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Teflin 2013


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Slides presented in TEFLIN International Conference, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta--Indonesia

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Teflin 2013

  1. 1. Experiencing the Four Strands: My participation in an English Proficiency Programme Anik Nunuk Wulyani State University of Malang Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand
  2. 2. The outline of my presentation • What the Four Strands are • English Proficiency Programme (EPP) • EPP and the Four Strands • What I experienced • What I learned
  3. 3. A. What the Four Strands are Nation (2007) defines the Four Strands as 1. meaning-focused input, 2. meaning-focused output, 3. language-focused learning, and 4. fluency development
  4. 4. 1. Meaning-focused input • Learning through listening and reading—using language receptively • Extensive reading, shared reading, listening to stories, watching TV or films, being a listener to a conversation • Conditions: a. What is learned is mostly familiar b. Learners are interested and want to understand c. Learners learn from context clues and background knowledge d. Large quantities of input are present
  5. 5. 2. Meaning-focused output • Learning through speaking and writing—productive skills • Talking in conversations, giving a speech or lecture, writing a letter, writing a note to someone, keeping a diary, telling a story and telling someone how to do something • Conditions: a. What is learned is mostly familiar b. Learners convey their message to someone else c. Learners learn from communication strategies, dictionaries or previous input d. Plenty of opportunities to speak and write are available.
  6. 6. 3. Language-focused learning • Or language-focused learning, focus on form, form-focused instruction, deliberate learning • Pronunciation practice, using substitution tables and drills, learning vocabulary from word cars, intensive reading, translation, memorising dialogues and getting feedback about writing • Conditions: a. Focus on form b. Opportunities to give spaced, repeated attention c. Simple and not dependent on developmental knowledge that the learners do not have d. Occur often in the other three strands of the course.
  7. 7. 4. Fluency development • Covers all the four language skills: listening, reading, speaking and writing • Speed reading, repeated retelling, ten-minute writing and listening to easy stories • Conditions: a. What is learned is mostly familiar b. Learners’ focus is on receiving or conveying meaning c. Some pressure or encouragement to perform at a faster than usual speed d. A large amount of input or output
  8. 8. B. English Proficiency Programme (EPP) • Language Institute (see ). • improving learners’ performance in: a. reading and listening to complex information b. taking an active part in discussions c. expressing complex ideas and facts through speech and writing d. becoming an independent learner of English • full-time programme
  9. 9. • 20 - 25 hours per week of class work & independent study • Class work : a. practice listening to talks and lectures, taking part in discussions, reading effectively, writing essays or reports b. listening and speaking practice in audio-visual classrooms; vocabulary and grammar study c. media studies in which learners read, listen to and discuss information from the radio, television and newspapers d. regular tests to give learners feedback on their progress • Independent study: independent learning materials in the Language Learning Centre & the University Library
  10. 10. C. EPP and the Four Strands • The activities in EPP are designed to fulfill the criteria of a balance of meaningfocused input, meaning-focused output, language-focused learning and fluency development
  11. 11. D. What I experienced Examples of: •meaning-focused input •meaning-focused output •language-focused learning •fluency development in day to day activities
  12. 12. a. Meaning-focused input Wednesday Lecture •Theme book: Learning a Foreign Language •A lecture by a Linguist on NZE (pronunciation, vocabulary, and grammar) •Pronunciation: fish and chips, seven ten (NZ$7.10) •Vocabulary: barbie: barbecue chips: French fries candyfloss: cottoncandy chilly bin: cooler capsicum: bell pepper Maori words: pohutukawa, rimu, manuka, paua, tarakihi, kiwi, pukeko, tui, etc. •Grammar: (find different examples from Laurie’s paper)
  13. 13. Listening Materials: • Radio New Zealand news • BBC Learning English: 6 Minute English • Engineering works!
  14. 14. b. Meaning-focused output • Thank you letters • Semantic webs • Weekly test on Thursday afternoon
  15. 15. C. Language-focused learning • • • • List of vocabulary Pronounce Write family words, part of speech, collocation Write sentences
  16. 16. d. Fluency development • • • • Reading—speed reading Listening—dictation Speaking—2-minute talk with a topic Writing—10-minute writing session
  17. 17. E. What I learned 1. Required conditions 2. Balance of time 3. The Indonesian teaching and learning context—applying four strands in language courses is likely but with some careful considerations: curriculum and resources (teachers and facilities)
  18. 18. Bibliography • Boers, F. (2013). Some tricks and rechniques for remembering vocabulary. Presented at the WATESOL Expo, Wellington, New Zealand. • Cahyono, B. Y. (2010). Options for professional development in English language teaching in Indonesia. In Selected papers in English language teaching (pp. 1–19). Jakarta Indonesia: US Embassy Jakarta. • Ellis, R. (2005). Principles of instructed language learning. System, 33(2), 209–224. • Korompot, C. A. (2012). Giving teachers their voices: Indonesia EFL teachers’ prespectives on professional teaching standadrds in the context of teacher certification programs in Indonesia. The University of New England, UK. • Krashen, S. (1982). Principles and practice in second language acquisition. Oxford Pergamon. Retrieved from • Nation, P. (2007). The four strands. International Journal of Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, 1(1), 2–13. • Waring, R., & Nation, I. S. P. (2004). Second language reading and incidental vocabulary learning. Angles on the English speaking world, 4, 97–110. • Webb, S. (2005). Receptive and productive vocabulary learning. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 27, 33–52. • Yuwono, G. I. (2005). English language teaching in decentralized Indonesia: Voices from the less priviledged schools. Presented at the International Education Research Conference, Parramatta, Australia: The University of Western Sydney. • Yuwono, G. I., & Harbon, L. (2010). English teacher professionalism and professional development: Some common Issues in Indonesia. ASIAN EFL Journal, 12(3), 145–163.
  19. 19. Tēnā koutou Thank you Terima kasih
  20. 20. Language Centre VUW