Project Managment Framework

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Project Managment Framework

  1. 1. Building professionalismin project management. TM Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  2. 2. A Framework forProject Management The Project Management Institute Education Department Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  3. 3. A Framework for Project Management Units1. Introduction and Key Concepts6. Controlling Projects2. Project Life Cycle Models 7. Closing Projects3. Initiating Projects 8. Organizational Impacts4. Planning Projects 9. Overview of Knowledge Areas5. Executing Projects 10. Role of the Project Manager Additional materials A. Seminar Evaluation Forms B. Exercises C. Resources for Project Management Professional Candidates Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  4. 4. UNIT 1:INTRODUCTION AND KEY CONCEPTS Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  5. 5. Unit 1: Introduction and Key ConceptsUpon completion, you will be able to …• Define key PM concepts• List the reasons why PM is needed• Explain the difference between projects and operations• Identify trends in the PM environment• List project success and failure factors• Identify potential benefits of PM Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  6. 6. Key PM Concepts from the PMBOK® Guide The Project Management Body of Knowledge Generally Accepted Project Management Knowledge and Practice General Management Application Knowledge Area Knowledge and Practice and Practice This figure is a conceptual view of these relationships. The overlaps shown are Iqbal Prepared by: Syed Khurram not proportional.
  7. 7. Why Do We Need Project Management?* • Exponential expansion of human knowledge • Global demand for goods and services • Global competition • Above requires the use of teams versus individuals* Project Management—A Managerial Approach, 1995, by Jack R. Meredith and Samuel J. Mantel Jr. Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  8. 8. Project and Statement of Work (SOW)• A project is ―a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product or service.‖• A SOW is a narrative description of products or services to be supplied under contract. Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  9. 9. Project Management―The application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to project activities in order to meet or exceed stakeholder needs and expectations from a project.‖ Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  10. 10. PM Environment Discussion Question• What are some trends that impact the environment in which projects are managed today? Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  11. 11. Accelerating Trends• Corporate globalization• Massive mergers and reorganizations• Flatter organizations• Short-term results driven Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  12. 12. Accelerating Trends (continued)• Team environment• Contract PM and outsourcing• Primacy of interpersonal skills• Multinational projects• Importance of cultural differences• Dependence on technology Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  13. 13. A Balancing ActSchedule requirements cost The Project Risk Risk Customer Business Expectation Objective Source: William Gendron, presentation at 1998 PMI Global Forum Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  14. 14. A Balanced ProjectTime Cost Scope Quality Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  15. 15. Expectation and Objective Congruency Client/Customer Expectations Low High Customer wants more than the Low OK organization intends to provide.BusinessObjectives Business needs High more from the project OK than the customer. Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  16. 16. Contrast Projects and Operations Discussion Question• How are ―projects‖ different from ―operations‖? Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  17. 17. Contrast Projects and OperationsProjects Operations• Create own charter, • Semi-permanent organization, and goals charter,• Catalyst for change organization, and goals• Unique product or service • Maintains status quo• Heterogeneous teams • Standard product or service• Start and end date • Homogeneous teams Prepared by: Syed • Ongoing Khurram Iqbal
  18. 18. Exercise 1-1 PM Pitfalls and Pluses• Looking back on projects with which you were associated, what were the top three factors that caused serious problems?• That created a perception of success? Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  19. 19. Common Pitfalls• Unclear objectives• Lack of senior management support• Lack of effective project integration• Inadequate funding• Change in business priorities• Original assumptions invalid• Ineffective team• Lack of effective communication processes• Other? Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  20. 20. Factors Affecting Project Success • Coordination and relations • Adequacy of structure and control • Project uniqueness, importance, and public exposure • Success criteria salience and consensus • Competitive and budgetary pressure • Initial over-optimism, conceptual difficulty • Internal capabilities buildupSource: NASA study, ―Determination of Project Success,‖ 1974, by David C. Murphy,Bruce N. Baker, and Dalmar Fisher Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  21. 21. Potential Benefits of PM for the Organization• Improved control• Improved project support opportunities• Improved performance Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  22. 22. Potential Benefits of PM for You• Recognition of PM as a profession• Future source of company leaders• High visibility of project results• Growth opportunities• Build your reputation and network• Portable skills and experience Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  23. 23. Integration ManagementCost Time Integration Quality Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  24. 24. Summary• Defined key PM concepts• Described why PM is needed• Explained difference between projects and operations• Identified trends in the PM environment• Discussed project success and failure factors• Identified potential benefits of PM Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  25. 25. UNIT 2: PROJECT LIFECYCLE MODELS Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  26. 26. Unit 2: Project Life Cycle ModelsUpon completion, you will be able to …• List the purpose and types of project life cycle models• Distinguish between project and product life cycle• Define the role of phase reviews in PM• Apply a model to a hypothetical and a real project Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  27. 27. Key Concepts• Project phase: ―A collection of logically related project activities usually culminating in the completion of a major deliverable.‖• Project life cycle: ―Collectively the project phases are known as the project life cycle.‖• Product life cycle: The natural grouping of ideas, decisions, and actions into product phases, from product conception to operations to product phase-out. Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  28. 28. Generic Cost and Staffing Life CycleCost and Intermediate PhasesStaffing (one or more) Level Initial Final Phase Phase Start Finish Time Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  29. 29. Project Life Cycle Example PhasesConcept and Proposal Development Implementation Verification TerminationInitial Phase Intermediate Phases Final Phase Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  30. 30. Pharmaceutical Project Life Cycle Model Process Development Formulation Stability Screening Preclinical A Lead IND File Phase I Phase II Phase III File P Identified Workup Clinical Clinical Clinical NDA PDrug Sourcing IND Tests Tests Tests Postregistration Activity R O V A Metabolism L Patent Process Toxicology PreclinicalDiscovery Screening Development Registration(s) Workup Postsubmission Activity Ten Plus Years Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  31. 31. Spiral MethodologyEvaluate Identify Deploy Operations and Production Support Test Unit Requirements Evaluation Subsystem Requirements Evaluation System Requirements Risk Analysis Business Requirements Proof of Conceptual Concept Design First Logical Build Design Second Physical Build Design Final Final Build DesignConstruct Design Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  32. 32. Importance of Phase Reviews Requirements Review Proposal General Design ReviewPreparation Requirements Detailed Design Review Analysis General Design Unit Test Detailed Design Code and Debug Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  33. 33. Phase Initiation Example Detailed Design Phase• Ensure correctness and completeness of previous phase, e.g., general design phase  Assess all aspects of requirements, design approach, and deliverables  Identify and work off items• Determine contractor rewards/payment for closing phase• Conduct a readiness review to begin next phase, e.g., detailed design phase  Resource estimates and availability  Design maturity  Project plan review and update• Secure stakeholder approval to proceed Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  34. 34. Exercise 2-1 Project Life Cycle Model• Divide a current project on which you are working into phases, name them, and write a brief statement of purpose for each phase Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  35. 35. Summary• Explained the concept and purpose of project life cycles• Defined the role of phase reviews in PM• Described life cycle models• Differentiated project life cycle and product life cycle• Applied a model to hypothetical and real projects Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  36. 36. UNIT 3:INITIATINGPROJECTSPrepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  37. 37. Unit 3: Initiating ProjectsUpon completion, you will be able to …• List the main functions of each PM process group• Describe the purpose of the initiation process• Identify its inputs and outputs, tools and techniques• Develop a sample project charter• Give an example of how process groups can apply to the project as a whole or to a project phase Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  38. 38. Process Definition• ―A series of actions people take to bring about a desired result.‖• Types of processes  Project management processes  Product-oriented processes  Business-oriented processes Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  39. 39. Project Management Process GroupsCommitment to Approach toexecuting project executing project Initiating Planning Coordinating Processes Processes people and other resources Controlling Executing Processes ProcessesMonitoring, measuring, andtaking corrective action Closing Formal product Processes acceptance and end of project Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  40. 40. Process Interactions• Inputs• Tools and techniques• Outputs• Taxonomy Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  41. 41. Process Group OverviewInitiating Processes To the Planning 5.1 Processes Initiation (Figure 3–5) Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  42. 42. Scope Initiation Initiation 1. Formal authorization that the project exists 2. Recognition the project should continue into the next phase Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  43. 43. Purpose of Initiation Process1. To commit the organization to a project or phase2. To set the overall solution direction3. To define top-level project objectives4. To secure the necessary approvals and resources5. Validate alignment with strategic objectives6. To assign a project manager Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  44. 44. Initiating Core Process—Initiation Input Process Output1. Product description ―Initiation is the process of 1. Project charter2. Strategic plan formally recognizing that a new 2. Project manager identified/3. Project selection criteria project exists or that an existing assigned project should continue into its 3. Constraints4. Historical information next phase.‖ 4. Assumptions Tools and Techniques 1. Project selection methods 2. Expert judgment Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  45. 45. Scope Initiation Initiation Tools • Project selection methods • Expert judgement Outputs Inputs • Project charter • Product description • PM assigned • Strategic plan • Constraints • Selection criteria • Assumptions • Historical information Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  46. 46. Scope Initiation Inputs• Product description – Documents characteristics of the product or service and its relationship to a business need• Strategic plan – Describes the organization’s mission, vision, and goals for the future, which the project supports• Project selection criteria – Defined in terms of the product and covers the full range of management concerns• Historical information – Results of previous project decisions and performance Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  47. 47. Scope Initiation Tools & Techniques • Project selection methods (Decision models) – Benefit-measurement methods – Comparative approaches; scoring models; benefit-contribution and economic models – Constrained optimization methods – Mathematical models using linear, dynamic, integer, and multi- objective programming algorithms • Expert judgment – Experts with specialized knowledge or training assess the inputs to this process Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  48. 48. Scope Initiation Outputs • Project charter • Project manager selected • Constraints – Factors that limit the project management team’s options regarding scope, staffing, and schedule • Assumptions – Factors that, for planning purposes, will be considered to be true, real, or certain Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  49. 49. Project Charter ―A document issued by senior management thatprovides the project manager with the authority to apply organizational resources to project activities.‖ Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  50. 50. Scope Initiation Project Charter • Formally recognizes the existence of a project • Refers to the business need the project is addressing • Describes the product to be delivered • Gives the project manager the authority to apply resources to the project Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  51. 51. Project Charter Content• Business need• Project objectives• Project deliverables• Assumptions• Constraints• Key staff• Written authorization Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  52. 52. Exercise 3-1 Project Charter• Using the handout, complete the sample project charter• Assume you are the project manager• As an example, choose an anticipated major project assignment Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  53. 53. Sample Initiating Activities• Negotiate, write, and refine the project charter• Confirm how the project links to the business need• Identify management responsibilities• Identify geographic locations involved• Test top-level objectives versus strategic business plans• Make strategic procurement decisions, e.g., make, buy, or identify qualified vendors Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  54. 54. Key Outputs of Initiation Process• Project charter• Project manager identified/assigned• Other key positions identified/assigned• Constraints identified• Assumptions identified Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  55. 55. UNIT 4:PLANNINGPROJECTSPrepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  56. 56. Unit 4: Planning ProjectsUpon completion, you will be able to …• Describe the purposes of the planning processes• Identify the inputs and outputs of core planning processes• Describe the function and develop sample planning deliverables such as a scope statement, WBS, and milestone chart• List the major tools and techniques used in the core planning processes• Identify the planning facilitating processes and their functions Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  57. 57. Planning Process Group Initiating PlanningProcesses Processes Executing Controlling Processes Processes Closing Processes Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  58. 58. Project Management Process GroupsCommitment to Approach toexecuting project executing project Initiating Planning Coordinating Processes Processes people and other resources Controlling Executing Processes ProcessesMonitoring, measuring, andtaking corrective action Closing Formal product Processes acceptance and end of project Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  59. 59. Purpose of Planning Processes To develop a project plan that: • Facilitates later accomplishment* • Ensures project wide integration • Monitors change effectively • Provides decision support information to stakeholders • Can be updated by iterative planning activities* Project Management—A Managerial Approach, 1995, by Jack R. Meredith and Samuel J. Mantel Jr. Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  60. 60. Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  61. 61. Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  62. 62. Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  63. 63. Scope PlanningA written statement that includes:• Project justification, the major deliverables, and the project objectives• Criteria used to determine if the project or phase has been successfully completed Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  64. 64. Core Planning Processes Scope Planning Input Process Output1. Product description "… the process of developing a 1. Scope statement2. Project charter written scope statement as the 2. Supporting detail3. Constraints basis for future project 3. Scope management plan decisions including, in4. Assumptions particular, the criteria used to determine if the project or phase has been completed successfully.‖ Tools and Techniques 1. Product analysis 2. Cost/Benefit analysis 3. Alternative identification 4. Expert judgment Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  65. 65. Scope Planning Tools • Product analysis • Benefit/cost analysis • Alternatives identification • Expert judgment OutputsInputs • Scope statement• Product description• Project charter • Supporting detail• Constraints • Scope management• Assumptions plan Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  66. 66. Scope Planning Inputs • Product description – Contains the characteristics of the product or service in which the project will result • Project charter – Formally recognizes the existence of a project • Constraints – Factors that limit the project management team’s options regarding scope, staffing, and schedule • Assumptions – Factors that, for planning purposes, will be considered to be true, real, or certain Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  67. 67. Scope Planning Tools & Techniques • Product analysis – Techniques to develop a better understanding of the product (e.g., systems engineering, value engineering, function analysis, quality function deployment) • Benefit/cost analysis – Estimating the tangible and intangible costs (or outlays) and the benefits (or returns) of various project alternatives • Alternative identification – Techniques used to generate different approaches to the project (e.g., brainstorming and lateral thinking) • Expert judgment Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  68. 68. Scope Planning Outputs • Scope statement – Written statement of project. It contains: – Project objectives – Project justification – Project deliverables • Supporting detail – Supporting documentation containing identified requirements, plans, assumptions, and constraints Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  69. 69. Project Scope Statement Purpose• To provide a general description of the sum of the products and services to be provided by the project• To develop a common understanding of project scope among stakeholders• May make explicit some exclusions that, based on the audience, would be assumed to be part of the project Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  70. 70. Scope Planning Scope Management Plan Guidelines for how scope is to be managed and how scope changes are to be integrated into the project •It includes: •An assessment of the stability of the project scope •A clear description of how scope changes will be identified and classified Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  71. 71. Exercise 4-1 Scope Statement• Using the handout in your manual, develop a project scope statement based on the project charter developed in the initiating process exercise Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  72. 72. Core Planning Processes Scope Definition Input Process Output1. Scope statement ―… subdividing the major project 1. Work breakdown structure2. Constraints deliverables (as identified in the3. Assumptions scope statement) into smaller more manageable components4. Other planning outputs …‖5. Historical information Tools and Techniques 1. Work breakdown structure templates 2. Decomposition Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  73. 73. Scope Definition• Subdividing major project deliverables into manageable components, in order to improve the accuracy of cost, time, and resources estimates• Provides a baseline and assigns responsibility• A scope baseline is the original plan, plus or minus approved changes Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  74. 74. Scope Definition Scope Definition Tools • WBS templates • DecompositionInputs Outputs• Scope statement • Work• Constraints breakdown• Assumptions structure• Other planning inputs • Scope• Historical information Statement Update Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  75. 75. Scope Definition Inputs • Scope statement • Constraints • Assumptions • Other planning outputs – Outputs of the processes in other knowledge areas should be reviewed for possible impact on project scope definition • Historical information – About previous projects Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  76. 76. Scope Definition Tools & Techniques • WBS templates – Use a WBS from a previous project or a standard template to develop a WBS for this project • Decomposition – Subdividing major project deliverables into smaller, more manageable components until deliverables are defined in sufficient detail for supporting future project activities – Identify major elements of the project – For each element, decide if adequate cost and duration estimates can be developed at this level of detail – Identify constituent elements (e.g., tangible, verifiable results) – Verify the correctness of the decomposition – is it necessary and is it sufficient for completion of the item decomposed Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  77. 77. Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)• ―A deliverable oriented grouping of project elements which organizes and defines the total scope of the project.• Each descending level represents an increasingly detailed definition of a project component.• Project components may be products or services.‖ Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  78. 78. Scope Definition WBS Definition Deliverable oriented grouping of project elements that organizes and defines the total scope of the project Hardware Services Data Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  79. 79. WBS Purpose• To define:  Solution strategy or general approach  Implementation tactics• To support more accurate estimates of project duration and cost than can be made at the project level• To provide a basis for estimating project resources:  Departmental or subcontractor support  Vendors and their products  Services  Any other identifiable resource Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  80. 80. Scope Definition Typical WBS Information System 1. Project Systems Hardware Software Facilities Training Management Engineering Acquisition Development Modifications Development 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 Project Product CPU Operating Facility Training Planning Design Acquisition System Plans Plans 1.1.1 1.2.1 1.3.1 1.4.1 1.5.1 1.6.1 Project Systems Auxiliary Database Facility Training Control Integration Equipment 1.4.2 Modification Courses 1.1.2 1.2.2 1.3.2 1.5.2 1.6.2 Project Test & Printer Application Facility Data Evaluation Acquisition Development Installation 1.1.3 1.2.3 1.3.3 1.4.3 1.5.3 Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  81. 81. Scope Definition Responsibility Assignment Matrix Work Breakdown Functional Organization Work Packages & Planning Packages Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  82. 82. Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  83. 83. Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  84. 84. Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  85. 85. Validate Your WBS• All major elements been identified at top level?• Decomposed into measurable components?• Lower level(s) items necessary? All inclusive?• Would stakeholders agree WBS is satisfactory?• Can elements be scheduled, budgeted, and assigned to a unit that will accept responsibility?• Too much or too little visibility and control ?• Can status reports be generated at all levels? Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  86. 86. Using the WBS to Estimate Cost• Project manager establishes work requirements by defining the  What—―shalls‖ and ―wills‖  When—sequence  Why—dependencies• Functional managers estimate cost by determining  How—equipment and methods  Who—type and level of expertise  Where—location, department Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  87. 87. Scope Definition WBS • Code of accounts – Uniquely identifies each element of the WBS • Work packages – A deliverable at the lowest level of the WBS • WBS dictionary – Includes work-package descriptions Outputs • Work breakdown structure • Scope Statement Update Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  88. 88. Exercise 4-2 Work Breakdown Structure• Using ―Post-it® Notes,‖ construct a WBS for your project or subproject• Apply the WBS validation criteria• Discuss any learning or insights with a classmate, including any learning from applying the WBS test criteria Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  89. 89. Activity Definition• Identify the activities that must be performed to produce the project deliverables• Define the activities that must be performed to meet the project objectives Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  90. 90. Core Planning Processes Activity Definition Input Process Output1. WBS ―Identifying the specific 1. Activity list2. Scope statement activities that must be 2. Supporting detail3. Historical information performed to produce the 3. WBS updates various project deliverables.‖4. Constraints5. Assumptions6. Expert Judgment Tools and Techniques 1. Decomposition 2. Templates Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  91. 91. Activity Definition Tools & Techniques • Decomposition • TemplatesInputs• WBS Outputs• Scope statement • Activity list• Historical information • Supporting detail• Constraints • WBS updates• Assumptions• Expert Judgment Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  92. 92. Activity Definition Inputs • WBS – Primary input to activity definition • Scope statement – Project justification and project objectives • Historical information – The activities that were actually required on previous, similar projects • Constraints – Factors that will limit the PM team’s options • Assumptions – Factors that, for planning purposes, will be considered to be true, real, or certain • Expert Judgment Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  93. 93. Activity Definition Tools & Techniques • Decomposition – Subdividing project activities into smaller, more manageable components • Template – An activity list from a previous project or an activity list for a WBS element from the current project Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  94. 94. Activity Definition Outputs • Activity list – A list of all the activities that will be performed on the project and a description of each • Supporting detail – Documentation that contributes to the process, including all identified assumptions and constraints • WBS updates – Refinements to the existing WBS Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  95. 95. Activity SequencingEstablishing the activity logic and thedependencies needed to create arealistic and achievable schedule Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  96. 96. Core Planning Processes Activity Sequencing Input Process Output1. Activity list ―… identifying and 1. Project network diagrams2. Product description documenting interactivity 2. Activity list updates3. Mandatory dependencies dependencies.‖4. Discretionary dependencies5. External dependencies6. Milestones Tools and Techniques 1. Precedence diagramming method (PDM) 2. Arrow diagramming method (ADM) 3. Conditional diagramming method 4. Network templates Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  97. 97. Activity Sequencing Tools & Techniques • Precedence diagramming method (PDM) • Arrow diagramming method (ADM) • Conditional diagramming methods • Network templatesInputs• Activity list Outputs• Product description • Project network diagram• Mandatory dependencies • Activity list updates• Discretionary dependencies• External dependencies• Milestones Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  98. 98. Activity Sequencing Inputs • Activity list • Product description – Product characteristics affect activity sequencing • Mandatory dependencies (Hard logic) – Determined by the qualities of work to be done • Discretionary dependencies (Soft logic) – Defined by the project management team • External dependencies – Relationships between project activities and non-project activities • Milestones Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  99. 99. Activity Sequencing Tools & Techniques • Precedence diagramming method (PDM) – Nodes represent activities and arrows show dependencies A B Start E Finish C D Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  100. 100. Precedence Diagramming Method Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  101. 101. Activity Sequencing Activity Sequencing Process Finish-to-Start – Activity A must finish before Activity B can start A B Start-to-Start – Activity A must start before Activity B can start A B Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  102. 102. Activity Sequencing Activity Sequencing Process Finish-to-Finish – Activity A must finish before Activity B can finish A B Start-to-Finish – Activity A must start before Activity B can finish A B Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  103. 103. Activity Sequencing Tools and Techniques (cont.) • Arrow diagramming method (ADM) – Uses arrows to represent activities and connecting nodes to show dependencies Start A B C D E Finish • ADM uses finish-to-start dependencies only and uses dummy activities to show logical relationships Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  104. 104. Arrow Diagramming Method Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  105. 105. Activity Sequencing Tools & Techniques (cont.) • Conditional diagramming methods – Diagramming techniques such as Graphical Evaluation and Review Technique (GERT) and System Dynamics models allow the depiction of non- sequential activities and conditional branches • Network templates – Can include an entire project or just a portion of it (i.e., subnets and fragnets) Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  106. 106. Activity Sequencing Outputs • Project network diagram – Schematic display of project’s activities and dependencies • Activity list updates – Dividing or redefining activities so that the relationships are correctly diagrammed Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  107. 107. Activity Duration Estimating Estimating the number of work periods likely to be needed to complete each activity• Elapsed time (Delay) – Work periods between the finish of one activity and the start of another activity Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  108. 108. Core Planning Processes Activity Duration Estimating Input Process Output1. Activity lists ―… assessing the number of 1. Activity duration2. Constraints work periods likely to be 2. Basis of estimates3. Assumptions needed to complete each 3. Activity list updates identified activity.‖4. Resource requirements5. Resource capabilities6. Historical information7. Identified risks Tools and Techniques 1. Expert judgment 2. Analogous estimating 3. Quantitatively based durations 4. Reserve time (contingency) Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  109. 109. Activity Duration Estimating Tools & Techniques • Expert judgment • Analogous estimating • Quantitatively based durations • Reserve time (contingency)Inputs• Activity list• Constraints Outputs• Assumptions • Activity duration estimates• Resource requirements • Basis of estimates• Resource capabilities • Activity list updates• Historical information• Identified Risks Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  110. 110. Activity Duration Estimating Inputs • Activity list • Constraints • Assumptions • Resource requirements – Duration estimates are influenced by resource effort and assignments • Resource capabilities – Duration estimates are influenced by the capability of the people and the material resources assigned to them • Historical Information – Project files – Commercial duration estimating databases – Project team knowledge • Identified Risks Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  111. 111. Activity Duration Estimating Tools & Techniques • Expert judgment – Used with historical information • Analogous estimates (Top-down estimating) – Uses duration of a previous, similar activity as the basis for the of estimate of a future activity • Quantitatively based durations • Reserve time (contingency) Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  112. 112. Activity Duration Estimating Outputs • Duration estimates – Quantitative assessments of the likely number of work periods required to complete an activity • Basis of estimate – Documentation of the assumptions used for developing the estimates • Activity list updates Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  113. 113. Schedule Purpose• Converts the project plan to an operating plan that is the basic tool for controlling project activities Benefits of a realistic schedule? Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  114. 114. Benefits of a Realistic Schedule• Framework for managing critical project activities• Determines planned start and completion dates• Identifies activity and task precedence relationships• Aids project team in defining critical communication content• Specifies times when staff must be available• No surprises• Other? Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  115. 115. Key Scheduling Definitions• Network• Network techniques• Path• Node• Arc• Event• Activity Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  116. 116. Scheduling Techniques Activity on Arrow Example BStart A C D F Finish E Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  117. 117. Network Techniques AOA Example• Activities specified on arrows• Also called arrow diagramming method (ADM)• Nodes show relationship Result 1 Result 2 Result 3 Set up Work Finish Activity 1 Activity 2 Activity 3 Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  118. 118. Scheduling Techniques Activity on Node• Activity on node network format  Arrows show precedence relationships  Nodes show activities• 3 types of precedence relationships  Activity on node 1—successor but no predecessor  Activity on node 2—predecessor and successor  Activity on node 3—predecessor but no successor Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  119. 119. Precedence Relationships Finish to Start The ―from‖ activity Task A must finish before the ―to‖ activity Task B can start Task A Task B Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  120. 120. Precedence Relationships Start to Start Tasks A and B may start at the same time, but the successor (B) cannot Task A start until the predecessor (A) begins. Task BThe direction of the arrow defineswhich task is the predecessor andwhich is the successor. Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  121. 121. Precedence Relationships Finish to Finish Task ATasks A and B may end at the sametime, but the successor (B) cannot Task Bfinish until the predecessor (A)finishes Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  122. 122. Precedence Relationships Start to Finish Task ATask A must start before Task B canfinish (seldom used). Task B Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  123. 123. PDM Example Diverging-Converging Activities Diverging Converging Activities Activities Single predecessor with Multiple predecessors with multiple successors single successor Paint Ceiling Paint WallsPrep Paint Walls Clean-up (2nd coat) Paint Trim Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  124. 124. Forward Pass Definitions• Early Start Date (ES)  Earliest possible point in time an activity can start, based on the network logic and any schedule constraints• Duration (DU)  Number of work periods, excluding holidays or other nonworking periods, required to complete the activity; expressed as workdays or workweeks• Early Finish Date (EF)  Earliest possible time the activity can finish• Forward Pass  Starting at the beginning (left) of the network develop early start and early finish dates for each task, progressing to end (right-most box) of the network Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  125. 125. Forward Pass Calculation ES DU EF TaskEF = ES + DU – 1 LS Float LF 3 DU = 2 4 Paint Trim1 DU = 2 2 3 DU = 3 5 9 DU = 2 10 Prep Paint Ceiling Clean-up 3 DU = 4 6 7 DU = 2 8 Paint Walls Paint Walls (2nd Coat) Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  126. 126. Task Identification Forward PassName Duration ES EFPrep 2 1 2Paint Trim 2 3 4Paint Ceiling 3 3 5Paint Walls 4 3 6Paint Walls (2nd Coat) 2 7 8Clean-up 2 9 10 Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  127. 127. Backward Pass Definitions• Late Start Date (LS)  Latest point in time that an activity may begin without delaying that activity’s successor  If the activity is on the critical path, the project end date will be affected• Float or Slack  Latest point in time a task may be delayed from its earliest start date without delaying the project finish date• Late Finish (LF)  Latest point in time a task may be completed without delaying that activity’s successor  If the activity is on the critical path, the project end date will be affected• Backward Pass  Calculate late start and late finish dates by starting at project completion, using finish times and working backwards Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  128. 128. Backward Pass Calculation Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  129. 129. Task Identification Forward and Backward PassesName Duration ES EF LS LF FloatPrep 2 1 2 1 2 0Paint Trim 2 3 4 7 8 4Paint Ceiling 3 3 5 6 8 3Paint Walls 4 3 6 3 6 0Paint Walls (2nd Coat) 2 7 8 7 8 0Clean-up 2 9 10 9 10 0 Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  130. 130. Scheduling Techniques Bar/Gantt Chart Activity A Activity B Activity C Activity D Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov TimeThere are many other acceptable ways to display project information on a bar chart. Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  131. 131. Schedule Development Determining the start and finish dates of project activities• If start and finish dates are not realistic, the project is unlikely to be finished on schedule Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  132. 132. Core Planning Processes Schedule Development Input Process Output1. Project network diagram ―… determining start 1. Project schedule2. Activity duration estimates and finish dates for 2. Supporting detail3. Resource requirements project activities.‖ 3. Schedule management plan4. Resource pool description 4. Resource requirements5. Calendars updates6. Constraints7. Assumptions8. Leads and lags9. Risk management plan10. Activity attributes Tools and Techniques 1. Mathematical analysis 2. Duration compression 3. Simulation 4. Resource leveling heuristics 5. Project management software Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal 6. Coding structure
  133. 133. Schedule Development Tools & Techniques • Mathematical analysis • Duration compression • Simulation • Resource-leveling heuristicsInputs • Project management software• Project network diagram • Coding structure• Activity duration estimates• Resource requirements• Resource-pool description• Calendars Outputs• Constraints • Project schedule• Assumptions • Supporting detail• Leads and lags • Schedule management plan• • Risk Management Plan Prepared by: Syed Khurram IqbalResource-requirement updates• Activity Attributes
  134. 134. Schedule Development Inputs • Project network diagram • Duration estimates • Resource requirements • Resource pool – Description of the available resources and the times they are available to work on the project • Calendars – Identify periods when work is allowed – Project calendars: Affect all resources – Resource calendars: Affect specific resources or categories of resources Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  135. 135. Schedule Development Inputs • Constraints – Imposed dates – Key events or milestones • Assumptions • Leads and lags – Dependencies that require lead or lag values to accurately define the relationship • Risk Management Plan • Activity Attributes Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  136. 136. Schedule Development Tools & Techniques • Mathematical analysis – Calculating theoretical early and late start and finish dates for all activities – Critical Path Method (CPM) – Calculates a single, deterministic early and late start and finish date for each activity, to be used to determine which activities must be completed on time to avoid impacting the finish date of the project – Graphical Evaluation and Review Technique (GERT) – Allows for loops in the relationships between activities and for the conditional and probabilistic treatment of relationships Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  137. 137. Schedule Development Tools & Techniques (cont.) • Mathematical Analysis (cont.) – Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) – Uses sequential network logic and a weighted-average duration estimate to calculate duration. Uses the probability of an estimate’s accuracy. Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  138. 138. Schedule Development PERT Calculations • PERT – Program Evaluation and Review Technique • Expected Time = (Low + 4*Medium + High) / 6 • Standard Deviation = (High – Low) / 6 Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  139. 139. Schedule Development PERT Example Evening Commute Optimistic time = 15 minutes Most likely time = 30 minutes Pessimistic time = 60 minutes What is the Expected Time? Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  140. 140. Schedule Development Tools & Techniques (cont.) – Duration compression – Looks for ways to shorten the schedule without changing the project scope – Simulation – Resource-leveling heuristics (Resource-based method) – Changing the schedule to accommodate resources – PM Software – Used to assist schedule development and to display schedule-development outputs – Coding Structure Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  141. 141. Schedule Development Outputs • Project schedule – Includes planned start and expected finish dates for each activity • Supporting detail – Documentation of all identified assumptions and constraints • Schedule management plan – Defines how changes to the schedule will be managed • Resource requirement updates – Updates based on the results of resource leveling and on updates to activity lists Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  142. 142. Schedule Development Network Calculation Start Date 6/1 6/6 6/10 B 5 6/1 6/5 6/16 6/25 6/26 6/30 6/11 6/15 A 5 5 D 10 E 5 6/1 6/5 6/6 6/15 6/16 6/25 6/26 6/30 0 0 0 C 10 Finish Date 6/30 6/6 6/15 Calculations 0 Forward Pass – Determine early start and early finish dates Backward Pass – Determine late start and late finish dates and float Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  143. 143. Schedule Development Basic Terminology • Total float (Slack) – Amount of time an activity can be delayed and the project finish date not be effected • Free Float – Amount of time an activity can be delayed and the early start of the follow-on activity not be effected Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  144. 144. Schedule Development Gantt Charts • Bar chart – Displays activity start and end dates, as well as expected durations • Milestone chart – Displays scheduled start or completion of major deliverables • Combination chart – Displays events and activities as a function of time Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  145. 145. Schedule Development Typical Gantt Chart Activity Task A Task B Task C Task D June July Aug Sep Oct Nov Time Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  146. 146. Key Scheduling Concepts• Master schedule• Crashing• Hanger• Workaround• Schedule variance Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  147. 147. Milestone Chart Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  148. 148. Exercise 4-3 Project Milestones• Identify the major milestones in your project Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  149. 149. Resource PlanningDetermining physical resourcesneeded (i.e., material,equipment, and people) andnumber of resources required toperform the project activities Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  150. 150. Core Planning Processes Resource Planning Input Process Output1. WBS ―… determining what 1. Resource requirements2. Historical information physical resources3. Scope statement (people, equipment,4. Resource pool description materials) and what5. Organizational policies quantities of each should6. Activity Duration Estimates be used to perform project activities.‖ Tools and Techniques 1. Expert judgment 2. Alternatives identification 3. Project management software Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  151. 151. Resource Planning Tools & Techniques • Expert judgment • Alternatives identification • Project management softwareInputs• WBS Outputs• Historical information • Resource requirements• Scope statement• Resource pool description• Organizational policies• Activity Duration Estimates Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  152. 152. Resource Planning Inputs • Work breakdown structure (WBS) – Identifies the project elements that require resources • Historical information – Used to identify the types of resources that were required for similar work on previous projects • Scope statement – Contains project justification and the project objectives, which need to be considered • Resource pool description – Description of resources available, if necessary, to work on a project • Organizational policies – Of the performing organization, regarding staffing and the rental and purchase of supplies and equipment • Activity Duration Estimates Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  153. 153. Resource Planning Tools & Techniques • Expert judgment – Expertise, provided by any group or individual, used to assess the inputs to this process – Other units within organization – Consultants – Professional and technical associations – Industry groups • Alternatives identification • Project management software Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  154. 154. Resource Planning Outputs Resource requirements – Description of the types (e.g., skill levels) and numbers of resources required by each element of the WBS Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  155. 155. Cost EstimatingProcess of developing an approximation (or estimate)for the cost of the resources necessary to completethe project activities• Difference between cost estimating and pricing: – Cost estimating: Assessing how much it will cost the organization to provide the product or service – Pricing: Assessing how much the organization will charge for the product or service• Cost estimating also includes identifying and considering cost alternatives Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  156. 156. Core Planning Processes Cost Estimating Input Process Output1. WBS ―… developing an 1. Cost estimates2. Resource requirements approximation (estimate of the 2. Supporting detail3. Resource rates costs of the resources needed 3. Cost management plan to complete project activities.‖4. Activity duration estimates5. Estimating Publications6. Historical information7. Chart of accounts8. Risks Tools and Techniques 1. Analogous estimating 2. Parametric modeling 3. Bottom-up estimating 4. Computerized tools 5. Other cost estimating methods Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  157. 157. Cost Estimating Tools & Techniques • Analogous estimating • Parametric modeling • Bottom-up estimating • Computerized tools • Other cost estimating methodsInputs• WBS Outputs• Resource requirements • Cost estimates• Resource rates • Supporting detail• Activity duration estimates • Cost management plan• Estimating Publications• Historical information• Chart of accounts• Risks Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  158. 158. Cost Estimating Inputs • WBS – Used to organize the cost estimates and to ensure that the cost of all identified work has been estimated • Resource requirements • Resource rates – Unit rates for each resource • Activity duration estimates – Affects cost estimates if project budget includes an allowance for the cost of financing (i.e., interest) • Historical Information – Information on the cost of resources – Project files – Records of previous project results that are detailed enough to aid in developing cost estimates – Commercial cost-estimating databases – Historical information available commercially – Project team knowledge • Estimating Publications • Chart of accounts – Coding structure used by the organization to report financial information. Cost estimates must be assigned to the correct accounting category. • Risks Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  159. 159. Cost Estimating Tools & Techniques • Analogous estimating (Expert judgment) – Used to estimate total project costs if there is a limited amount of detailed information • Parametric modeling – Using project characteristics (or parameters) in a mathematical model to predict costs (e.g., price per square foot) • Bottom-up estimating – Estimating the cost of individual work items and then rolling up the costs to arrive at a project total • Computerized tools – PM software and spreadsheets • Other Cost Estimating Methods Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  160. 160. Cost Estimating Outputs • Cost estimates – Quantitative assessments of the cost of resources (e.g., units of currency or staff hours) • Types of estimates – Order of magnitude (-25% / +75%) – Budget estimate (-10% / +25%) – Definitive estimate (-5% / +10%) • Supporting detail – Description of estimated scope of work – Documentation of the basis for the estimate – Documentation of any assumptions made – Range of possible results Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  161. 161. Cost Estimating Outputs (cont.) • Cost management plan – Describes how cost variances will be managed – Part of the overall project plan Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  162. 162. Cost BudgetingAllocating the value of the overall costestimate to individual work items, inorder to establish a cost baseline to usein measuring project performance Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  163. 163. Core Planning Processes Cost Budgeting Input Process Output1. Cost estimates ―… allocating the overall cost 1. Cost baseline2. WBS estimates to individual work3. Project schedule items in order to establish a cost baseline for measuring4. Risk management plan project performance.‖ Tools and Techniques 1. Cost budgeting Tools & Techniques Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  164. 164. Cost Budgeting Tools & Techniques • Cost-estimating tools and techniquesInputs• Cost estimates Outputs• WBS • Cost baseline• Project schedule• Risk management plan Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  165. 165. Cost Budgeting Inputs • Cost estimates • WBS – Identifies the project elements to which the costs will be allocated • Project schedule – Used to assign costs to project elements for the time period when costs will be incurred • Risk Management Plan Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  166. 166. Cost Budgeting Tools & Techniques • Cost estimating tools and techniques – Analogous estimating – Parametric modeling – Bottom-up estimating – Computerized tools Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  167. 167. Cost Budgeting Outputs Cost baseline – Time phased budget that will be used to measure and monitor the cost performance of the project 140 120 100 BCWS ($K) 80 60 40 20 0 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Reporting Period Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  168. 168. Project Plan DevelopmentTaking the results of other planning processes and putting them into a consistent, coherent document Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  169. 169. Core Planning Processes Project Plan Development Input Process Output1. Other planning outputs ―… taking the results of other 1. Project plan2. Historical information planning processes and putting 2. Supporting detail3. Organizational policies them into a consistent, coherent document.‖4. Constraints5. Assumptions Tools and Techniques 1. Project planning methodology 2. Stakeholder’s skills and knowledge 3. Project management information systems 4. Earned value management (EVM) Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  170. 170. Project Plan Development Tools & Techniques • Project planning methodology • Stakeholder skills and knowledge • Project management information systemInputs • Earned value management• Other planning outputs• Historical information• Organizational policies Outputs• Constraints • Project plan• Assumptions • Supporting detail Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  171. 171. Project Plan Development Inputs • Other planning outputs from the other knowledge areas – They include base documents, as well as the supporting detail • Historical information – Estimating databases and records of past project performance • Organizational policies – Any and all of the organization’s formal and informal policies. These include QM process audits, continuous-improvement targets, personnel-hiring and -firing guidelines, employee-performance reviews, and financial controls • Constraints – Any factors that will limit the project team’s options • Assumptions – Factors that, for planning purposes, will be considered to be true, real, or certain Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  172. 172. Project Plan Development Tools & Techniques • Project planning methodology – Structured approach used to guide the development of the project plan • Stakeholder skills and knowledge – Create an environment in which stakeholders can contribute appropriately • Project management information system – Consists of the automated and manual tools and techniques used to gather, integrate, and disseminate information and outputs from other PM processes • Earned Value Management Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  173. 173. Project Plan Development Outputs • Project plan – The formal, approved document used to manage and control project execution • Supporting detail – Outputs from other planning processes – Additional information or documentation generated during development of the project plan – Technical documentation – Documentation of relevant standards Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  174. 174. Project Plan Development Project Plan • Includes: – Project charter – PM approach or strategy – Scope statement – Work breakdown structure (WBS) – Cost estimates – Schedule – Performance measurement baselines – Major milestones and target dates – Key or required staff – Key risks – Open issues and pending decisions Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  175. 175. Facilitating Planning Processes• Quality planning• Communications planning• Organizational planning• Staff acquisition• Procurement planning• Solicitation planning• Risk identification• Qualitative risk analysis• Quantitative risk analysis• Risk response planning Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  176. 176. Facilitating Planning Processes Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  177. 177. Sample Planning Activities• Subdividing deliverables into manageable components• Allocating overall cost estimate to individual work items• Identifying the specific activities people must perform to produce the project deliverables• Identifying the sequence and duration of activities• Determining project roles and responsibilities• Other? Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  178. 178. Key Outputs of Planning Processes The Project Plan Schedules  Cost management plan Budgets  Cost baseline Risk management plan  Scope statement Quality plan  Work breakdown structure Staffing plan  Plan updates Procurement plan  Resource requirements Schedule management plan  Communications plan Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  179. 179. UNIT 5:EXECUTINGPROJECTS Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  180. 180. Unit 5: Executing ProjectsUpon completion, you will be able to …• Describe the purposes of the executing processes• Identify the inputs and outputs of its core processes• List the major tools and techniques Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  181. 181. Project Management Process GroupsCommitment to Approach toexecuting project executing project Initiating Planning Coordinating Processes Processes people and other resources Controlling Executing Processes ProcessesMonitoring, measuring, andtaking corrective action Closing Formal product Processes acceptance and end of project Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  182. 182. Purpose• To coordinate, integrate, and manage all resources Why?• in order to achieve the project objectives How?• by carrying out the letter and intent of the project plan While• responding to change and mitigating risks Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  183. 183. Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  184. 184. Project Plan Execution Carrying out the project plan byperforming activities identified in the document Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  185. 185. Core Execution Process Project Plan Execution Input Process Output1. Project plan ―… the primary process for 1. Work results2. Supporting detail carrying out the project plan.‖ 2. Change requests3. Organizational policies4. Preventive action5. Corrective action Tools and Techniques 1. General management skills 2. Product skills and knowledge 3. Work authorization system 4. Status review meetings 5. Project management information system 6. Organizational procedures Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  186. 186. Project Plan Execution Tools & Techniques • General management skills • Product skills and knowledge • Work-authorization system • Status review meetings • PM information system • Organizational proceduresInputs• Project plan Outputs• Supporting detail • Work results• Organizational policies • Change requests• Preventive action• Corrective action Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  187. 187. Project Plan Execution Inputs • Project plan • Supporting detail • Organizational policies • Preventive action • Corrective action – Anything done to bring future performance in line with the project plan – Output of the various control processes Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  188. 188. Project Plan Execution Tools & Techniques • General management skills – Leadership, communication, negotiation skills, etc. • Product skills and knowledge – Skills are part of resource-planning and staff-acquisition processes • Work-authorization system – Formal procedure for approving project work; source of written authorization to begin work on a specific activity or work package • Status-review meetings – Regularly scheduled meetings to exchange information about the project • Project management information system • Organizational procedures – Both formal and informal procedures that might be useful during project execution Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  189. 189. Project Plan Execution Outputs • Work results – Outcomes of activities performed in order to accomplish the project; fed into the performance reporting process • Change request – A request to expand or contract project scope, budget, schedule, or resources Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  190. 190. Facilitating Execution Processes• Quality assurance• Team development• Information distribution• Solicitation• Source selection• Contract administration Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  191. 191. Facilitating Execution Processes Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  192. 192. Sample Executing Activities• Managing work results and requests for change• Using tools and techniques in project plan implementation• Building effective relationships with vendors and project team members• Choosing from potential sellers• Distributing status information in time for stakeholders to act• Other? Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  193. 193. UNIT 6:CONTROLLING PROJECTS Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  194. 194. Unit 6: Controlling ProjectsUpon completion, you will be able to …• Describe the purposes of the controlling processes• Identify the inputs and outputs of the core controlling processes• List and define the major tools and techniques Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  195. 195. Project Management Process GroupsCommitment to Approach toexecuting project executing project Initiating Planning Coordinating Processes Processes people and other resources Controlling Executing Processes ProcessesMonitoring, measuring, andtaking corrective action Closing Formal product Processes acceptance and end of project Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  196. 196. Purpose To keep the project on track in order to achieve its objectives as outlined in the project plan by:• Monitoring and reporting variances• Controlling scope changes• Controlling schedule changes• Controlling costs• Controlling quality• Responding to risks Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  197. 197. OverviewPrepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal
  198. 198. Performance ReportingCollecting and disseminating performanceinformation• This includes status reporting, progress measurement, and forecasting• Provides information on scope, schedule, cost, and quality, and possibly on risk and procurement Prepared by: Syed Khurram Iqbal

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