Garment printing

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our internship report on garment printing at THRUPTHI DESIGNERS. bangalore.

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Garment printing

  1. 1. AN INTERNSHIP REPORT ON “Thrupti Designers” (GARMENT PRINTERS) By, Rajesh. K Siva Jagadish Kumar.M Tejas. Kulkarni
  2. 2. Company Profile <ul><li>Thrupti Designers - renowned garment printer in Bangalore. </li></ul><ul><li>Started in the year of 2004. </li></ul><ul><li>Situated at Begur Road, Bangalore as a 2 nd unit of this organization. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a first printing unit to get certified with GOTS , & Organic Exchange certification in Bangalore. </li></ul><ul><li>Production capacity 30,000 pieces/day of single color. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Customer List <ul><ul><li>Shahi Exports Pvt Ltd (Wovens & Knits Divisions) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integra Apparels & Textiles Pvt Ltd </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural Textiles Pvt Ltd </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LVK Baby Wear Pvt Ltd </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sunitha Impex Pvt Ltd </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Graffiti Exports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mahalakshmi Inc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>My Choice Garments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Imperial Garments (Hyderabad) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gokaldas Exports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BLR Knits Pvt Ltd </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Infrastructure <ul><li>Equipped with following machineries for production and sampling. </li></ul>Type No. of Units. Big Tables (25 meters of each) 02 Pallet Printing Machines 12 ( 10 of 8 colours & 2 of 12 colours) Curing Machine 01 Digital Pneumatic Fusing Machine 10 Colour Matching Cabinet (Paramount) 01 Air Compressor 01 Diesel Generator 01
  5. 5. Organisation Structure
  6. 6. SCREEN PRINTING
  7. 7. Screen Printing <ul><li>A process, where ink is mechanically applied to a substrate with the use of a screen and squeegee. </li></ul>
  8. 10. Colour Separation <ul><li>Each colour of the design requires an individual screen so we must separate the design into its component colours. This is done on the computer and each colour separation is printed to a transparent sheet. </li></ul>
  9. 11. 4 Colour Separation <ul><li>4-colour process is a more advanced separation and printing technique. </li></ul><ul><li>Uses 4 colours of transparent ink to produce the colours from the original design. </li></ul><ul><li>The four colours, Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, and black (CMYK), are printed as half-tones that interact with each other and the white background of the shirt to create colour and tonal values. </li></ul>
  10. 12. Printing Mechanics <ul><li>The screen is then mounted in the press and aligned so that each colour prints in the proper location relative to the other colours. </li></ul><ul><li>Ink is loaded into the screens and squeegees are installed. </li></ul><ul><li>As the squeegee scrapes across the screen with the ink it fills the stencil with ink while simultaneously bending the mesh down to transfer the ink to the shirt. </li></ul>
  11. 13. Screen Printing
  12. 14. Multi Colour Printing
  13. 15. Mesh count <ul><li>The mesh count is the number of threads per inch (tpi) used to weave the mesh. </li></ul><ul><li>Typical mesh counts for screen printing range from 85 tpi to 355 tpi. </li></ul><ul><li>The high mesh counts, have a very small thread diameter and less open area. </li></ul><ul><li>Prints require more fineness should be use finer mesh count. </li></ul>
  14. 16. Mesh count <ul><li>Glitter 25–60 </li></ul><ul><li>Flock adhesive 45–125 </li></ul><ul><li>Puff-up colors 55–125 </li></ul><ul><li>Overprint 80 –110 </li></ul><ul><li>Pigment ink printing areas/lines 110 –175 </li></ul><ul><li>Plastisol 125–305 </li></ul><ul><li>Pigment inks, half-tone 155–255 </li></ul><ul><li>Sublimation transfer 195–305 </li></ul>
  15. 17. DIFFERENT TYPES OF PRINTS
  16. 18. Plastisol Print <ul><li>Good colour opacity onto dark garments and clear graphic detail with, as the name suggests, a more plasticized texture. </li></ul><ul><li>Plastisol inks require heat (approx. 150°C) to cure the print. </li></ul><ul><li>Due to excess phthalate in PVC, this is banned for Children’s wear. </li></ul>
  17. 19. Non PVC <ul><li>Relatively new breed of ink and printing with the benefits of Plastisol but without the main toxic components - soft feeling print. </li></ul><ul><li>Suitable for kids wear. </li></ul>
  18. 20. High Density Print <ul><li>This is one of the recent developments in printing which gives thick prints on the surface of garments. </li></ul><ul><li>Achieved by either giving more number of coats or by using thickener indirect films used for making the screens. </li></ul>
  19. 21. Suedo Ink Print <ul><li>Suede is a milky coloured additive that is added to Plastisol. With suede additive you can make any colour of Plastisol have ‘suede’ feel. </li></ul><ul><li>Generally 50% suede additive to your normal Plastisol. </li></ul>
  20. 22. Discharge Print <ul><li>Used to print lighter colours onto dark background fabrics, they work by removing the dye already present in the garment. </li></ul><ul><li>This gives a much softer texture </li></ul>
  21. 23. Sticker Print <ul><li>This is ready to transfer print. </li></ul><ul><li>The plastisol print is already printed on paper and will be transfered on to garment in the fusing process. </li></ul><ul><li>The main advantage of this method is less expensive. </li></ul>
  22. 24. Pigment Print <ul><li>These penetrate the fabric more than the Plastisole inks and create a much softer feel. </li></ul><ul><li>Also useful for larger area prints where texture is important. </li></ul>
  23. 25. Glitter Print <ul><li>Metallic flakes are suspended in the ink base to create this sparkle effect. </li></ul><ul><li>Usually available in gold or silver but can be mixed to make most colours. </li></ul>
  24. 26. Metallic Print <ul><li>Gives metallic look. </li></ul><ul><li>Similar to glitter, but smaller particles suspended in the ink. </li></ul><ul><li>Smooth in texture when compared to glitter. </li></ul>
  25. 27. Foil Print <ul><li>This printing method is based on the use of metallic foil paper of aluminium or copper one. </li></ul><ul><li>The print fixation method is similar to transfer printing. This print method is popular amongst youngsters. </li></ul>
  26. 28. Distressed/ Khadi print <ul><li>It consists of titanium dioxide with other auxiliaries. </li></ul><ul><li>The important factor in printing of this is right combination of titanium dioxide and proper choice of binder. </li></ul>
  27. 29. Puff Print <ul><li>An additive to Plastisol inks which raises the print off the garment, creating a 3D feel. </li></ul><ul><li>In this method when the paste is printed and dries it look like normal printing garments but once it is cured the prints gets raised from the surface of fabric. </li></ul>
  28. 30. Cavier Bead Print <ul><li>A glue is printed in the shape of the design, to which small plastic beads are then applied. </li></ul><ul><li>works well with solid block areas creating an interesting tactile surface. </li></ul>
  29. 31. Silicone Print <ul><li>To counter inferior wash and weather durability, poor hand feel of some prints like plastisol printing mills tried silicone inks because of their good washing durability, hand feel, elongation properties and environmental friendliness. </li></ul>
  30. 32. Flock Print <ul><li>This process involves printing of glue on the fabric first, applying the fiber flock on the gel printed by keeping the fabric on special table (electro statically charged). </li></ul><ul><li>It requires a little high time for curing than normal prints. 120 seconds at 160C will be sufficient for curing. </li></ul>
  31. 33. Organic Print <ul><li>Organic print range covers the natural dyes, and the other pigment dyes which lies under the specifications made by G.O.T.S. </li></ul><ul><li>For Printing Organic Dyes the company/ manufacturer should get the certification from G.O.T.S. </li></ul>
  32. 34. FLOW CHARTS SAMPLE PROFIT PRODUCTION
  33. 35. Sampling Process
  34. 37. MACHINES USED IN PRINTING 6- COLOUR SCREEN PRINTING
  35. 38. CAROUSAL PRINTING MACHINE <ul><li>These machines will be available both in automatic and semi automatic machines and with 4, 6, 8, 10 & 12 multi colour models. The double spring model gives the customers a maintenance free performance of the machine. Electric heat panels included in the machine. </li></ul>
  36. 39. DIGITAL FUSING <ul><li>Used As Heat Transfer Press, Designs To Be Transfered To The Garments / Fabrics / Leathers/ Rexin /Nylon / Polyprpelene/ Bags & etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used for fusing like plastisol priniting, khadi, pigment & etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Can Be Used As Flat Bed Fusing Machine For Collar And Cuff Fusing </li></ul><ul><li>Platen Size Can Be Increased Up to 20&quot; X 30&quot;. </li></ul>
  37. 40. ELECTRIC CURING MACHINE <ul><li>Electric curing used for fixing the printing paste on to the printed fabric. </li></ul><ul><li>This is the alternate method for ‘Line Drying’. </li></ul><ul><li>So that instead of waiting for 3-5 hours for line drying, the electric curing process can be completed in few minutes. </li></ul>
  38. 41. COLOUR MATCHING CABINET (SPECTRA VISION) <ul><li>Artificial Daylight Fluorescent Lamps (D-65) </li></ul><ul><li>Tungsten Filament Lamps (Inc A Lamps) </li></ul><ul><li>Cool White Fluorescent Lamp (CWF) </li></ul><ul><li>Triphosphor Fluorescent Lamp (TL-84) </li></ul><ul><li>Ultra-Violet Black Lamp </li></ul>
  39. 42. COST, M.O.Q of the Various Types of Prints Print Type Cost of Print in Rs. M.O.Q Curing / Fusing Suitability for Children Durability Rating Sticker Print 1 2500 Fusing No 1.5 Plastisole Print 1.5 1000 Fusing No 2.5 Pigment Print 2 1000 Curing Yes 3 Non-Pvc Print 2.5 1000 Curing Yes 2.5 Distressed (Kadi) Print 2.5 1000 Curing Yes 2.5 Foil Print 3.5 500 Fusing Yes 2 Gel Print 3 1000 Curing Yes 3 Discharge Print 3 500 Curing Yes 3 Glitter Print 3.5 1000 Curing Yes 2 Sugar Print 5 1000 Curing No 2 Metallic Print 4 1000 Curing No 2 High Density Print (6 Coats) 5 500 Curing Yes 3.5 Puff Print 3.5 1000 Curing Yes 3 Flock Print 5 1000 Curing Yes 2.5 Silicone Print 8 500 Curing Yes 4.5 Organic Print 6.5 1000 Curing Yes 3 Bits Printing   4 2000 Fusing No 2
  40. 43. COST, M.O.Q Analysis for Various Types of Prints
  41. 44. COST & M.O.Q Analysis for Various Types of Prints
  42. 45. Printing Defects <ul><li>Improper alignment : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Causes: Improper setting of two different screens of different colour </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Colour spread : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Causes: Less viscosity of print paste is less. Base fabric not fixed properly. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Improper mixing of print paste: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Causes: As the name itself implies the print paste ingredients are not mixed properly leading to some yellowing or stain marks on print. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Scrimps: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Causes: The print is done on folded fabric. </li></ul></ul>
  43. 46. Printing Defects <ul><li>Smear </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Causes: Printing is done on seams which will be of different thickness leading in spreading and blurring. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Difference in texture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Causes: Improper fusing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Improper colour matching </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Causes: If printed colour is not matching with standard. </li></ul></ul>
  44. 47. Printing Defects <ul><li>Stick in </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Causes: Some dust and lint which get chock in screen holes leads in improper design. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Doubling or blurring </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Causes: Improper fixing of base fabric or screen. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lint or thread marks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Causes: Any loose threads come in print area will lead to thread marks on print. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Colour stains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Causes: Improper handling of material. </li></ul></ul>
  45. 48. Printing Defects <ul><li>Glue streak </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Causes: The gum which used to stick garment and/or the gel which is printed on fabric (for foil, flock etc.) strikes out of fabric through back side. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Low sharpness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Causes: Improper mesh selection , damaged screen. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Coloured/White spots </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Causes: Improper screen preparation. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Distorted print </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Causes: printing of second coat before drying 1 st coat. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In general 1-3% of defective pieces in bulk order is allowed, but since the defect occurrence is very less its always less than the limit </li></ul>
  46. 49. References <ul><li>Web References </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.gfxsp.com/faq_sp.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Screen_printing </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.cheranfusing.com </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.dowcorning.com/screenprinting </li></ul><ul><li>Book Reference </li></ul><ul><li>Screen Printing – A Contemporary Approach, Samuel B. Hoff, Delmar Publishers, 59. </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial References </li></ul><ul><li>Mr. Hanumanth Rao (Manager – Production, Thrupti Designers). </li></ul><ul><li>Mr. Upendra Kant (Manager – Administration, Thrupti Designers). </li></ul><ul><li>Mr. Praveen. S.P. (Sr. Merchant, Shahi Exports Pvt. Ltd, Unit-12) </li></ul>
  47. 50. Thank You…!!!

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