrosphere is a sensitive element of the climate system providing a key indicator of climate change. The increasing loss of Arctic sea ice and breakup of Antarctic ice shelves are are two examples. <br />
  31. 31. Presentation in natsci 005<br />Submitted by:JinkyM.Pajarillo<br />Submitted to:Ms.Ma.KatrinaPobre<br />