Fan fiction (alternately referred to as fan-fiction , fanfiction , fanfic , FF or simply fic ) is a broadly-defined fan labor term for stories about characters or settings written by fans of the original work rather than the original creator. Lev Grossman: Fan Fiction “ Fanfiction is what literature might look like if it were reinvented from scratch after nuclear apocalypse by a band of brilliant pop-culture junkies trapped in a sealed bunker. They don't do it for the money. That's not what it's about. The writers write it and put it up online just for the satisfaction. They're fans, but they're not silent, couchbound consumers of media. The culture talks to them and they talk back to the culture in it's own language.”
Fan fiction predates the Internet but the Web has made it exponentially easier to talk and be heard, and it hold millions of words fan fiction. In most cases, the quantity of fan fiction generated by a given work is volumetrically larger then the work itself; in some cases, the quality is high that that of the original itself. FanFiction.net, is the largest archive of fan fiction on the Internet (though only one of many websites), hosts over 2 million pieces of fan fiction, ranging in length from short stories to full length novels. Nobody makes money from fan fiction, but whether anybody loses money on fan fiction is a separate question. The people who create the works that the fan fiction borrows from are sharply divided. Stephanie Meyer have given Twilight (and author's of other popular works) fan fiction their blessing; if anything they believe that fan fiction has acted as a viral marketing agent for their work. Other writers consider it a violation of their copyrights, and more, of their emotional claim to their own creations. They feel as if their characters have been proverbially 'kidnapped by strangers'.
Fan fiction, taking familiar characters into new and often startling situations, starkly demonstrates that the authors can not control the interpretation of their works. Fans' sense of partial ownership, shared between themselves and the original creators, comports with intellectual property law. Copyright itself means that buying a book allows a person to read it, burn it, give it away but not copy it for a profit. Ownership of information is always partial.
Fiction was traditionally read from a passive audience – the author would write the material and the reader/viewer would be forced to consume the story that the creator had given to them. However since fan fiction has come about, it has allowed fans to take different characters from many stories and form their own tales. This has significantly changed the way that we perceive storytelling because it shows that many can take features from narratives already created and use them to create their own adventures (for some, they even write from a first person point of view so they enter the world themselves).
One of the largest categories of the stories at FanFiction.net is based on The Lord of the Rings (LOTR) , partly because of the recent movies, which have made the LOTR trilogy more popular than ever. Although LOTR has been around much longer than many of the works common in fandom, there has not been much research into its particular nature, perhaps because until recent years the fandom was much quieter than others with only the books to rely on. With the release of the movies, however, more and more people are reading and watching LOTR and becoming interested in the complex relationships among the characters.
Some of the popularity of writing about Tolkien's work has to do with the attractive actors in the films: there are more stories about Legolas than any other LOTR characters at FanFiction.net, due in no small part to Orlando Bloom's good looks. Many of these stories are “Mary Sues” written by “fangirls”; that is, the authors are girls and women who desire Bloom, so they write stories about Legolas in which he falls in love with the original female characters who bear a striking resemblance to the story's author, sometimes even with the same name. These stories are some of the most despised in fandom, as the whole plot of the story is for Legolas to fall madly in love with the perfect woman, marry her, father her children and live happily ever after. Not all original characters are stigmatized but original love interests, especially Legolas's , are always looked on with suspicion lest Mary.
Another popular subgenre in fan fiction is “hurt/comfort”, this genre explores the invention of situations where the characters experience vulnerability. A near brush with death or a serious revelation will allow two (normally male) characters to become closer to one another. Jenkins argues that the drives behind such stories “cut to the heart of our culture's patriarchal conception of the hero as the man of emotional constraint and personal autonomy, a man in control of all situations'. Hurt/comfort stories also reveal the natural and human weaknesses in larger-than-life heros, which makes their recovery from near tragedy inspiring and all the more amazing. One favourite subject of hurt/comfort stories (commonly abbreviated as h/c) in the LOTR realm is Legolas, prompting fan fiction writers to invent the phrase “elf torture” as another name for stories in which he is in physical or mental distress. The character who seems to comfort Legolas the most is Aragon, followed closely by Gimli.
1. Fan FictionFan Fiction
2. Introduction/DefinitionIntroduction/DefinitionAlternately referred to as fan-fiction, fanfiction, fanfic, FFor simply fic“Fanfiction is what literature might looklike if it were reinvented from scratchafter nuclear apocalypse by a band ofbrilliant pop-culture junkies trapped in asealed bunker. They dont do it for themoney. Thats not what its about. Thewriters write it and put it up online justfor the satisfaction. Theyre fans, buttheyre not silent, couchbound consumersof media. The culture talks to them andthey talk back to the culture in its ownlanguage.”Grossman, L (2011) The Boy whoLived Forever
3. Fan Fiction comes in many forms...Fan Fiction comes in many forms...Anime/MangaBooksCartoonsComicsGamesPlays/MusicalsTV ShowsFILMFILM
4. Fan Fiction and CopyrightFan Fiction and CopyrightFan FictionFan Fiction andand DistributionDistributionFanFiction.net, is the largest archive offan fiction on the Internet (though onlyone of many websites), hosts over 2million pieces of fan fiction, ranging inlength from short stories to full lengthnovels.http://www.fanfiction.net/movie/#The top film retold by fans is Star Warsthat currently stands at 30,256 storiesalone.Fan fiction was introduced before theinternet was invented however,writers have since then virallypublished their works due to easierdistribution and a wider responsefrom a larger range of readers.Fan Fiction authors do not make anymoney from writing fanfic.However there is never a guaranteethat the original creators do not loseprofits. The people who created theworks that fan fiction borrows fromare sharply divided.
5. “Fan fiction does not involve pure copying. It might infringe on a creators copyright incharacters – the unique personalities created to express a concept. Historically,copyright law protected only against exact copying, excluding even protectionagainst translation and abridgement. Copyright law later expanded its reach beyondduplication to looser forms of borrowing, including use of well-establishedcharacters. The extent of protection for characters independent of the works inwhich they appear is unclear, and the case law is confusing. Most authoritiesnonetheless agree that a character can be protected by copyright. The difficultquestions of “substantial similarity” in the law of character copyright – isWonderman too much like Superman and thus infringement of him? - do notpresent much of a problem for fan fiction as fan authors do not claim to havecreated an independent character.”Tushnet, R (1997) Legal Fictions: Copyright, Fan Fiction and a New Common Law
6. Passive Audience to ParticipantPassive Audience to ParticipantFiction was traditionally read from a passive audience– the author would write the material and thereader/viewer would be forced to consume thestory that the creator had given to them. Howeversince fan fiction has come about, it has allowedfans to take different characters from manystories and form their own tales.
7. Lord of the RingsLord of the RingsLord of the Rings and Fan FictionLord of the Rings and Fan FictionOne of the largest categories of thestories at FanFiction.net is based on TheLord of the Rings (LOTR), partly becauseof the recent movies, which have madethe LOTR trilogy more popular than ever.With the release of the movies, itsbecome easier to use aspects of the storyfor fans to create their own tales,choosing the trilogy as their primarysource as well as the chosen few who alsouse aspects from Tolkiens novels.
8. ““Mary Sues”Mary Sues”Some of the popularity of writing about Tolkiens work has to dowith the attractive actors in the films: there are more stories aboutLegolas than any other LOTR characters at FanFiction.net, due in nosmall part to Orlando Blooms good looks. Many of these stories are“Mary Sues” written by “fangirls”; that is, the authors are girls andwomen who desire Bloom.The stories usually consist of your typical meet and fall in love taleswith the authors as the female protagonist or a character whoclosely resembles to them receiving Legolas affection.
9. ““Hurt/Comfort”Hurt/Comfort”This genre explores the invention ofsituations where the charactersexperience vulnerability. A near brushwith death or a serious revelation willallow two (normally male) charactersto become closer to one another.Jenkins argues that the drives behindsuch stories “cut to the heart of ourcultures patriarchal conception of thehero as the man of emotionalconstraint and personal autonomy, aman in control of all situations
10. ““Hurt/Comfort”Hurt/Comfort”This genre explores the invention ofsituations where the charactersexperience vulnerability. A near brushwith death or a serious revelation willallow two (normally male) charactersto become closer to one another.Jenkins argues that the drives behindsuch stories “cut to the heart of ourcultures patriarchal conception of thehero as the man of emotionalconstraint and personal autonomy, aman in control of all situations