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  1. 1. PRINTING
  2. 2. Prepared By : Mazadul Hasan sheshir ID: 2010000400008 13th Batch (session 2009-2013) Department : Wet Processing Technology Email: Blog : www. (visit) Southeast University Department Of Textile Engineering I/A 251,252 Tejgaon Dhaka Bangladesh Prepared By : ©right
  3. 3. PRINTING The printing is described as localized dyeng, dyes or pigment are applied locally or discontinuously to produce the various designs. Printing is the production of all active designs with well defined boundaries made by the artistic arrangement of a motif is one or more colors. Printing is a process for reproducing text and image, typically with ink on paper using a printing press. It is often carried out as a large- scale industrial process, and is an essential part of publishing and transaction printing. Screen printing is a printing technique that uses a woven mesh to support an ink-blocking stencil. The attached stencil forms open areas of mesh that transfer ink as a sharp-edged image onto a substrate. A roller or squeegee is moved across the screen stencil, forcing or pumping ink past the threads of the woven mesh in the open areas. Screen printing is also a stencil method of print making in which a design is imposed on a screen of silk or other fine mesh, with blank areas coated with an impermeable substance, and ink is forced through the mesh onto the printing surface. It is also known as silk screening or serigraphy.
  4. 4. printing 1. used to add color to localized areas only 2. allows for greater design flexibility and relatively inexpensive patterned fabric 3. wet prints use a thick, liquid paste 4. dry prints use a powder 5. foam prints use a colorant dispersed in foam PRINTING
  5. 5. printing methods digital printing— • ink-jet printing heat-transfer printing • design transferred to fabric from specially printed paper by heat & pressure electrostatic printing • prepared screen covered with powdered dye; passes through electric field & pulled onto material foil printing • adhesive applied to fabric, foil heated on heat transfer press & bonds to adhesive pattern stencil printing • separate pattern cut for each color, color is applied in thick paste or sprayed on with air gun
  6. 6. There are three methods of pattern dyeing and printing:  Direct printing  Resist printing  Discharge printing What type of printing method you know?
  7. 7. Direct Printing: In direct printing a design is etched into a copper roller. A dye that has been thickened into a paste with starch, gelatin, or synthetic polymers is applied to the etched area while the un-etched surface is kept clean. The color design is transferred to the cloth under pressure. Direct printing may also involve forcing the paste onto the fabric through a screen, a technique similar to stencil printing except that the screen controls how much paste is applied to the cloth. Resist Printing: In resist printing a reverse-printing method, a dye repelling substance is selectively applied to the cloth, which is then placed in a dye bath. This method is used for example, to produce white polka dots on a color background. Discharge Printing: In discharge printing, the whole fabric is dyed. A pattern is then printed on the fabric with a chemical that oxidizes or reduces the dye, creating a white pattern on a colored background. What type of printing method you know?
  8. 8.  Allover print.  Screen print.  Reactive print.  Print with plastisol dye-stuffs.  Pigment print  Flock print  Foil print  Lurex print  Embossed print  Heat transfer print  Hi-density print  Dip-dye print. All others of printings are---
  9. 9. Factors Affecting Cost of Printing 1. Size of printing 2. Number of color of printing 3. Any grading of size of printing from size to size 4. Any restriction/selection of use of dyes and chemicals 5. Lab test requirement 6. Wash sustainability 7. Tolerance in placement of print art-work 8. Tolerance in color shade variation 9. Place of printing 10. Type of printing
  10. 10.  Preparation of the fabric to be printed.  Preparation of the print paste.  Making an impression of the print paste on the fabric.  Drying of the printed fabric.  Steaming of the printed fabric.  After treatments (soaping etc) Steps of printing:-
  11. 11. Sychrop print hand print ↓ Dryer (temp 170 – 172) ↓ Quality inspection ↓ Sewing. Printing process:-
  12. 12. Design ↓ Expose ↓ Color ↓ Develop sample Steps of printing section :-
  13. 13. Process of after Production Primary Printing Inspection:- Approval ↓ Strike of Approval ↓ Hand over (Measurement Chart) ↓ Pre-production meting ↓ Quality Report ↓ Total Production Summary.
  14. 14. This process involves a print paste (like a thick paint) that is applied to an engraved roller, and the fabric is guided between it and a central cylinder. The pressure of the roller and central cylinder forces the print paste into the fabric. Because of the high quality it can achieve, roller printing is the most appealing method of printing designer and fashion apparel fabrics. Long runs of the same fabric design are produced on a roller print cylinder machine operating at speeds between 50 and 100 yards a minute. As many as 10 different colors can be printed in one continuous operation, but each colour must have a separate roller. The design is cut into the surface of copper rollers; by varying the depth of the engraving on the roller the shade depth can be altered. Sharpness of line and fine detail can be achieved this way. A typical printing machine has a large padded drum or cylinder, which is surrounded by a series of copper rollers, each with its own dye trough and doctor blade that scrapes away excess dye. Roller / Rotary Printing
  15. 15. Schematic diagram of PRINTING
  16. 16. The tubular screens rotate at the same velocity as the fabric, the print paste is distributed inside a tubular screen, which is forced into the fabric as it is pressed between the screen and a printing blanket (a continuous rubber belt). It picks up colour from the engraved area of each roller in sequence. The printed cloth is dried immediately and conveyed to an oven that sets the dye. Knitted fabric is mostly printed in this method as it does not pull or stretch the fabric.
  17. 17.  Roller Printing  Flat (Silk) Screen Printing  Rotary Screen Printing  Block Printing  Heat Transfer Printing  Dye Sublimation Printing  Resist Printing
  18. 18. Exposing m/c Curing m/c Heat transfer m/c
  19. 19. Design: - printing design means colors separate to the design. Printing size , grading system , measurement then design pass to the expose section. Expose :-Design pass to the screen heat transfer to the expose machine , screen is the mesh fabric the machine can per from through high function vacuum pumps that saves time for screen preparation. Exposing Machine that is specially designed to enable the fine screen to be exposed. Imported sealed rubber blanket and filtered air regulator is used to keep the machine dust clean.  The Machine is a specially designed for enable the fine screen to be expose  The Machine can perform high function (imported) vacuum pumps.  Instant vacuum leads to save time for screen preparation.  The machine consists indigenous quick start espousal systems, the light is very strong and stable  Machine adopts many rows of powerful homogeneous distribution UV light source, economic and save energy.  The Imported sealed rubber blanket.  Filtered Air Regulator Heat &+ Keep Dust clean
  20. 20. Screen mode (50-60 min dryer temp 70 c) ↓ Exposing mc ↓ Cold water (5 min) ↓ After them spray gun develop ↓ Dryer (30-40 min) ↓ Re-wash ↓ Dryer (20 min) ↓ Re-expose (20 min) ↓ Hard & applied. ↓ Design complete Steps in design to screen:-
  21. 21. Automatic Print Hand Print 1. Accuracy 1. No Accuracy 2. Limited Production 2. No Limited Production 3. Production is high 3. Production is Low 4. Depends on m/c capacity 4. It is manually print 5. Capacity is 9 colors 5. Variety colors print Difference between Automatic Print & Hand Print:-
  22. 22. Rotary Screen Printing Process
  23. 23. Block printing is a traditional process dating back to India in the 12th century. Wooden blocks made of seasoned teak in different shapes and sizes are cut by trained craftsmen. Each block has a wooden handle and two or three holes drilled into the block to the passage of air and release of excess print paste. Fabric is stretched over a printing table and fastened with small pins. Printing starts from left to right, first the colour is evened out in the tray and then the block is dipped in. Then the block is applied to the fabric with careful registration and pressure is applied. Block Printing
  24. 24. Dye sublimation allows photo lab quality picture printing. During the dye sublimation printing process, an image is digitally printed in reverse with dye sublimation toners or inks onto media. That image is then placed on top of a fabric and subjected to high heat and pressure to form a heat press. The dye sublimation toners or inks sublimate – the inks go from a solid state to a gaseous state without becoming liquid in between and flow into the fabric, dyeing the threads. This creates a gentle gradation of colour and does not distort or fade over time. Dye Sublimination Printing
  25. 25. This is essentially transferring an image to fabric from a paper carrier. When heat and pressure are applied to this paper the inks are transferred. Some transfers are topical, and the image sits on the surface of the fabric. Other transfers are absorbed into the fibres of the fabric. Heat transfer printing is clean and environmentally safe. The only by-product is the paper carrier. It is the perfect print method for short run and sample production, but can also be used for batch production as well. Heat Transfer Printing
  26. 26. Although experts disagree on the origins of Batik, it is very popular in Indonesia and Africa. The cloth that is used for batik is washed and boiled in water many times before the wax can be applied so that all traces of starches, lime, chalk and other sizing materials are removed. Before modern-day techniques, the cloth would have been pounded with a wooden mallet or ironed to make it smooth and supple so it could receive the wax design. The designer uses a ‘tjanting’ (wax pen) to draw the design on the cloth. The wax is kept fluid in a melting pot. After the wax has been applied, the fabric is ready for the dye bath. Today most batik factories use large concrete vats, above the vats are ropes with pulleys that the fabric is draped over after it has been dipped into the dye bath. The amount of time it is left in the bath determines the hue of the colour (longer for deeper colours) Batik
  27. 27. Also called application print. Design is printed directly onto a white cloth or a previously dyed fabric. They are the most popular print types. Direct Print
  28. 28. Fabrics are dyed a solid color prior to printing. When printing is done, the design is applied by screen or roller with a chemical which removes the color of the originally dyed fabric. Discharge prints can be made with rollers and screen methods. They are not widely used because production costs are high. Discharge Print
  29. 29. It involves a two step procedure: (1) printing a pattern design on a white fabric with a chemical that will prevent penetration of dyes; and piece dyeing the fabric. The result is a dyed background with a white patterned area. Resist Print
  30. 30.  It is one in which the background color is created by printing rather than dyeing.  The ground and pattern design colors are printed onto a white cloth.  One of the problems with blotch prints is that large background color areas of the print are not covered with the full depth of color. Blotch Prints
  31. 31.  This involves printing the warp yarns of a fabric before weaving. The fabric is woven with a solid color filling, usually white. The result is a soft, shadowed, blurred design on the fabric.  These prints are found on high quality, costly fabrics because it requires careful, meticulous labor. Warp Prints
  32. 32.  Tiny particles of fiber are made to adhere to a fabric surface in conformance to a particular design. Rayon and nylon fibers are typically used for flocking.  The ability of flocked fibers to withstand dry cleaning and/or laundry depends on the adhesive. Adhesives with excellent fastness to cleaning processes are used. Flock Prints
  33. 33. 1. This involves printing with a chemical that will destroy the fiber in the patterned design print area. 2. In fabrics that are made with blended yarns, the burn-out chemical will destroy one fiber and leave the other undamaged. Unusual and interesting fabrics can be created by this method. Burn-out Prints
  34. 34.  These are fabrics in which both sides of the fabric are printed.  They are made to imitate more costly woven yarn-dyed design effects such as stripes, checks and plaids.They are rarely used because of the high cost of printing both sides of a fabric Duplex Prints
  35. 35. Variotherm in use. Only for pigment & base fabric just white & light color just heat fabric print reduces, cold then fabric prints in show. Magic color :- Chemical in use:- Chemical in use:-  Variotherm & pigment.  Color in use. Time :- 7.5 pieces/min. Fault :-  Color shade  Design  Placement design ok
  36. 36. Metallic print is the powder from then mix if any color & print. Chemical in use:-  Base - 200  Powder  5-10%  Color in use. Time :- 7.5 pieces/min. Fault :-  Color shade  Design  Placement design ok. Metallic print :-
  37. 37. Glitter is the powder from. fixer must be use. Chemical in use:-  Binder - 100  Glitter powder ----- 30-50  Color in use.  Fixer— 1-2 % Time :- 7.5 pieces/min. Fault :-  Color shade  Design  Placement design ok  Fixer can not be use then glitter is damaged print. Glitter print:-
  38. 38. It is chemical character. It is imbues mesh. Chemical in use:-  Base & clear minimum - 50  White if need -100  Color in use. Time: - 2 pieces/min. Temp- 170 c Fault:-  Color shade  Design  Placement design ok  Gum mistake then flock mistake. Puff print:-
  39. 39. Print some pattern with the foil on the fabric or paper for shinny effect. Foil print is the foil paper. it is heat transfer Chemical in use:-  Gum mix binder.  Heat press foil.  Time 10-15 sec & temp -160-165 c Time: - 7.5 pieces/min. Fault:-  Color shade  Design  Placement design ok  Gum mistake then foil mistake& heat problem then print problem. Foil print:-
  40. 40. The flock technique of printing designs with an adhesive and sprinkling with fine bits of wool or silk was probably first adapted to wallpaper. fiber dust use with gum. Chemical in use:-  Powder with gum.  Fixer add gum  Fixer-1% & gum-100% Time :- 7.5 pieces/min. Fault :-  Color shade  Design  Placement design ok  Gum mistake then flock mistake Flock print :-
  41. 41. Discharge :- Discharge means out of fabric colors. Activator must be use. Chemical in use:-  White & clear.  Activator -->6-10% Time :- 7.5 pieces/min. Fault :-  Color shade  Design  Placement design ok  Fabric must be discharge.  White fabric is no print.
  42. 42. It is oil soluble. It is sari cal thinner; it is oil to which other oils or substances are added to produce a lubricant. Chemical in use:-  Seri cal thinner.  Oil base color. Time :- 7.5 pieces/min. Fault :-  Color shade  Design  Placement design ok  Seri cal problem then print problem. Oil base plastisol :-
  43. 43. Water-based ink is much more difficult to cure than plastisol. Whether printing with plastisol or a water-based ink system, you are still printing. There are two major schools of screen printing ink; plastisol and water based. Plastisol is a PVC based ink and is what the majority of commercial printers use. Water based is, as the name suggests, a water based ink with pigments suspended within it. Water based prints have many positive qualities. The industry term "hand" refers to how soft a print feels on the decorated item. Water based inks are well known for the minimal or soft hand that they provide. Prints made with water based can be ironed, while plastisol prints cannot be, as the iron's heat plate would melt the PVC in the ink. Chemical in use:-  Clear &white  & color Time :- 7.5 pieces/min. Fault :-  Color shade  Design  Placement design ok  Setting Water base plastisol:-
  44. 44. Pigment used in textile printing is mainly synthetic organic materials, except for carbon black, titanium dioxide and anatase types copper & aluminum alloys & sometimes iron oxide. When choosing these synthetic pigments, the price, the fastness properties, the brilliance & the coloring power of the many produce available are all taken into consideration. Pigments are various organic & in organic insoluble substances, which are widely used in surface coating. Chemical in use:-  Water- 80kg  Binder- 15kg  Thickener- 5kg  &color Time :- 7.5 pieces/min. Fault :-  Color shade  Design  Placement design ok Pigment print:-
  45. 45. Requirements of Pigment print:-  Pigment must have mixing ability.  Pigment should be non toxic.  Pigments have good covering power. Advantages of pigment:-  Pigment printing is most economical printing process & allows maximum output of goods.  Genera fastness properties are ok.  It can be applied for natural as well as man made fibres.  Pigment print presents least problem for the printers. Disadvantages of pigments:-  Pigments are sensitive to crushing during roller printing.  Rubbing fastness is medium & no pigment is completely fast to dry clearing. Pigment print:-
  46. 46. It is direct over print white color then use. Chemical in use:-  White glow in the dark.  Color in use. Time: - 7.5 pieces/min. Fault:-  Color shade  Design  Placement design ok Glow in the dark :-
  47. 47. This is called resist dyeing.
  48. 48. Bandhani is a tie and dye technique from India.
  49. 49. Burnout Printing Burn-out textiles is a technique used to develop raised designs on fabric surface. This is primarily being done in fabrics with at least 2 different fibre content i.e. Cotton- Polyester, Silk-Rayon etc. Here one fibre component is being dissolved thru chemical reactions while the other content remains intact giving away raised illusion designs.
  50. 50. Dyeing fabrics Tie Dye HOW IS IT DONE? A resist method of dying where fabric of finished garments are either twisted, knotted, gathered or crumpled and then bound with string or elastic bands before dyeing. Produces a variety of patterns. Garments made using tie dye come in and out of fashion. Colourfastness WHAT IS IT? Resistance to colour loss during manufacturing and use. Varies with: • Different fibres and blends • Different dyestuffs • Different conditions, e.g rubbing, washing, ironing, perspiration, light, weather, seawater. • ISO 105 evaluates colourfastness.
  51. 51. Dyeing fabrics Industrially-produced Batik HOW IS IT DONE? • Gum, wax-resist paste or resin is printed on the fabric from hot rollers • Fabric is dyed • Heat finished to remove surplus gum or wax and fix the dye • Alternatively, batik patterns can be printed on fabric from engraved rollers using photographic methods or CAD/CAM Hand-produced Batik HOW IS IT DONE? A design is drawn on fabric with melted wax using a brush or tjanting and left to harden, fabric is then brush or dip dyed and the wax melted off using an iron. The dye resists penetrating the fabric under the wax leaving a patterned fabric.
  52. 52. Dyeing fabrics Discharge printing HOW IS IT DONE? • a plain dyed fabric is printed with a discharge paste which removes the ground colour (bleaches it out) Transfer printing HOW IS IT DONE? • the pattern is first printed onto special paper •It is then transferred to the fabric using a pressurised heated calender machine. The temperature is high enough for the dyestuff to turn into vapour and diffuse into the fibres. •Well suited to synthetic fibres.
  53. 53. Printing fabrics Block Printing HOW IS IT DONE? • Uses engraved wooden blocks • Ancient method dating back to 2000BC • Rarely used today. Printing WHAT IS IT? The controlled placement of defined areas of colour onto a fabric. • Direct Printing methods: • Block printing (ancient method) • Rotary screen-printing (2/3 of today’s textiles) • Flat screen-printing (1/3 of today’s textiles) • Transfer Printing (4% of today’s textiles) • Discharge printing • Resist (Batik) Printing • Digital Printing
  54. 54. Printing fabrics Digital printing HOW IS IT DONE? • inkjet printers print CAD designs directly onto fabric using special printing inks. •This is a flexible form of printing suitable for short runs and for producing fabric samples. Resist (batik) printing HOW IS IT DONE? •White fabric is printed with a resist paste and then dyed.
  55. 55. Marketing Printing - Digital Printing Iris Graphics STORK Toxot Imaje Jemtex STORK Epson Konica Xaar Spectra Hewlet Packard Canon Lexmark Ink-jet systems Continuous flow Drop-on-demand (DOD) Binary deflection Multiple deflection Mechanical Piezo - activated Thermic "Bubble Jet" • Differences in the selection and generation of droplets Ink-jet systems
  56. 56. Marketing Printing - Digital Printing Bubble Jet printer Ichinose Colorspan FabriJet XII ENCAD 1500 TX Colorwings TexJet 152
  57. 57. Marketing Printing - Digital Printing Tex-Print 2000 TX 2 1600JV-4 TX 1600 S Mimaki printer generations - Piezo technology
  58. 58. Marketing Printing - Digital Printing Amethyst Zirkon TCP 4000 Digital printers "STORK" Amber
  59. 59. Marketing Printing - Digital Printing Digital printers with Rubber Belt, Feeder, Winder
  60. 60. Lighter Print Faults in Textile Screen Printing on Fabric:  Lighter shades on Selvedge and gradually deeper towards the other.  In the middle of the fabric and darker towards the selvedges.  While using large amount of foam.  Due to uneven application of Gum. Darker Screen Printing faults:  May be obtained irregularly throughout the fabric.  If a soft table is used on a hard table surface.  If a hard squeeze is used on a soft table surface.  Deep stripes along the warp.  Very small specs of color on the ground (Unprinted Portion).  Screen may get clogged during working. Difficulties in printing:
  61. 61. Printing faults: 1. Print color shadin 2. Print slarted 3. Color spot 4. Bleeding 5. Print wrong 6. Print burn 7. Air hole 8. Print bubble 9. Print missing 10. Wrong place 11. Not properly attached 12. Hand feels 13. Migration 14. Dirty mark 15. Uneven shade 16. Shade variation 17. Print sticky 18. Print not coverage 19. Print gap 20. Print over 21. Wrong side 22. Color wrong 23. Size mistake 24. Bunoledle card mistake 25.Fabric h 26.Fabric shade 27.Crease mark
  62. 62. 28. Oil spot 29. Fabric burn 30.Needle mark 31. Cutting problem 32. Sticker wrong 33. Dye migration 34.Yarn hole 35. Yarn contamination 36. Fly yarn. Printing faults: