UX from 30,000ft - COMP33512 - Lectures 9 & 10 - Week 5 - 2013/2014 Edition #comp33512

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Efficient47 use or usability48. To my way of thinking both terms mean the same thing, and in reality were going to be talking about usability. However, you should be thinking of usability in more …

Efficient47 use or usability48. To my way of thinking both terms mean the same thing, and in reality were going to be talking about usability. However, you should be thinking of usability in more general terms; the more general terms of efficient use. This is because the concept of usability is much broader than the narrow confines of ‘Task Completion Time’ it is often associated with [9241-100:2011, 2011] usability, in the context of UX, seems to be simple but in reality can be quite taxing. Complex computerised systems and interfaces are becoming increasingly widespread in everyday usage, components of computerised systems are embedded into many commercial appliances. Indeed, the miniaturisation of computerised systems, often found in mobile telephones and personal digital assistants, is on the increase.

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  • 1. Efficient Experience Collated Principles Break! Potted Principles Wrapping Up The User Experience from 30,000ft #comp33512 Week 05 – Lectures 09/10 Simon Harper University of Manchester Semester 2 – 2013/14 last update: February 25, 2014 The User Experience from 30,000ft 1 / 26
  • 2. Efficient Experience Collated Principles Break! Potted Principles Wrapping Up UX Pop Quiz 1. Give an example of why Accessibility is for everyone. 2. What is your view regarding ‘Combinatorial Impairment’ ? 3. Pick an interface bridge and describe it. 4. What is the relationship between effective and accessible design? 5. What are the five main principles of effective design? ...expanded in on pg. ??. The User Experience from 30,000ft 2 / 26
  • 3. Efficient Experience Collated Principles Break! Potted Principles Wrapping Up Efficient Experience Efficient, adj. and n. “Productive of effects; effective; adequately operative. The cause which makes effects to be what they are (esp. of a system or machine) achieving maximum productivity with minimum wasted effort or expense” OED – 1787 J. Barlow Oration July 4th. The User Experience from 30,000ft Efficient Experience 3 / 26
  • 4. Efficient Experience Collated Principles Break! Potted Principles Wrapping Up Efficient Experience Efficient, adj. and n. “Productive of effects; effective; adequately operative. The cause which makes effects to be what they are (esp. of a system or machine) achieving maximum productivity with minimum wasted effort or expense” OED – 1787 J. Barlow Oration July 4th. Why Not Just Usability? Think of usability in more general terms; the more general terms of efficient use. The concept of usability is much broader than the narrow confines of it is often associated with. The User Experience from 30,000ft Efficient Experience 3 / 26
  • 5. Efficient Experience Collated Principles Break! Potted Principles Wrapping Up Efficiency is for Everyone... Figure: ‘Modern Thermostat’ Figure: ‘Nest Learning Thermostat’ The User Experience from 30,000ft Efficient Experience 4 / 26
  • 6. Efficient Experience Collated Principles Break! Potted Principles Wrapping Up Efficiency is for Everyone... Figure: ‘Modern Thermostat’ Figure: ‘Nest Thermostat Control’ The User Experience from 30,000ft Efficient Experience 4 / 26
  • 7. Efficient Experience Collated Principles Break! Potted Principles Wrapping Up Consensus on Meaning Relationship of UX, ergonomics, or human factors to usability 1. Some think of usability ‘. . . as the software specialisation of the larger topic of ergonomics’; 2. Others view topics as tangential, with ergonomics focusing on physiological matters, and usability focusing on psychological matters; but 3. Experts have written separate, but overlapping, frameworks for aspects of usability which should be taken into account when designing and building systems interfaces. The User Experience from 30,000ft Efficient Experience 5 / 26
  • 8. Efficient Experience Collated Principles Break! Potted Principles Wrapping Up Universal Design and Design for All! ‘Universality’ suggests ...to most UXers and engineers that the solutions they come up with must best fit most of the population most of the time. Many organisations follow the viewpoint that universal usability means design-for-all. “A focus on designing products so that they are usable by the widest range of people operating in the widest range of situations as is commercially practical” The User Experience from 30,000ft Efficient Experience 6 / 26
  • 9. Efficient Experience Collated Principles Break! Potted Principles Wrapping Up Universal Design and Design for All! ‘Universality’ suggests ...to most UXers and engineers that the solutions they come up with must best fit most of the population most of the time. Many organisations follow the viewpoint that universal usability means design-for-all. “Thus, universal usability is more a function of keeping all of the people and all of the situations in mind and trying to create a product which is as flexible as commercially practical, so that it can accommodate the different users and situations.” The User Experience from 30,000ft Efficient Experience 6 / 26
  • 10. Efficient Experience Collated Principles Break! Potted Principles Wrapping Up Universal Design and Design for All! My Unconventional View By trying to address all user needs in one design the technologist is apt to address none; Making software usable is not just about a utilitarian view of software use, it is also about the personal choice of the user; Greater flexibility and configurability of both interfaces and interactions are the solution. ...expanded in: S. Harper. Is There Design-For-All? Universal Access in the Information Society, 6(1):111–113, 2007. The User Experience from 30,000ft Efficient Experience 7 / 26
  • 11. Efficient Experience Collated Principles Break! Potted Principles Wrapping Up Usability Models The Human Processor Model –Card, Moran, & Newell Calculate how long it takes to perform a certain task; Experimental times to calculate cognitive and motor processing time; Allows a system designer to predict the performance; Uses the cognitive, perceptual, and motor processors along with the visual image, working memory, and long term memory stores; Each processor has a cycle time and each memory has a decay time; Combining input pathways with cycle or decay times allows task completion time can be calculated; but... ...not very accurate, too many variables / confounding variables. The User Experience from 30,000ft Efficient Experience 8 / 26
  • 12. Efficient Experience Collated Principles Break! Potted Principles Wrapping Up Usability Models GOMS –Card, Moran, & Newell Goals are what the user intends to accomplish; Operators are actions that are performed to get to the goal; Methods are sequences of operators that accomplish a goal; and Selection rules are used to choose a from multiple methods. Specialisation of HPM; Reductionist - reduces a user’s interaction with a computer to their primary actions; Trying to reduce number of possible variables / confounding variables; but... ...expects users to follow logical routines and is not resilient to user unpredictability. The User Experience from 30,000ft Efficient Experience 9 / 26
  • 13. Efficient Experience Collated Principles Break! Potted Principles Wrapping Up Usability Models – Keystroke Level Modelling (KLM) KLM –Card, Moran, & Newell, also Kieras More simplistic specialisation of GOMS; Amenable to Computation; i.e. CogTool - CMU http://cogtool.hcii.cs.cmu.edu. The User Experience from 30,000ft Efficient Experience 10 / 26
  • 14. Efficient Experience Collated Principles Break! Potted Principles Wrapping Up Usability Models – Keystroke Level Modelling (KLM) ...from: Richards, Bellamy, John, Swart, Thomas (2010) Using CogTool to Model Programming Tasks. Presented at the Psychology of Programming Work in Progress Workshop, Dundee, Scotland. The User Experience from 30,000ft Efficient Experience 10 / 26
  • 15. Efficient Experience Collated Principles Break! Potted Principles Wrapping Up Usability Models – Keystroke Level Modelling (KLM) ...from: Richards, Bellamy, John, Swart, Thomas (2010) Using CogTool to Model Programming Tasks. Presented at the Psychology of Programming Work in Progress Workshop, Dundee, Scotland. The User Experience from 30,000ft Efficient Experience 10 / 26
  • 16. Efficient Experience Collated Principles Break! Potted Principles Wrapping Up Usability Models – Keystroke Level Modelling (KLM) ...from: Richards, Bellamy, John, Swart, Thomas (2010) Using CogTool to Model Programming Tasks. Presented at the Psychology of Programming Work in Progress Workshop, Dundee, Scotland. The User Experience from 30,000ft Efficient Experience 10 / 26
  • 17. Efficient Experience Collated Principles Break! Potted Principles Wrapping Up Collated Usability Principles, Guidelines, and Rules The User Experience from 30,000ft Collated Principles 11 / 26
  • 18. Efficient Experience Collated Principles Break! Potted Principles Wrapping Up Collated Usability Principles, Guidelines, and Rules The User Experience from 30,000ft Collated Principles 11 / 26
  • 19. Efficient Experience Collated Principles Break! Potted Principles Wrapping Up Collated Usability Principles, Guidelines, and Rules The User Experience from 30,000ft Collated Principles 11 / 26
  • 20. Efficient Experience Collated Principles Break! Potted Principles Wrapping Up Potted Principles ‘Stability’ Are the interactions stable? ‘Scalability’ Does the interface and its data scale? ‘Simplicity’ Is interface and interaction simplicity encouraged? ‘Situational Awareness’ Is perception of the interface facilitate decision making? ‘Self-Description’ Does your system describe itself to the user? ‘Progressive Disclosure’ Are the interface options presented a step at a time? ‘Familiarity’ Is your system us ‘intuitive’ ? ‘Learnability’ Are the interactions easy to learn? ‘Consistency’ Does your system exhibit internal and external (OS) constancy? ‘Robustness’ Is the system robust to errors? The User Experience from 30,000ft Collated Principles 12 / 26
  • 21. Efficient Experience Collated Principles Break! Potted Principles Wrapping Up Potted Principles SSSADD FLCR ‘Stability’ Are the interactions stable? ‘Scalability’ Does the interface and its data scale? ‘Simplicity’ Is interface and interaction simplicity encouraged? ‘Situational Awareness’ Is perception of the interface facilitate decision making? ‘Self-Description’ Does your system describe itself to the user? ‘Progressive Disclosure’ Are the interface options presented a step at a time? ‘Familiarity’ Is your system us ‘intuitive’ ? ‘Learnability’ Are the interactions easy to learn? ‘Consistency’ Does your system exhibit internal and external (OS) constancy? ‘Robustness’ Is the system robust to errors? The User Experience from 30,000ft Collated Principles 12 / 26
  • 22. Efficient Experience Collated Principles Break! Potted Principles Wrapping Up Let’s Have a Break! Back in 10 Minutes! Come see me now if you have Questions Regarding this Lecture! The User Experience from 30,000ft Break! 13 / 26
  • 23. Efficient Experience Collated Principles Break! Potted Principles Wrapping Up Interaction Stability Questions to think about as you design your prototype: Are you able to resume interrupted actions? Are you able easily reverse an action, incorrectly taken? Are you able to understand your location in the interaction? Does your system recover well from an unexpected event? Does your interactions (including dialogs) exhibit stable non-cyclical behaviour and closure? The User Experience from 30,000ft Potted Principles 14 / 26
  • 24. Efficient Experience Collated Principles Break! Potted Principles Wrapping Up Facilitate Scalability Questions to think about as you design your prototype: Does your interface scale to handle larger datasets then envisaged etc? Does your system handle data and interaction within an acceptable time? Do complex actions scale up in terms of data and user requirements? Do your interfaces remain simple when information is being dynamically added? Can new functionality be added to your system without negatively impacting on its current interactions and interfaces? The User Experience from 30,000ft Potted Principles 15 / 26
  • 25. Efficient Experience Collated Principles Break! Potted Principles Wrapping Up Facilitate Simplicity Questions to think about as you design your prototype: Is your system presented simply? Are the interactive elements simple to understand and use? Can you understand the system behaviour without recourse to manuals of help systems? Does your system exploit natural interactive constrains? Is complexity hidden from the novice user? The User Experience from 30,000ft Potted Principles 16 / 26
  • 26. Efficient Experience Collated Principles Break! Potted Principles Wrapping Up Facilitate Situational Awareness Questions to think about as you design your prototype: Does your system facilitate orientation both within the interface and within the interaction? Is orientation and navigation, around and through the interface (and interaction), easy? Is error handling simple? Is feedback informative? Are all components, needed for the interaction, visible? Do you maintain a single focus of interactive attention, without distractors? The User Experience from 30,000ft Potted Principles 17 / 26
  • 27. Efficient Experience Collated Principles Break! Potted Principles Wrapping Up Facilitate Self-Description Questions to think about as you design your prototype: Is your system well documented? Is help present and informative? Is it possible to understand the program functionality without recourse to the manual? Is it possible to understand the interface, widgets, and interactivity without recourse to the manual? Is it possible to fully understand all dialogs, messages, and status’ ? The User Experience from 30,000ft Potted Principles 18 / 26
  • 28. Efficient Experience Collated Principles Break! Potted Principles Wrapping Up Facilitate Progressive Disclosure Questions to think about as you design your prototype: Does your interface look overly complex? If so, simplify. Are there a lot of components displayed at one time? If so clean it. Are there a multitude of possible actions available to the user? If so focus on building one action for one interface element. Is there a tight logical hierarchy of actions? Is the user led along the interactive path? The User Experience from 30,000ft Potted Principles 19 / 26
  • 29. Efficient Experience Collated Principles Break! Potted Principles Wrapping Up Facilitate Familiarity Questions to think about as you design your prototype: Does your system map real world concepts to the virtual world? Does your system use terms the user is familiar with (including Jargon)? Does the system work in familiar ways, with reference to itself and other comparable applications? Do you assuage ‘intuition’ for familiarity? Does your system use easily understandable (and therefore familiar) messages? The User Experience from 30,000ft Potted Principles 20 / 26
  • 30. Efficient Experience Collated Principles Break! Potted Principles Wrapping Up Facilitate Learnability Questions to think about as you design your prototype: Is your system behaviour predictable? Can users easily transit from novice to expert? Can you understand the system behaviour without recourse to manuals of help systems? How easy is it to learn any bespoke system functionality? Does your system facilitate self learning, and functionality investigation? The User Experience from 30,000ft Potted Principles 21 / 26
  • 31. Efficient Experience Collated Principles Break! Potted Principles Wrapping Up Facilitate Consistency Questions to think about as you design your prototype: Am my developing a consistent interface? Are the interactions consistent across the platform and development? Is my command and event structure universal across the development and platform? Am I following standards and best practice? Am I following the platform design guide? The User Experience from 30,000ft Potted Principles 22 / 26
  • 32. Efficient Experience Collated Principles Break! Potted Principles Wrapping Up Facilitate Robustness Questions to think about as you design your prototype: Does your system recover well from an unexpected event? Are errors easily dealt with? Are incorrect user actions easily recoverable? Is the user-state saved between sessions in the event of a system failure? How does your system handle abnormal input? The User Experience from 30,000ft Potted Principles 23 / 26
  • 33. Efficient Experience Collated Principles Break! Potted Principles Wrapping Up Pop Quiz for next week... 1. What is the significance of the Xerox Star interface? 2. What are the five main principles proposed by the Xerox Star team? 3. What does GOMS stand for and what does it involve? 4. What are the ten main principles of efficient design? 5. How do these principles differ from Shneiderman’s rules? The User Experience from 30,000ft Wrapping Up 24 / 26
  • 34. Efficient Experience Collated Principles Break! Potted Principles Wrapping Up To Do for next week... 1. Pop Quiz Discuss Next Week; and 2. Read your notes 3. D. C. Smith, C. Irby, R. Kimball, B. Verplank, and E. Harslem., Designing the star user interface., BYTE, 7(4):242–282, 1982., URL http://www.guidebookgallery.org/articles/designingthestaruserinterface. The User Experience from 30,000ft Wrapping Up 25 / 26
  • 35. Efficient Experience Collated Principles Break! Potted Principles Wrapping Up Any Questions? Simon Harper 2.44 Kilburn Building 0161 275 0599 (OR x50599) simon.harper@manchester.ac.uk Office Hours: Friday 14:00–18:00 Figure: ‘Too Much Work!’ The User Experience from 30,000ft Wrapping Up 26 / 26