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Psychology Psychology Document Transcript

  • stages of human development J.S.K. Uthpala Isuranga Siriwardena
  • 2 ABSTRACT S ocial Work is a practical job. It is about protecting people and changing their lives, not about giving theoretical explanations of why they got into difficulties…Social work is about social change at the individual as well as at community level. Change is complex, diversified and risk prone. To understand it, social worker need knowledge, imagination, comprehension & creativity…. In short, a radical shift in understanding “Knowledge as process” as opposed to “Knowledge as product” is needed. Our understanding of social work is simplified with the simple definition of social work...it is the art and science of helping the people to help themselves. Compilation and interpretation of social work definition conveys a meaning that social work is a “helping” “assisting” „enabling” activity. Thus with the light of assisting disciplines social works can engage in practical application of gained knowledge. Confining in to the scope of this study, it is intended to point out the use of knowledge on stages of human development as a social worker in connection with psychology. In social work practice it is always applicable the vast knowledge base provided by the discipline to come to a proper solution when the concern is about an individual. Even ©2011 Uthpala Isuranga
  • 3 though it refers to identify individual’s visualization of an issue the solution can be effective to a group as well when it is creative. Thus for such a creative solution it is indeed essential the knowledge on human developmental stages. These stages can be varied according to respective psychologist but the approach to a solution would not be that complicated with the knowledge in hand. It is this clarity that normally makes one to commit in his/ her professional responsibilities. Latter is a concise but analytical study on the subject matter. development. Erik Erikson’s theory was supported by or backed by Freudian theory[2].Jean Piaget’s[3] theory of cognitive development and Lawrence Kohlberg’s[4] theory of personality development are also among those . Theory of Psychosexual Development Theories of Human Development I nitially it is always convenient to denote at least a little on theories related to human development. This will make it easier to familiarize with the facts how internal and external forces shape life development, generally by life stages. There are grand theories such as Psychoanalytic, behaviorism, cognitive and less discussed theories as well as sociocultural, epigenetic. In this study a it is mainly concerned about Psychoanalytic theory. Sigmund Freud’s theory of ‘Psychosexual Development’ can be identified as the most prominent advancement on human development stages .Another prominent theory is 1 Erikson's[1] stages of psychosocial Erik Erikson (15 June 1902 – 24 May 1994) was a student of Sigmund Freud. Freud advanced a theory of personality development focusing on the effects of the sexual pleasure drive on a person's emerging personality. According to his theory, parts of the personality develop as one move through a series of psychosexual stages. Each stage is characterized by different demands for sexual pleasure and different ways of achieving that pleasure. There can be 5 stages of Psychosexual Development identified. They are as follows[5]; 2 Psychoanalytic theory contributed to the basic outline of the eight stages, at least those concerned with childhood. Namely, the first four of Erikson's life stages correspond to Freud's oral, anal, phallic, and latency phases, respectively. Also, the fifth stage of adolescence is said to parallel the genital stage in psychoanalytic theory. 3 Jean Piaget (9 August 1896 – 16 September 1980). 4 5 Lawrence Kohlberg (October 25, 1927 – January 19, 1987) Elkind ,(1980). Erik Erikson's Eight Ages of Man. In M. G. McGee (Ed.), Introductory Psychology Reader, p. 136 ©2011 Uthpala Isuranga
  • 4 Oral- From birth to about 15 months is t he oral, stage. A newborn is governed only by its drives. So the infant seeks immediate gratification, achieved through its mouth feeding, crying, and oral exploration of the world. Anal- From 15 months to about 3 YEARS is The focus of gratification shifts from the mouth to the anus. The child experiences pleasure from the elimination of faeces. Toilet training is a vital part in this explanation. Phallic- According to Freud from 3 years to about 5 years, the focus of gratification is now on the genitals, although this gratification is not the same as that experienced by adults. Children take an increasing interest in their own genitals, and show a curiosity about other people's bodies. Latent- around five years until puberty is the latent drives that have been responsible for gratification in the previous stages appear relatively inactive. This is partly due to the control of sexual drives that is accomplished during the Oedipal stage. Genital- With puberty there is re-emergence of the earlier drives. Drive energy is focused on the genitals once more, but this time with an adult expression of sexuality. Although the term 'genital' suggests that gratification during this stage must inevitably be sexual Stage 1 - Trust vs. Mistrust- [6] Occurs between birth and one year of age and is the most fundamental stage in life. Because an infant is utterly dependent, the development of trust is based on the dependability and quality of the child’s caregivers. Stage 2 - Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt[7] The second stage of Erikson's theory of psychosocial development takes place during early childhood and is focused on children developing a greater sense of personal control toilet training was a vital part of this process. But quite different than that of Freud's Erikson believe that learning to control one’s body functions leads to a feeling of control and a sense of independence. Stage 3 - Initiative vs. Guilt- [8] During the preschool years (4–6 years), children begin to assert their power and control over the world through directing play and other social interaction Stage 4 - Industry vs. Inferiority- [9]This stage covers the early school years from approximately age 5 to 11.Through social interactions, children begin to develop a sense of pride in their accomplishments and abilities. Stage 5 - Identity vs. Confusion-[10] During adolescence, children are exploring their independence and developing a sense of self Stage 6 - Intimacy vs. Isolation- [11] This stage covers the period of early adulthood when people are exploring personal relationships. Stage 7 - Generativity vs. Stagnation[12] During middle adulthood, we continue to build our lives, focusing on our career and family. Theory of Psychosocial Development Erik Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development is one of the best-known theories of personality in psychology. Much like Sigmund Freud, Erikson believed that personality develops in a series of stages. Unlike Freud’s theory of psychosexual stages, Erikson’s theory describes the impact of social experience across the whole lifespan. 6 Elkind, (1980). Erik Erikson's Eight Ages of Man. In M. G. McGee (Ed.), Introductory Psychology Reader, p. 124 7 Op. cit., p.125 Op. cit., p.126 9 Op. cit., p.127 10 Op. cit., p.128 11 Op. cit., p.130 12 Op. cit., p.130 8 ©2011 Uthpala Isuranga
  • 5 Stage 8 - Integrity vs. Despair- [13] This phase occurs during old age and is focused on reflecting back on life. Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Piaget's stage theory describes the cognitive development of children. Cognitive development involves changes in cognitive process and abilities. In Piaget's view, early cognitive development involves processes based upon actions and later progresses into changes in mental operations. Disturbances knowledge stages? on human development To answer these questions one need to know why people are suffering. Then comes the knowledge there to search and dig out the roots of the problem occurred. Thus keen to facilitate client- fellow human being with our responsibilities towards them, the gained knowledge about the human problems are essential. Knowledge or the theories are attempts to explain…a frame work for understanding …a set of ideas linked together to help us make sense of a particular issue. Since the life span of a human being is diversified as stages in above mentioned theories it is easy to social worker to comprehend ; • & P Resolutions ositive influence of the former mentioned developmental stages are necessary for a proper personal development. If as growing humans, we do not receive an appropriate amount of gratification. Receiving either too little or too much of this gratification or the pleasure, one may become engaged in a particular stage. That is, someone continues to have the same demand for pleasure that he had at that stage throughout the rest of their lives. This condition is thought to produce a variety of adult behaviors. Failure to successfully complete these stages, Freud suggested, would lead to personality problems in adulthood. On that point onwards practicality of resolving the psychological issues of people come front. Though there are contradictions to the accuracy of this theory as per the researchers, this theory holds a prominence in popular culture. • • • • • • Psychosexual Development and Social Work The disturbances and applicable approach to resolve is also introduced in the latter. Result of oral stage disturbance and social work approach; According to the scope of subject matter in what way should social worker use the 13 In what time period does the root of the problem prevails. What are the conditions of the problem. Consequences of the issue. Plan the therapeutic solution. How to apply the solution. Supervision process. Op. cit., p.131 ©2011 Uthpala Isuranga
  • 6 According to Freud, disturbance of the oral stage may result in a permanent fixation on the oral channel for gratification. Examples of resulting adult behaviors include smoking, overeating, thumb-sucking, and pencil chewing. Typical resulting personality qualities include impatience, passivity, greediness, dependence and a anxiety with giving and taking. immediate needs involving others. to larger responsibilities Psychosocial Social Work Development and and Stage 1 - Trust vs. Mistrust and social work approach Too little gratification in this stage results in an 'anal' or obsessive character who has a wish to make a terrible mess and therefore must build defenses against this, such as orderliness, rigidity, and hatred of waste. They are also stubborn, stingy, punctual and possessive. If a child successfully develops trust, he or she will feel safe and secure in the world. Caregivers who are inconsistent, emotionally unavailable, or rejecting contribute to feelings of mistrust in the children they care for. Failure to develop trust will result in fear and a belief that the world is inconsistent and unpredictable. Result of anal stage social work approach; disturbance Too much gratification will result in opposite behaviors, untidiness, a hot temper and destructiveness. Result of phallic stage disturbance and social work approach; According to Freud, the conflicts may result in: homosexuality, authority problems, and rejection of appropriate gender roles if not resolved. Result of latency stage disturbance and social work approach; Freud suggests that these repressed drives may be redirected into other activities, such as the formation of friendships, or hobbies. This stage is important in the development of social and communication skills and self-confidence. Result of genital stage disturbance and social work approach; If too much libidinal energy ’[14] is taken up in the first three stages, the individual cannot reach maturity, cannot shift the focus from their own body, their own parents and their 14 A term used by in psychoanalytic theory to describe the energy created by the survival and sexual instincts. According to Sigmund Freud, the libido is part of the id and is the driving force of all behavior. Stage 2 - Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt and social work approach Children who successfully complete this stage feel secure and confident, while those who do not are left with a sense of inadequacy and self-doubt. Stage 3 - Initiative vs. Guilt and social work approach Children who are successful at this stage feel capable and able to lead others. Those who fail to acquire these skills are left with a sense of guilt, self-doubt and lack of initiative. [15] Stage 4 - Industry vs. Inferiority and social work approach Children who are encouraged and commended by parents and teachers develop a feeling of competence and belief in their skills. Those who receive little or no encouragement from parents, teachers, or peers will doubt their ability to be successful. Stage 5 - Identity vs. Confusion and social work approach 15 Erikson, 1963. ©2011 Uthpala Isuranga
  • 7 Those who receive proper encouragement and reinforcement through personal exploration will emerge from this stage with a strong sense of self and a feeling of independence and control. Those who remain unsure of their beliefs and desires will insecure and confused about themselves and the future. Stage 6 - Intimacy vs. Isolation and social work approach Remember that each step builds on skills learned in previous steps. Erikson believed that a strong sense of personal identity was important to developing intimate relationships. Studies have demonstrated that those with a poor sense of self tend to have less committed relationships and are more likely to suffer emotional isolation, loneliness, and depression. Clinical social work serves a broad spectrum of clients who are in need of professional help that addresses mental and emotional disorders, interpersonal dysfunction, and environmental stressors. This focus includes, but is not necessarily limited to[16]: • • • • • • • • • • Stage 7 - Generativity vs. Stagnation and social work approach • • Those who are successful during this phase will feel that they are contributing to the world by being active in their home and community. Those who fail to attain this skill will feel unproductive and uninvolved in the world. • behavior patterns that are destructive to self and/or others chemical dependency emotional problems of living conscious and unconscious determinants of behavior intrapsychic dynamics impaired cognitive and affective processes troubled interpersonal relationships and family dynamics ineffective management of stress problematic impact of economic, social and cultural factors prejudice, racism and issues of human diversity gender and sexual orientation issues issues of deprivation, abuse and victimization life consequences of illness and/or disability. Stage 8 - Integrity vs. Despair and social work approach Those who are unsuccessful during this phase will feel that their life has been wasted and will experience many regrets. The individual will be left with feelings of bitterness and despair. Those who feel proud of their accomplishments will feel a sense of integrity. Successfully completing this phase means looking back with few regrets and a general feeling of satisfaction. These individuals will attain wisdom, even when confronting death. Almost all of above mentioned issues are subjected to solve by a clinical approach.Not all the issues are possible to solve but the clinical social work emerges in to intervene positively. 16 Mizio, 1998; Garcia, 1998 ©2011 Uthpala Isuranga
  • 8 SYNOPSIS Most of the above mentioned areas are related to or may be having roots driven in to stages of social development. It is prominent that in the light of knowledge on human development stages social workers can better uplift the standard of the discipline in a practicable manner. ©2011 Uthpala Isuranga
  • 9 References: • • Erikson's stages of psychosocial development. (2011, November 22). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 05:00, November 25, 2011, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Erikson %27s_stages_of_psychosocial_development&oldid=461915172 ABOUT, INC. (2011, October 6). Personality Development Major Theories of Personality Development. psychology.about.com. Retrieved November 25, 2011, from http://psychology.about.com/od/personalitydevelopment/a/personality-dev.htm • Freud, S., Brill, A. A., Putnam, J. J., & (INT), M. D. (2010). The Theory of Sexuality. Createspace, . • Freud, S. (1991). On sexuality: three essays on the theory of sexuality and other works. A. Richards (Ed.). London, U.K.: Penguin • Erikson, E. H. (1980). Identity and the life cycle. New York, U.S.: Norton • Erikson, E.H. (1968). Identity: Youth and Crisis. New York: Norton. • Erikson, E.H. (1963). Childhood and Society. (2nd ed.). New York: Norton. • Carver, C.S. & Scheir, M.F. (2000). Perspectives on Personality. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon • Elkind, D. (1980). Erik Erikson's Eight Ages of Man. In M. G. McGee (Ed.), Introductory Psychology Reader. (1st ed.). (pp. 121-136). Minnesota, U.S.A.: WEST PUBLISHING CO. • • Mizio, E. (1998). Staff development: An ethical imperative. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 30 (1/2), 17-32 Garcia, B. (1998). Professional development of AODA practice with Latinos: The utility of supervision, in-service training and consultation. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly,16 (1/2), 85-108. ©2011 Uthpala Isuranga
  • 9 References: • • Erikson's stages of psychosocial development. (2011, November 22). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 05:00, November 25, 2011, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Erikson %27s_stages_of_psychosocial_development&oldid=461915172 ABOUT, INC. (2011, October 6). Personality Development Major Theories of Personality Development. psychology.about.com. Retrieved November 25, 2011, from http://psychology.about.com/od/personalitydevelopment/a/personality-dev.htm • Freud, S., Brill, A. A., Putnam, J. J., & (INT), M. D. (2010). The Theory of Sexuality. Createspace, . • Freud, S. (1991). On sexuality: three essays on the theory of sexuality and other works. A. Richards (Ed.). London, U.K.: Penguin • Erikson, E. H. (1980). Identity and the life cycle. New York, U.S.: Norton • Erikson, E.H. (1968). Identity: Youth and Crisis. New York: Norton. • Erikson, E.H. (1963). Childhood and Society. (2nd ed.). New York: Norton. • Carver, C.S. & Scheir, M.F. (2000). Perspectives on Personality. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon • Elkind, D. (1980). Erik Erikson's Eight Ages of Man. In M. G. McGee (Ed.), Introductory Psychology Reader. (1st ed.). (pp. 121-136). Minnesota, U.S.A.: WEST PUBLISHING CO. • • Mizio, E. (1998). Staff development: An ethical imperative. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 30 (1/2), 17-32 Garcia, B. (1998). Professional development of AODA practice with Latinos: The utility of supervision, in-service training and consultation. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly,16 (1/2), 85-108. ©2011 Uthpala Isuranga