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  • 1. Screencasting: Foregrounding Aurality/Orality in the FYC Classroom
    Sarah Moseley
    ENGL 820
  • 2. Introduction
    Aurality/orality is important in the FYC classroom. Today, we commonly have students:
    Give oral presentations of their work
    Discuss in large and small groups
    Work in small groups for peer review
    Read aloud
    Answer and ask questions
    Student-teacher conferences
    However, writing is too often regarded as “not simply one way of knowing; it is the way” (Dunn 15).
  • 3. This type of multimodality is valuable for several reasons:
    Helps students make sense of their experience and everyday lives
    Draws on a frequent form of communication in student culture
    Respects students’ “rhetorical sovereignty” – print cultures are not privileged as much over oral cultures (Selfe 642).
  • 4. History of Aurality/Oralityin the U.S. University
    Many scholars confirm that writing has only recently become dominant in the U.S. university (Russell, Berlin, Johnson, Halloran).
    In the early 1800s, Western classical tradition prevailed, with recitations, orations, debates, etc.
    In the later 1800s, with the rise of industrialization, preparation for specialized professional work became more important. This type of work relied increasingly on writing.
    As writing culture waxed, oral culture waned in the U.S. university.
  • 5. Where are we today?
    If we privilege print culture, we:
    Perpetuate a binary division between writing and speaking (Biber, Tannen);
    Teach a narrow understanding of language and literacy (Kress);
    Limit our students’ ability to use multiple modes common in everyday and professional activities;
    Value print culture over oral culture, which may work against our students, who come from a variety of backgrounds (Dunn, Royster).
  • 6. Screencasting: a tool for change
    While the university still largely privileges print culture, FYC teachers continue to use aural/oral pedagogical methods. One technology that allows teachers to expand on their use of aurality/orality in the classroom is screencasting.
    Screencasting is a type of digital recording technology that creates a video of a selected area on the computer screen. Many screencasts contain audio narration.
  • 7. Teacher usage
    Teachers can use screencasting in multiple ways:
    Giving students feedback on assignments (Vincelette)
    Creating short tutorials or instructional videos
    Showing how to insert a header or use the Purdue OWL website
    Answering student questions with visual video assistance
    Screencasting has been used to the advantage of teachers in traditional and distance FYC classrooms, with positive response from students.
  • 8. Student usage
    Most sources focus on teacher use of screencasting, but there are also rich possibilities for students:
    Creating oral versions of traditionally written assignments
    Transforming written assignments into an oral medium
    Giving classmates feedback in peer review
    Demonstrating knowledge by labeling the parts of their essay
    thesis, evidence, transition
    Responding to discussion forum questions, holding asynchronous conversations.
  • 9. Limitations
    While screencasting offers numerous benefits, there are some limitations:
    Technology access – users must have computer, recording and internet access.
    Electronic assignments - to make a screencast, the speaker comments upon documents on the computer screen.
    Students with hearing or speaking impairments may not be able to fully participate.
    Learning curve – screencasting programs are generally user-friendly, but any new technology requires some study.
    Recording limitation – different screencasting programs allow for different lengths of recording, but none that I’ve found allow for infinitely long screencasts.
  • 10. 12 Screencasting Tools
    Debut from NCH software
    Of these 12 tools, Jing and Debut seem most promising to me. Both allow for screen and audio capture. Jing is easier to learn than NCH, but has a shorter recording time limit (5 minutes).
  • 11. Conclusion
    Multimodal composition draws on students’ experience, develops a range of critical thinking and expression skills, and places value upon non-print cultures. Screencasting is a tool for teachers and students to increase the multimodality of the FYC classroom by foregrounding aurality/orality in the classroom.
  • 12. Questions? Suggestions?
    Please, get in touch!
    Sarah Moseley
  • 13. Works Cited
    Berlin, James A. Rhetoric and Reality: Writing Instruction in American Colleges, 1900-1985. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1987.
    Biber, Douglas. “Spoken and written textual dimensions in English: Resolving the Contradictory Findings.” Language 62 (1986): 384-414.
    Dunn, Patricia A. Talking, Sketching, Moving: Multiple Literacies in the Teaching of Writing. Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook, 2001.
    Halloran, Michael. “Rhetoric in the American College Curriculum: The Decline of Public Discourse” Pre/Text: The First Decade. Ed. Victor J. Vitanza. Pittsburgh: U of Pittsburgh P, 1993. 93-116.
    Johnson, Nan. Nineteenth-Century Rhetoric in North America. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1991.
    Kress, Gunther. “Multimodality.” Multiliteracies: Literacy Learning and the Design of Social Futures. Ed. Bill Cope and Mary Kalantzis. London: Routledge, 2000. 186-202.
    Royster, Jacqueline Jones. “When the First voice You Hear Is Not Your Own.” College Composition and Communication 47.1 (1996): 29-40.
    Russell, David R. Writing in the Academic Disciplines, 1870-1990: A Curricular History. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1991.
    Selfe, Cynthia L. “The Movement of Air, the Breath of Meaning: Aurality and Multimodal Composing.” College Composition and Communication60.4 (June 2009): 616-663.
    Tannen, Deborah. Ed. Spoken and Written Language: Exploring Orality and Literacy. Norwood, NJ: Ablex, 1982.
    Vincelette, Beth. "Performing your Grading: Beyond the Rubric." ENGL 664 Teaching College Composition. Old Dominion University. Norfolk, Va. 25 Oct. 2011. Classroom Presentation.