Human development theoretical approaches.


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Human development theoretical approaches.

  1. 1. Human development theoretical approaches. Human development and family relationships. This subject is related with counseling and family therapy. There is theory and a supervised practicum component in this course. Theory paper is MCFT-001 supervised practicum is MCFTL001. For theory paper you will have continuous evaluation through an assignment and a term end examination. For MCFTL-001- you have to work under the supervision of the academic counselor given in the supervised practicum manual.
  2. 2. The blocks • 1. human development • 2.the family • life cycle stages I • 4. family life cycle stages II.
  3. 3. Human development theoretical approaches. • This block consist of five units • 1. introduction to human development • 2.biological perspectives • 3.psychoanalytic theories • 4.cognitive learning and intelligence theories. • 5.humanistic, ethological and contextual theories.
  4. 4. Human development from various views can be seen in it. • A historical glimpse. During middle age that is 500-1500 AD it was assumed that from half to two- thirds of children died before the age of 2 years. • Children were expected to behave like adults at the age of seven or eight. • European people had no concept of childhood as a separate stage of human life.
  5. 5. • Children are considered as miniature of adults. This view is known as preformationsim.
  6. 6. The original sin era. • During sixteenth century the concept of original sin is developed. Children were believed to be born evil. So the parenting was authoritarian. Religious morals was strictly taught by the parent.
  7. 7. Era of enlightenment. • During the 17th century the philosophy of tabula rasa was developed by John Locke. • Here parents are rational tutors. • He strictly opposed physical punishment • According to Rousseau children were not blank slate to write something by the adults • Children were active and noble savage.
  8. 8. Indian view of human development. • Child is considered as God. Children are the product of previous karma.
  9. 9. Tagore on child. • Shantiniketan • Visva-Bharati. • He believed to give a natural environment to he child for growth.
  10. 10. MK Gandhi • Gave importance on early childhood education. Children should always be with parents and expected to gain basic knowledge from parents. • He criticized stuffing children's mind.
  11. 11. Scientific foundations of the field • Charles Darwin. • Development of human being and their evolution • Natural selection • And survival of the fittest.
  12. 12. The baby dairies and biographies • By observing closely the children of close relatives friends etc., • Normative period • Some kind of standardized tests to observe the behavior of the child.
  13. 13. Development of first intelliegnce scale • Alfred Binet developed it. with this he aimed to find of finding the children with learning problems and who needed special care and education.
  14. 14. An early developmental theorist • James Mark Baldwin said neither environment nor innate goodness controls the Childs character. • Nature and nurture both play an equally important role • Children’s understanding of their surroundings develops in a set of stages. • Develops with simple behavior pattern and later develops into more complex and abstract thinking.
  15. 15. Development of the discipline of human development in India. • It has four phase. • 1. pre –independence. • 2. early post independence phase1947-1960 • 3.late post- independence phase 1960-1970 • 4. an indigenization phase. 1970------------ present
  16. 16. Who is Girindrashekhar Bose • 1887-1953. he was self styled psychoanalyst. • 1922-1998 Durganand Sinha- he focused on multifarious issues in psychology.
  17. 17. Human development nature and principles • In the development of human being what all changes takes place • 1,physical • 2,social • 3,emotional • 4,behavioural • 5,physicological etc.,
  18. 18. The scientific and applied field • Human development is became a branch of scientific study like philosophy, sociology etc.,
  19. 19. Goals of human development • The major goals of human development are • 1, description • 2, explanation • 3, prediction • 4 modification of human behaviour
  20. 20. Nature of human development • Development is a change in physical, language, intellectual, social and behavior in a progressive manner. • 1.Development is a life long process • 2.Development follows a specific sequence cephalo-caudal development Proximo-distal development
  21. 21. 3.Development is irreversible • 4.development proceeds from general to specific • 5. child develops as whole. • 6 development is cumulative in nature • 7 development varies from one child to another • 8 biological and environmental context strongly influence development.