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Framing Patterns

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These patterns help decision makers frame decisions

These patterns help decision makers frame decisions

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  • Implementation: It is helpful to think of what is pushing and pulling us, in terms of head, heart and wallet. Different people respond to different kinds of arguments and we want to think through all three.
  • Implementation: The dialog-decision process (aka the snake diagram) is one example. A more refined example follows.
  • Implementation:For large groups, it is helpful to go around the group in a round-robin fashion asking for one issue at a time, and record it.
  • Implementation: Decision-makers can be sensitive about having their issues rejected. Parking issues that sound like whines respects the fact that this may be a legitimate concern in the environment while allowing a refocusing on what is truly a big hairy insurmountable problem, that the strategy needs to address.
  • Implementation: This is a particularly difficult exercise where the facilitator must develop comfort with holding a creative tension and not hesitate to question the decision maker’s assumptions.A tool that is commonly used to communicate assumptions is the Decision Hierarchy.
  • Implementation: It is important for the strategy theme to maintain its uniqueness and not try to draw on good ideas from other themes. This makes it easier for us to understand what makes that theme tick, and extract its essence when ultimately hybridizing. It should be understood that after evaluations, and during the Decide phase, we will hybridize appropriately.
  • Implementation: This pattern should be preceded by a discovery of the noble purpose of the organization, which is about the gifts that the organization possesses with which it can bring a positive transformation in the world. Care should be taken to stay away from introducing business language, like “capture market” or “make profits.” These are secondary instruments that are essential to make the strategy work, and not the primary objective. They kill brainstorms and introduce linear thinking early on when it should be held off.
  • Implementation: It is useful to keep asking “why is that important?” until articulation fails, and an emotional space is reached. It is also useful to think externally – how can we make the world a better place with our work? Avoid the trap of values like “no exploitation” or “integrity” – these are great values for the road, and will hold for all endeavors. We are looking for those values that define your identity uniquely; the values that tell you which mountain to climb.
  • Implementation: A simple exercise that is often effective is to show people random pictures (cutouts from magazines, creative whack packs, etc.) and ask them to share how the picture represents their current organizational and life story. Then, go back and try generating more themes.
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    • 1. FramingSomik RahaPeter McNameeSmartOrg, Inc.www.smartorg.com2/7/2013Decision Analysis 2
    • 2. Legal StuffThis deck is licensed under the Creative Commons – Attribution – NoDerivatives 3.0 License.Please feel free to contact sraha@smartorg.com if you have anyquestions.© 2000-2013 SmartOrg. | For Classroom Use Only. Not for distribution.2
    • 3. What is framing?© 2000-2013 SmartOrg. | For Classroom Use Only. Not for distribution.3
    • 4. A frame is a limited description of a problemthat filters what is relevant© 2000-2013 SmartOrg. | For Classroom Use Only. Not for distribution.4
    • 5. Inappropriate frames can result in poordecision-making.© 2000-2013 SmartOrg. | For Classroom Use Only. Not for distribution.5Problem:OverwhelmResults:• Non-decisions• OversightProblem:BlindnessResults:• Errors of the third kind—right answer;wrong question• Unforeseen threats• Lost opportunities
    • 6. In our Stanford DA classes, we have touched theframe largely through the Structure PhaseDeterministicAnalysisProbabilisticAnalysisAppraisalStructureForce Field Diagrams &Issue RaisingDecision HierarchyStrategy TablesDecision DiagramsSpreadsheet Model1997NPV12341998 1998Sensitivity to RangeDecision TreesProbability Distributionsand DominanceHigh-Base-Low ofProbability distributionsAlt 1Alt 2Alt 3Sensitivity AnalysisValue of InformationDecision QualityValue of Controlp1-p10Deterministic SensitivityFormulate Evaluate AppraiseDecide© 2000-2013 SmartOrg. | For Classroom Use Only. Not for distribution.6
    • 7. In the Dialog Decision Process, the frame comes out ofassessing the situation, and is used to guide thedevelopment of alternatives© 2000-2013 SmartOrg. | For Classroom Use Only. Not for distribution.7Guide to the Decision Analysis Process © SDG, GM (1.5.2)
    • 8. The structure phase needs both the frame andthe alternatives© 2000-2013 SmartOrg. | For Classroom Use Only. Not for distribution.8Guide to the Decision Analysis Process © SDG, GM (1.5.5)
    • 9. Framing involves fleshing out the decision hierarchy and thestrategy table without working out all the strategy themes© 2000-2013 SmartOrg. | For Classroom Use Only. Not for distribution.9Current Decision: Shouldconnect to Strategy tableGivensFuture Decisions
    • 10. OpenAssess EnvisionFor the DA2 Exercise, this is a more helpfulgraphic of a strategy process© 2000-2013 SmartOrg. | For Classroom Use Only. Not for distribution.10CloseEvaluate DecideActionCommission:• ImpactfulGoals• SufficientProcessCommissionAssess:• ConfrontReality• Ask GreatQuestionsEnvision:• DefineChoices• Add CreativeTensionEvaluate:• GatherEvidence• UnderstandConsequencesDecide:• Agree on theImportant• Commit toImplicationsAction:• Convert toPlans• Monitor andAdapt
    • 11. OpenAssess EnvisionYou are helping commission and open thestrategy dialog© 2000-2013 SmartOrg. | For Classroom Use Only. Not for distribution.11CloseEvaluate DecideActionCommission:• ImpactfulGoals• SufficientProcessCommissionAssess:• ConfrontReality• Ask GreatQuestionsEnvision:• DefineChoices• Add CreativeTensionEvaluate:• GatherEvidence• UnderstandConsequencesDecide:• Agree on theImportant• Commit toImplicationsAction:• Convert toPlans• Monitor andAdaptCOMMISSIONING + FRAMING +ALTERNATIVES
    • 12. But what is a frame?Vi Hart Video© 2000-2013 SmartOrg. | For Classroom Use Only. Not for distribution.12
    • 13. The Frame is in your BRAIN!© 2000-2013 SmartOrg. | For Classroom Use Only. Not for distribution.13Actually, the frame is in the shared brain!
    • 14. No, the Frame is on Paper!© 2000-2013 SmartOrg. | For Classroom Use Only. Not for distribution.14When we shift from individuals workingtogether to a structured activity like thedialog decision process, we are after whatcan be clearly documented andunderstood, and the basis of future activity.Moving from “Let’s do the best job we can” to “Let’s do the best job we cangiven the resources and time constraints we have”
    • 15. The book that rocked two worlds© 2000-2013 SmartOrg. | For Classroom Use Only. Not for distribution.15Christopher Alexander
    • 16. We will share hard-won community wisdom inframing through a catalog of patterns“Each pattern describes a problem which occurs overand over again in our environment, and then describesthe core of the solution to that problem, in such a waythat you can use this solution a million times over, withoutever doing it the same way twice.”“What is a design pattern?” from Design Patterns: Elements of Reusable Object-Oriented Software by Gamma et al., 1995Elements of a pattern: pattern name, problem, solution, image* andconsequences* optional© 2000-2013 SmartOrg. | For Classroom Use Only. Not for distribution.16
    • 17. Catalog organized around tools• Patterns for Commissioning• What’s at Stake?• Right Size• Strategy Arc• Patterns for Assessing Situation• Issue-Raising• Ice-Breaker• Whine Bottle• Decision Hierarchy• Hidden Assumptions• Deferred Entanglement• Patterns for Envisioning Future• Strategy Table• The Pink-Suit• Values-Driven Ideation• Noble Purpose• Right-Brain Tap© 2000-2013 SmartOrg. | For Classroom Use Only. Not for distribution.17
    • 18. Catalog organized around tools• Patterns for Commissioning• What’s at Stake?• Right Size• Strategy Arc• Patterns for Assessing Situation• Patterns for Envisioning Future© 2000-2013 SmartOrg. | For Classroom Use Only. Not for distribution.18Full Catalog
    • 19. What’s at Stake?© 2000-2013 SmartOrg. | For Classroom Use Only. Not for distribution.19Problem: Decision teams often do not communicatewhat is at stake, and thus fail to motivate action.Therefore, establish what is at stake, utilizing threedifferent perspectives: head, heart and wallet.Consequences: The team enters the framing phasewith a clear understanding of what’s at stakehttp://vimeo.com/14035425Ref: From the work of Chris McGovern
    • 20. Right Size© 2000-2013 SmartOrg. | For Classroom Use Only. Not for distribution.20Problem: Strategy processes come in different shapes and sizes, and one process thatmay fit well in one context could be overkill or underperforming in another.Therefore, identify the scope of the problem and select a process that is appropriate forthat scope.Implementation: Some degree of familiarity is needed with the different processes inthe menu
    • 21. The sufficiency principle: the greater thedifficulty, the greater the process required.© 2000-2013 SmartOrg. | For Classroom Use Only. Not for distribution.21Problem DifficultyPeopleDifficultySimpleApproachAdequateComplex ApproachRequired• Explicit• Deliberative• Thorough• Ambiguous – Synergize• Uncertain – Scenarios• Dynamic – Agile• Complex – Systematic• Consequential – Proactivity• Barriers – Communicate• Confusion – Learn• Bias – Open• Hostility – Connect• Career Limiting – Safety
    • 22. Typical project structures.• Multi-step dialog process withspecial teams• A major project with a coupleof stages• A workshop with a group• Apply a few tools and discusswith colleagues• DIY DQ checklist© 2000-2013 SmartOrg. | For Classroom Use Only. Not for distribution.22SimpleApproachAdequateComplexApproachRequiredFormalApproval22DecisionTeamStrategyTeamCoreTeamConductAssessmentFramingDialogEnvisioning DialogEvaluationDialogConductEnvisioningConductEvaluationDevelop PlansApprovePlansCommission &KickoffProjectDecisionMultiple Resource Teams Involved22Decision TeamStrategy TeamCoreTeamConduct Assessment &EnvisioningOpeningDialogConduct Evaluation &Make RecommendationsDevelopPlansCommission &KickoffProjectDecisionAd Hoc Resource Teams Involved As Needed22CombinedTeamCoreTeamDayTwo AgendaDayOne AgendaRefinePlans andTake ActionCommissionWorkshopDecisionCoreTeamRefinePlans andTake ActionRealizeNeed forStrategicThinkingSelect and work a few toolsInformally consult colleagues
    • 23. Decision Quality worksheetDecisionQuality0%100%Useful PerspectiveMeaningful InquiriesFrameDistinct DirectionsInteresting PossibilitiesAlternativesCredible SourcesCompelling ForecastsInformationClear MetricsNoble PurposeValueInsightful ReasoningInspiring NarrativeIntegrationActionable PlansAligned IntentionCommitment100% = enoughattention has beenspent on this linkCool HeadFinds Good AnswerWarm HeartMotives Strong Action
    • 24. Strategy ArcProblem: It is hard for people to play along with anambiguous process without getting a sense of expectedbehavior in different phases of the process.Therefore, share the arc by emphasizing the behaviorsthat are expected of people.Consequences: The team gets a sense of the rightbehaviors expected, and an understanding of the roadahead, and is able to commit to the process© 2000-2013 SmartOrg. | For Classroom Use Only. Not for distribution.24
    • 25. OpenAssess EnvisionThe Strategy Process© 2000-2013 SmartOrg. | For Classroom Use Only. Not for distribution.25CloseEvaluate DecideActionCommission:• ImpactfulGoals• SufficientProcessCommissionAssess:• ConfrontReality• Ask GreatQuestionsEnvision:• DefineChoices• Add CreativeTensionEvaluate:• GatherEvidence• UnderstandConsequencesDecide:• Agree on theImportant• Commit toImplicationsAction:• Convert toPlans• Monitor andAdapt
    • 26. OpenAssess EnvisionThe Strategy Process© 2000-2013 SmartOrg. | For Classroom Use Only. Not for distribution.26CloseEvaluate DecideActionCommission:• ImpactfulGoals• SufficientProcessCommissionAssess:• ConfrontReality• Ask GreatQuestionsEnvision:• DefineChoices• Add CreativeTensionEvaluate:• GatherEvidence• UnderstandConsequencesDecide:• Agree on theImportant• Commit toImplicationsAction:• Convert toPlans• Monitor andAdapt
    • 27. The Strategy Process• Open: expands our thinking and creates new possibilities.— Assess – What are we trying to solve?We explore the current situation and environment to frame our challenges.— Envision – What can we do about it?We develop multiple possible strategic responses to the challenges.• Close: focuses down and determines the best direction.— Evaluate – What creates value?We gather evidence and conduct a comparative risk and return evaluation.— Decide – What do we commit to?We deliberate, hybridize strategies and commit the organization.• Action: converts direction to results.— Plan – What are we going to do?We determine the specific steps to make the new direction a reality.— Adapt – What do we need to adjust?We execute, monitor progress and refine based on new information.© 2000-2013 SmartOrg. | For Classroom Use Only. Not for distribution.27
    • 28. Catalog organized around tools• Patterns for Commissioning• Patterns for Assessing Situation• Issue-Raising• Ice-Breaker• Whine Bottle• Decision Hierarchy• Hidden Assumptions• Deferred Entanglement• Patterns for Envisioning Future© 2000-2013 SmartOrg. | For Classroom Use Only. Not for distribution.28Full Catalog
    • 29. Ice-Breaker© 2000-2013 SmartOrg. | For Classroom Use Only. Not for distribution.29Problem: It is awkward to begin a strategy dialog without having a rapport withstakeholders or knowing what people are trying to grapple with.Therefore, use Issue Raising as an ice-breaker to let everyone hear about issues thatothers are concerned about.Consequences: You have a map of issues that you can then track as you progressthrough the project. At the conclusion, your work should speak to the issues raised.Implementation
    • 30. Whine Bottle© 2000-2013 SmartOrg. | For Classroom Use Only. Not for distribution.30Problem: People may surface a bunch of concerns thatsound like whining, while missing substantial strategicissues. If the decision environment is highly complex, thiscan be a critical problem.Therefore, ask the team if the issue can be tackled bymanagement resolve, and if the answer is yes, park it ina separate list, but if the answer is no, dig deeper.Consequences: For highly complex environmentswhere it is unclear what a good decision framewould be, real strategic challenges are uncoveredthat need to be addressed in the frame.Used With: Scouting missions
    • 31. Example© 2000-2013 SmartOrg. | For Classroom Use Only. Not for distribution.31“Lack of category understanding impedes the requestfor relevant information”Coaching Question: What prevents categoryunderstanding?“Converting raw, fragmented data into knowledge andcross-referencing with customer”Coaching Question: What don’t you just do this?“Highly fragmented, young industry inhibits deepcategory understanding”
    • 32. Example© 2000-2013 SmartOrg. | For Classroom Use Only. Not for distribution.32“Lack of category understanding impedes the requestfor relevant information”Coaching Question: What prevents categoryunderstanding?“Converting raw, fragmented data into knowledge andcross-referencing with customer”Coaching Question: What don’t you just do this?“Highly fragmented, young industry inhibits deepcategory understanding”InternalProblemExternalIssue
    • 33. Use Issue Raising differently depending on thecomplexity of the decision domain© 2000-2013 SmartOrg. | For Classroom Use Only. Not for distribution.33FramesFamiliarIssue-Raisingas an Ice-breakerUnfamiliarIssue Raisingas DiscoveryTool
    • 34. Catalog organized around tools• Patterns for Commissioning• Patterns for Assessing Situation• Issue-Raising• Ice-Breaker• Whine Bottle• Decision Hierarchy• Hidden Assumptions• Deferred Entanglement• Patterns for Envisioning Future© 2000-2013 SmartOrg. | For Classroom Use Only. Not for distribution.34Full Catalog
    • 35. Hidden Assumptions© 2000-2013 SmartOrg. | For Classroom Use Only. Not for distribution.35Problem: Decision frames are often stated as thoughthey are constraints, without acknowledging andchallenging the assumptions that bind the frameTherefore, find the assumption that is so obvious that noone even cares to articulate, and state it as a pastdecision that has already been made, to test its validity.Consequences: A changed frame on account ofimaginary constraints disappearing, and clearlyarticulated constraints that everyone agrees with.
    • 36. Example© 2000-2013 SmartOrg. | For Classroom Use Only. Not for distribution.36Which car markets shouldwe target our marketingefforts to sell the Jaguar?GIVENS?
    • 37. Who are the competitors of Jaguar cars?© 2000-2013 SmartOrg. | For Classroom Use Only. Not for distribution.37
    • 38. The immediate competitors:© 2000-2013 SmartOrg. | For Classroom Use Only. Not for distribution.38
    • 39. The real competitors: Competing for discretionary income.© 2000-2013 SmartOrg. | For Classroom Use Only. Not for distribution.39
    • 40. Example© 2000-2013 SmartOrg. | For Classroom Use Only. Not for distribution.40Which car markets should we target ourmarketing efforts to sell the Jaguar?GIVENSWe are in the car businessWe will invest in activities that result in thelargest market share in our niche
    • 41. Example© 2000-2013 SmartOrg. | For Classroom Use Only. Not for distribution.41Which discretionary income segmentsshould we target our marketing effortsto sell the Jaguar?GIVENSWe are in the car businessWe will invest in activities that result in thelargest market share in our nicheWe will invest in activities that help withmarket growth
    • 42. Example© 2000-2013 SmartOrg. | For Classroom Use Only. Not for distribution.42What luxury products can we focus onin the coming year?GIVENSWe are in the car business
    • 43. The commitments made at a higher strategic levelshape the frame and values of lower level decisions.Frame:• Creates a context.• Creates constraints andopens new possibilities.• Identifies what is meaningfuland important.Values:• Grounds action in the noblepurpose.• Guides metrics and tradeoffs.© 2000-2013 SmartOrg. | For Classroom Use Only. Not for distribution.43Higher-levelStrategyThemeYourStrategicSituationDecisionQualityFrameAlternativesInformation ValueIntegrationCommitmentDecisionQualityFrameAlternativesInformation ValueIntegrationCommitment
    • 44. Quick ExerciseLook at your neighbor’s decision hierarchy andchallenge the givens.© 2000-2013 SmartOrg. | For Classroom Use Only. Not for distribution.44
    • 45. Deferred Entanglement© 2000-2013 SmartOrg. | For Classroom Use Only. Not for distribution.45Problem: Decisions become too complicated to thinkthroughIdentify what can be deferred and disentangle thecurrent decision on a scale of time.Consequences: Clarity on important future decisionsthat can be deferred to emphasize a bigger problemat the present time.
    • 46. Catalog organized around tools• Patterns for Commissioning• Patterns for Assessing Situation• Patterns for Envisioning Future• Strategy Table• The Pink-Suit• Values-Driven Ideation• Noble Purpose• Right-Brain Tap© 2000-2013 SmartOrg. | For Classroom Use Only. Not for distribution.46Full Catalog
    • 47. The Pink Suit© 2000-2013 SmartOrg. | For Classroom Use Only. Not for distribution.47Problem: Strategy themes being explored often end upbeing slight variations of each other, and not trulydistinct choices. Happens due to anchoring on presentreality.Therefore, hold off the temptation to come to middleground and explore extreme possibilities.Consequences: Strategy themes are far apart anddistinct, setting us up for learning.
    • 48. Example© 2000-2013 SmartOrg. | For Classroom Use Only. Not for distribution.48TypeHatchbackStationWagonSmall SUVFordFordGMBrand$12K$15K$18KPriceBrownWhiteGreyColorCheapNowFancier
    • 49. KeepCurrentSellCurrentSellCurrentExample© 2000-2013 SmartOrg. | For Classroom Use Only. Not for distribution.49TypeCompactStationWagonMini-VanPriusFordToyotaBrand$20K$15K$25KPriceBlueWhiteNeutralColorCommuterNowFamily VanFleet
    • 50. Are you willing to try on the pink suit?Quick Exercise: Share your strategy themes with yourneighbor.Neighbors  provide feedback on whether themes aretruly distinct. If not, suggest some that come to yourmind.© 2000-2013 SmartOrg. | For Classroom Use Only. Not for distribution.50Show John Brewster video
    • 51. Finding the pink tie.© 2000-2013 SmartOrg. | For Classroom Use Only. Not for distribution.51
    • 52. Values-Driven IdeationAka: Noble Purpose-Driven IdeationProblem: We often get stuck with dry and linear strategy themes, largelybecause we play to expectations of sounding business-like.Therefore, utilize the noble purpose that defines the identity of theorganization to drive ideation.Consequences: Strategy themes are focused on identifying opportunitiesthat deliver on the values that the organization has committed toUsed With: Noble PurposeRead More: The Purpose of Business is a Business of Purpose© 2000-2013 SmartOrg. | For Classroom Use Only. Not for distribution.52
    • 53. Noble Purpose© 2000-2013 SmartOrg. | For Classroom Use Only. Not for distribution.53Problem: Lack of clarity on what you stand for in your organization createsreactive behavior and insecurityTherefore, clarify the noble purpose of your organization that will becomeyour strategyConsequences: A clear noble purpose the organization motivates the teamand becomes a given in a strategic decisionUsed With: Values-Driven IdeationRead More: The Purpose of Business is a Business of Purpose
    • 54. Right Brain Tap© 2000-2013 SmartOrg. | For Classroom Use Only. Not for distribution.54Problem: It is easy for people to get into the trap oflinear thinking when thinking of strategy themes.Therefore, try creative exercises to stimulate the right-brain and go back to generating themes.Consequences: Teams come up with themes thatexpand the space of intriguing possibilities
    • 55. Catalog organized around tools• Patterns for Commissioning• What’s at Stake?• Right Size• Strategy Arc• Patterns for Assessing Situation• Issue-Raising• Ice-Breaker• Whine Bottle• Decision Hierarchy• Hidden Assumptions• Deferred Entanglement• Patterns for Envisioning Future• Strategy Table• The Pink-Suit• Values-Driven Ideation• Noble Purpose• Right-Brain Tap© 2000-2013 SmartOrg. | For Classroom Use Only. Not for distribution.55
    • 56. Open House© 2000-2013 SmartOrg. | For Classroom Use Only. Not for distribution.56

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